murders King Henry IV
of France .
|Maria de 'Medici takes over the reign of her underage son Ludwig XIII.|
Galileo Galilei discovers the four
Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter .
|1610 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1058/59 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1602/03 (September 10/11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1015/16 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2153/54 (southern Buddhism); 2152/53 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||972/973 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3943/44 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1018/19 (turn of the year 25/26 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5370/71 (September 17/18)|
|Coptic calendar||1326/27 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1920/21 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1921/22 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1666/67 (April)|
Politics and world events
- May 13 : In the cathedral of Saint-Denis , Maria de 'Medici , the wife of the French King Henry IV , is crowned Queen of France by Cardinal François de Joyeuse in great splendor . In the event of the absence or death of Heinrich, who is planning an invasion of the Spanish Netherlands to help the Reformed princes in the Holy Roman Empire, she can now take over the reign of the minor Dauphin Ludwig.
- May 14th : Henry IV is assassinated in Paris. He is followed by his eldest son, Ludwig XIII. on the throne. Immediately after the assassination of Henry, Queen Mother Maria de 'Medici secured the function of regent for the minor by means of a parliamentary resolution, with significant help from the Duke of Épernon, Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette . The regicide François Ravaillac was sentenced to death by the Grand'chambre des Parlements on May 27th and publicly executed on the Place de Grève on the same day after brutal torture by being divided into four by means of horses. His parents are expelled from the country and the rest of the family instructed never to use the name Ravaillac again.
- October 17th : Louis XIII. is crowned King of France in Reims Cathedral. Regent Maria de 'Medici revised some of Heinrich's strategies, particularly by seeking an alliance with the Spanish Habsburgs.
- February 4th : In the Treaty of Tuschino between the Polish King Sigismund III. Vasa and the boyar , who was opposed to the Russian tsar Vasily IV Shuisky , agreed between the two parties to crown the son of the Polish king, Władysław , as tsar and to limit the tsar's power. Ultimately, the contract will never be implemented.
- July 4th : The Polish hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski defeats the Moscow relief army in the battle of Kluschino . The remnants of the Swedish relief corps withdraw to Novgorod, the Russian contingent is diverging.
- July 17th : After the defeat of the Russian army at Kluschino in the war with Poland-Lithuania on July 4th, Tsar Vasily IV is overthrown by domestic political opponents and shorn to a simple monk. The interregnum of Russia marks the climax of the so-called " time of turmoil ". Government responsibility is assumed by a seven-member boyar council . After this defeat, Moscow has nothing more to oppose to the Polish army, led by Stanisław Żółkiewski , whereupon they take Moshaisk , Volokolamsk and Dmitrov .
- August 27 : After the fall of Wassilis, the boyar council elects King Sigismund III after an agreement with Stanisław Żółkiewski. still young son Władysław IV. Wasa to the tsar.
- September 20 : The Polish army under Stanisław Żółkiewski reaches Moscow and occupies the Moscow Kremlin .
- October – December: Sigismund III. Wasa , in negotiations with the Moscow envoys, rejects the electoral capitulations agreed between Wladyslav and the Boyar Council because he himself has ambitions for the throne and is not prepared to make any concessions in advance. The talks are broken off, the Russian negotiators interned.
Jülich-Klevian succession dispute
- July 29th : The siege of Jülich by French-Dutch troops begins as part of the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute .
Further events in the empire
- September 19 : Friedrich IV succeeds his son Friedrich V , who goes down in history as the winter king in 1618/19.
- Christian I von Anhalt-Bernburg becomes federal general of the Protestant Union .
- Under Grand Master Alof de Wignacourt the construction of Fort St Lucian begins , another of the Wignacourt Towers for the fortification of Malta .
- The Battle of Dimdim ends with the capture of the fortress of Dimdim, defended by the Kurds under Emîr Xan Lepzêrîn , by the attacking Safavids . All defense lawyers are then executed.
- June 7 : The last survivors of the English settlement of Jamestown , Virginia , leave town downstream in the war against the Powhatan . The following day, the newly appointed governor Lord de la Warr arrives at the colony with three ships and 150 men (including about 100 soldiers). He changes the tactics of the settlers - from now on they raid the Powhatan fields and villages and burn them down.
- August 2nd : Henry Hudson drives into today's Hudson Bay in search of the Northwest Passage and thinks he is already in the Pacific Ocean .
- Santa Fe becomes the seat of the governor of New Spain, making it the oldest capital of a US state .
- The first Jesuits reach the area around what is now San Ignacio Miní and start building a Jesuit reduction .
science and technology
- January 7th : Galileo Galilei discovers the four largest moons ( Galilean moons ) of Jupiter , the first evidence that not all celestial bodies revolve around the earth . They are called Ganymede , Callisto , Europa and Io . He reports on the discovery in his work Sidereus Nuncius .
- November 25th : Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc discovers the Orion Nebula .
- December 13th : Thomas Harriot is the first to make private drawings of sunspots , which he does not publish.
On the orders of King Mathias II of Hungary, Count Georg Thurzo von Bethlenfalva storms and searches the castle of the Hungarian Countess Elisabeth Báthory on December 29th . She herself was placed under arrest a few days later on suspicion of the murder of up to 650 young girls, along with four servants.
Protestants under the leadership of Jacobus Arminius and Simon Episcopius write a remonstrance to the Estates of the Netherlands, in which they emphasize the freedom of will and belief of the people and reject the Calvinist doctrine of predestination . From this arminianism and the religious community of the Remonstrants develop .
- August 24th : The Schesaplana , the highest mountain in the Rätikon , is conquered for the first time by the group of three Christa Barball, Claus Manall and David Pappus von Tratzberg.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 4 : Franz von Cramm , German court official († 1661 )
- January 21 : François Collignon , French draftsman, etcher, engraver and publisher († 1687 )
- March 1 : Johann Balthasar Schupp , German writer († 1661 )
- March 4 : William Dobson , English painter († 1646 )
- March 10 : Hans Jakob von Koseritz , electoral Saxon nobleman, member of the Fruitful Society († 1648 )
- April 22nd : Pietro Ottoboni, under the name Alexander VIII Pope († 1691 )
- May 29 : Maria Cunitz , German astronomer († 1664 )
- July 14 : Ferdinand II , Grand Duke of Tuscany († 1670 )
- September 6 : Francesco I. d'Este , Duke of Reggio and Modena († 1658 )
- September 21 : Michael Wendler , German moral philosopher and Lutheran theologian († 1671 )
- September 24 : Huang Zongxi , Chinese philosopher, political analyst, and historian († 1695 )
- October 19 : James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde , Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier († 1688 )
- October 28 : Jakob Kettler , ruler of Courland († 1682 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Adam Adami , Prior of St. Jakob, Prior of Murrhardt, Titular Bishop of Hierapolis and Auxiliary Bishop in Hildesheim († 1663 )
- Johan Garmann , Norwegian civil servant and businessman († 1673 )
Born around 1610
- Jan Asselijn , Dutch landscape and history painter († 1652 )
- Thomas Thynne , English nobleman and politician († 1669 )
Date of death secured
- February 22nd : Polykarp Leyser the Elder , German Lutheran theologian (* 1552 )
- March 7th : Marie von Sachsen-Weimar , 31st abbess of the Reichsstift von Quedlinburg (* 1571 )
- March 19 : Salentin von Isenburg , Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Cologne from 1567 to 1577 (* 1532 )
- April 15 : Robert Parsons , English Jesuit and politician (* 1546 )
- May 3 : Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Skopin-Shuiski , Russian military leader and statesman (* 1586 )
- May 11 : Matteo Ricci , Italian priest and missionary in China (* 1552 )
- May 14 : Henry IV , King of France (* 1553 )
- May 24th : Joachim a Burck , German composer (* 1546 )
- May 27 : François Ravaillac , murderer of Henry IV of France (* 1578 )
- August 5th : Alonso García de Ramón , Spanish officer and governor of Chile (* 1552 )
- August 23 : Antonie von Lothringen , Duchess of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (* 1568 )
- August 25 : Johann Debel , German philologist and Lutheran theologian (* 1540 )
- September 19 : Friedrich IV. Of the Palatinate , Elector Palatinate and leader of the Protestant Union (* 1574 )
- October 6 : Hosokawa Fujitaka , Japanese prince and poet (* 1534 )
- October 26 : Francesco Vanni , Italian painter (* 1563 )
- November 2 : Richard Bancroft , Archbishop of Canterbury (* 1544 )
- December 11 : Adam Elsheimer , German painter (* 1578 )
- December 21 : Pseudodimitri II , Russian pretender to the throne
- December 21 : Katharina Wasa , Princess of Sweden and Countess of East Friesland (* 1539 )
- December 31 : Ludolph van Ceulen , Dutch mathematician (* 1540 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Anne Cooke Bacon , English author (* 1527/28)