Calendar overview 1552
introduces arterial ligation
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset , is beheaded for
Elector Moritz von Sachsen besiege Frankfurt am Main .
|1552 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1000/01 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2095/96 (southern Buddhism); 2094/95 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||914/915 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3885/86 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||959/960 (turn of the year 17th / 18th December)|
|Jewish calendar||5312/13 (September 18-19)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1862/63 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1863/64 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1608/09 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- January 15 : The one against Kaiser Karl. V. directed Treaty of Chambord is signed. In return for high monetary payments, the Protestant princes around Moritz of Saxony promise France's King Henry II the imperial vicariate of four cities in Lorraine .
- March: The prince uprising begins. The rebellious princes around Moritz of Saxony conquered numerous cities loyal to the emperor and quickly penetrated south to Tyrol , while Henry II of France occupied the cities on the Rhine, Metz, Toul and Verdun, which had been promised to him. Emperor Karl V fled from Innsbruck, where he barely escaped capture, to Villach .
- Inspired by the success of the prince uprising, Margrave Albrecht II. Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Kulmbach begins the Second Margrave War . He besieged the imperial city of Nuremberg unsuccessfully and devastated the surrounding area. Then he conquered the Forchheim fortress , occupied Forchheim , on May 19th the episcopal city of Bamberg and finally the imperial city of Schweinfurt . He forced the Hochstifte Würzburg under Melchior Zobel von Giebelstadt and Bamberg under Weigand von Redwitz to make high payments and forced them to cede substantial land to him. For this he is given the imperial ban by Emperor Charles V. Unimpressed by this, Alcibiades sets out to move against the French army on the Rhine and to ally with them. On the way in summer he feuds the Rhenish bishops Sebastian von Heusenstamm from Mainz and Johann V von Isenburg von Trier . He demands a pillage of 150,000 guilders from Speyer Bishop Philipp von Flersheim and, when this is refused to him, destroys the Madenburg and Hambacher Schloss .
- July: The fortifications of Frankfurt withstood a three-week siege by the Protestant princes under Moritz von Sachsen.
- August 2 : The Passau Treaty between the Roman-German King Ferdinand I and the Protestant imperial princes formally recognizes Protestantism and also leads to the release of Landgrave Philip of Hesse, who is in imperial captivity .
- After he lost his Protestant allies in the Passau Treaty, Margrave Albrecht II supports Emperor Charles V in the siege of the now French-occupied fortress of Metz in order to get the Emperor to recognize the treaties and territorial gains made by him in the Margrave War. The siege, however, has to be broken off unsuccessfully and the agreement with the emperor does not last.
- January 22nd : Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset , former Lord Protector of England , is beheaded on Tower Hill in London for felony .
- July 20th : After the conquest of Temesvar , the Banat becomes part of the Ottoman Empire . The Ottomans spread Islam .
- August: Piri Reis recaptures the Yemeni city of Muscat and the island of Kish from the Portuguese . Shortly afterwards, he begins the siege of Hormuz .
- October 3 : Ivan the Terrible's troops capture the city and Khanate of Kazan . At the end of the Moscow-Kazan wars , this will pave the way for Russian expansion into Siberia .
European colonies overseas
- In what is now Venezuela, the city of Barquisimeto is founded.
- As part of an administrative reform, several places in Madeira are raised to separate municipalities, including Santana and Ponta Delgada .
First documentary mentions
- June 8th : The place Weißwasser / Oberlausitz is mentioned for the first time in the land register of the rulership of Muskau .
- On the occasion of Landgrave Philip's release from imperial imprisonment, the Philippstaler , a non-circulating foam coin , is minted in the Landgraviate of Hesse . It is doubted that Landgrave Philipp had the taler minted himself.
science and technology
- Ambroise Paré introduces arterial ligation - the binding of arteries to stop bleeding - in amputations .
- In Vienna the construction of the Siebenbrunn Hofwasserleitung begins. Your starting point is a total of seven springs in Matzleinsdorf , Laurenzergrund , Hungelbrunn , Margareten , Hundsturm , Reinprechtsdorf and Nikolsdorf .
- Duke Johann Albrecht I of Mecklenburg donates the Güstrow Cathedral School , a Latin school that also houses a Protestant scholarly library, today's Uwe Johnson Library .
- The first of only two editions of Elias Diebel's Lübeck cityscape is printed.
- François Rabelais ' fourth part of the novel series Gargantua and Pantagruel appears.
- March 6th : The elephant Soliman arrives in Vienna.
- September 28th : Count Philipp II von Daun-Falkenstein , Herr zu Broich, resigned Cologne subdeacon, marries the former nun Maria Caspara von Holtey in Mülheim an der Ruhr . The marriage is concluded in the Broich castle chapel by the Kettwig pastor Hermann Kremer according to the evangelical rite.
- Under Roxelane , the favorite wife of Suleiman the Magnificent , the Haseki Sultan Imaret is built in Jerusalem .
- The Lutheran Confessio Virtembergica , written by Johannes Brenz on behalf of Duke Christoph von Württemberg , is presented to the Council of Trento .
- August 24th : The Laugenspitze is climbed for the first time.
- The Old Course in St Andrews , Scotland , probably the oldest golf course in the world that still exists , is first mentioned in a document. The community receives a license that allows "raising rabbits, playing golf and soccer, shooting and other types of leisure activities in the dunes ."
Date of birth saved
- February 2 : Ernst Hettenbach , German physicist and medic († 1616 )
- February 8 : Théodore Agrippa , French nobleman and military man († 1630 )
- February 19 : Melchior Khlesl , Bishop of Vienna and Chancellor of Emperor Matthias († 1630 )
- February 25 : Magdalena zur Lippe , Countess of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1587 )
- March 1 : Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Countess Palatinate near Rhein zu Neuburg († 1632 )
- March 18 : Polykarp Leyser the Elder , German Lutheran theologian († 1610 )
- July 18 : Rudolf II of Habsburg , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Archduke of Austria († 1612 )
- August 14 : Paolo Sarpi , Italian religious and historian († 1623 )
- August 24 : Lavinia Fontana , Italian mannerist painter († 1614 )
- September 8 : Cristoforo Roncalli , called " il Pomarancio ", Italian painter († 1626 )
- September 10 : Nicholas II. Pálffy , imperial general and captain of Pressburg († 1600 )
- September 17 : Camillo Borghese, under the name Paul V Pope († 1621 )
- September 22 : Vasily IV , Russian tsar († 1612 )
- September 26 : Nicolò Contarini , 97th Doge of Venice († 1631 )
- October 6 : Matteo Ricci , Italian priest and missionary in China († 1610 )
- October 8 : Cesare d'Este , Margrave of Montecchio († 1628 )
- October 16 : Johann Sötefleisch the Elder , German Lutheran theologian († 1620 )
- October 18 : Elisabeth of Saxony , Countess Palatine von Simmern († 1590 )
- October 20 : Simon Rudnicki , Prince-Bishop of Warmia († 1621 )
- December 29 : Henri I. de Bourbon , Prince of Condé, French general († 1588 )
Exact date of birth unknown
Born around 1552
Date of death secured
- January 3 : Heinrich von der Pfalz , Prince-Bishop of Worms, of Utrecht and of Freising (* 1487 )
- January 8 : Eustorg de Beaulieu , French author, clergyman, organist and composer (* around 1495 )
- January 13 : Jakob Gresel , professor at the University of Cologne and Canon of Rees / Rhine (* 1483 )
- January 22nd : Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset , English statesman (* around 1500 )
- February 11 : Eske Bille , Danish imperial court master (* around 1480 )
- March 8 : Wolfgang zu Stolberg , German politician (* 1501 )
- March 28th : Angad Dev , founder-guru of Sikhism (* 1504 )
- April 14 : Laurentius Andreae , Swedish theologian, statesman and reformer (* around 1470 )
- April 18 : John Leland , English clergyman and librarian (* 1506 )
- April 21 : Petrus Apianus , German astronomer and geographer (* 1495 )
- May 26th : Sebastian Münster , cosmographer and Hebraist (* 1488 )
- June 23 : Johannes Obernburger , chief secretary of the chancellery of Emperor Karl V (* around 1486 )
- July 21 : Antonio de Mendoza , Spanish colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain and Peru (* around 1490 )
- July 26th : Johannes Gast , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* around 1500 )
- July 27th : Hieronymus von Efferen , lord of Stolberg Castle / Rhineland
- October 14 : Oswald Myconius , Swiss reformer (* 1488 )
- October 17 : Andreas Osiander , German theologian and reformer (* 1498 )
- November 10 : Günther XL. , Count of Schwarzburg (* 1499 )
- December 3 : Francisco de Xavier y Jassu , pioneer of Christian missions in Asia (* 1506 )
- December 11th : Paolo Giovio , Italian historian, Catholic bishop and doctor (* 1483 )
- December 20 : Katharina von Bora , German reformer and wife of Martin Luther (* 1499 )
- December 30th : Francisco de Enzinas , Spanish humanist and Protestant (* 1518 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Antoinette d'Amboise , French nobleman (* 1495 )
- Amico Aspertini , Italian Renaissance painter and -bildhauer (* around 1474 / 1475 )
- Heinrich Faber , German teacher and music theorist, (* around 1490 )
- Andreas Fabricius , Swiss Protestant clergyman and reformer (* around 1480 )
- Jodocus Kilchmeyer ; Swiss Protestant clergyman and reformer (* around 1490)
- Niccolò Soggi , Italian painter (* around 1480 )