Calendar overview 1691
battle of Slankamen the Ottomans suffer
a heavy defeat by an imperial army.
|Innocent XII. Pope.||
Johann Georg IV becomes
Elector of Saxony .
|1691 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1139/40 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1683/84 (New Year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1096/97 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2234/35 (southern Buddhism); 2233/34 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1053/54 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4024/25 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1102/03 (New Year 23/24 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5451/52 (23/24 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1407/08 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2001/02 (New Year April)
Syria: 2002/03 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1747/48 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Turkish War
- June 23 : After the death of Suleyman II , his brother Ahmed II becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire .
- August 19 : Great Turkish War : In the battle of Slankamen, the Ottomans suffer a significant defeat by an imperial army. Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm , the Turks Louis , defeated with his troops those of the opposing general Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa , who died. The imperial army can thus break free from the Ottoman embrace. Although the fortress Belgrade is now hardly covered by Ottoman troops, Margrave Ludwig von Baden considers himself too weak to take the place, especially since a secure supply of the army seems impossible after the loss of his Danube flotilla. Instead, the imperial family retreated north across the Danube.
- July 22nd : The Battle of Aughrim is the decisive battle of the Jacobite Rising in Ireland . The troops of Wilhelm III. of Orange-Nassau defeat the Jacobite units under Charles Chalmont, Marquis de St. Ruth , who fell in battle. The battle is considered one of the bloodiest on Irish soil; more than 7,000 people are killed. It means the practical end of Jacobism in Ireland, even if the city of Limerick withstands the siege until autumn.
- August - October: The second siege of Limerick ends with the surrender of the Jacobite-held city to the troops of William of Orange.
- October 3rd : The Treaty of Limerick ends the Jacobite war with the troops of King William of Orange .
War of the Palatinate Succession
- March 15 to April 10 : The siege of Mons ends with the surrender of the city to the French siege troops of Louis XIV, led by Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban .
- June 28 : Vivien de Bulonde breaks off the siege of Cuneo after a short time when troops of the Augsburg Alliance under Prince Eugene of Savoy approach.
- September 18 : The Battle of Leuze in the War of the Palatinate Succession ends with a victory for the French under François-Henri de Montmorency-Luxembourg over a Dutch army under Georg Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck .
- August 2 : Friedrich II succeeds his late father Friedrich I as Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg .
- September 12th : Change of throne in Electoral Saxony . On Johann Georg III. his son Johann Georg IV follows as elector.
- October 18 : Christian II succeeds his late father Christian I as the second Duke of Saxony-Merseburg .
- The city of Christiansfort on the Caribbean island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies is renamed Charlotte Amalie .
- French Huguenots, led by François Leguat, try to found a state called Eden on the island of Rodrigues , but only eight of them arrive on the island.
- May: In lamasery Huizong the place Dolon Alliance meeting place in which the Chinese suzerainty of the Qing Dynasty through the Chalcha is officially recognized (Khalkha). In memory of this, the Manchu Emperor Kangxi had the monastery built for 100,000 Tael, which in those years was said to be second only to the Potala Palace .
Science and culture
- The later by Duchess Anna Amalia of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach named Duchess Anna Amalia Library is in Weimar by Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxony-Weimar founded when he makes his collected 1,400 books to the public. In the following thirty years the stock of the library, temporarily housed in the residential palace, increased to 11,000 copies.
- July 12th : Antonio Pignatelli, as a compromise candidate from two strong parliamentary groups, becomes Pope to succeed Alexander VIII, who died in Rome on February 1st . He chooses the name Innocent XII for the duration of his pontificate . His pontificate begins Innocent with various reforms: he reformed with the bull Romanum decet Pontificem the Papal States by limiting the equipment of papal relatives with offices. In addition, it sets the last day of the year to December 31st - named after Pope Silvester I - and the first day of the year to January 1st - as New Year's Day . Until then, January 6th was the beginning of the year and December 24th was the end of the year, the "time between the years " was a "dead time".
- September 3 : The two English liners, HMS Coronation and HMS Harwich, are lost to stranding while attempting to enter Plymouth Sound during a severe storm . Around 1,000 seafarers die in the process, and only a handful of crew members can save themselves.
First half of the year
- February 22nd : Johann Kaspar Wetzel , German Protestant theologian, hymnologist and hymn poet († 1755 )
- April 5 : Ludwig VIII , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1768 )
- April 5 : Franz Joseph Spiegler , German painter († 1757 )
- April 9 : Johann Matthias Gesner , German linguist († 1761 )
- April 9 : Paul Egell , German sculptor († 1752 )
- April 27 : August I , Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen († 1750 )
- April 29 : Ulrich Friedrich von Suhm , diplomat and a friend of Frederick the Great († 1740 )
- June 17 : Giovanni Paolo Pannini , Italian painter and architect († 1765 )
- June 30 : Friedrich Albrecht Augusti , German theologian and clergyman († 1782 )
Second half of the year
- August 15 : Johann Peter Reusch , German philosopher and Lutheran theologian († 1758 )
- August 25 : Alessandro Galilei , Italian architect († 1737 )
- August 28 : Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , German Queen and Empress, Archduchess of Austria († 1750 )
- September 21 : Jakob Hendrik Croeser , Dutch physician († 1753 )
- September 27 : Josef Antonín Planický , Czech composer († 1732 )
- October 18 : Hedwig Friederike von Württemberg-Weiltingen , Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst († 1752 )
- October 30 : Katharina Iwanowna , Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin († 1733 )
First half of the year
- February 1 : Alexander VIII , Pope from 1689 to 1691 (* 1610 )
- February 4 : Paul Ammann , German medic and botanist (* 1634 )
- February 12 : Lorenz of the Resurrection , French Carmelite, spiritual writer and mystic (* 1614 )
- March 5 : Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer , French lawyer and post pioneer (* 1607 )
- March 15 : Anna Salome von Manderscheid-Blankenheim , abbess of the Thorn women's monastery and abbess of the Essen monastery (* 1628 )
- April 3 : Jean Petitot , Swiss miniature painter (* 1607 )
- April 13 : Thomas Bromley , English mystic (* 1629 )
- April 13 : Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of Peru (* 1626 )
- April 23 : Jean-Henri d'Anglebert , French composer, harpsichordist and organist (* 1629 )
- Charles François d'Angennes , Marquis of Maintenon (* 1648 ) April:
- May 2 : Konstantin Ziegra , German physicist and Lutheran theologian (* 1617 )
- May 19 : Jacob Leisler , American colonialist of German descent (* 1640 )
- May 23 : Adrien Auzout , French physicist and astronomer (* 1622 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Marc'Antonio Pasqualini , Italian soprano castrato (* 1614 )
- July 16 : François Michel Le Tellier de Louvois , French statesman and minister of war (* 1641 )
- July 17 : Heinrich Ammersbach , German pastor and writer (* 1632 )
- July 30th : Daniel Georg Morhof , well-known literary historian and polyhistor (* 1639 )
- August 1st : Marie de Hautefort , French nobleman, close confidante and friend of King Louis XIII. (* 1616 )
- August 2 : Friedrich I , Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (* 1646 )
- August 19 : Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1637 )
- August 22 : Georg Green , German Lutheran theologian, poet and historian (* 1636 )
- August 31 : Johann Heinrich von Dünewald , Austrian General Field Marshal of the Cavalry (* 1617 )
- September 10 : Erich Mauritius , German legal scholar (* 1631 )
- September 22nd : Johann Georg III. , Prince of the House of Wettin (Albertine line) (* 1647 )
- September 30th : Catharina Hooft , Dutch patrician and personality from the Dutch Golden Age (* 1618 )
- October 8 : Daniel Horthemels , Dutch bookseller and publisher (* before 1655 )
- October 11 : Israël Silvestre , French painter and engraver (* 1621 )
- October 12th : Hannibal von Degenfeld , Swabian military leader (* 1648 )
- October 18 : Christian I , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg (* 1615 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Christine von Ahlefeldt , Chief Chamberlain and Minister of the Electress of Saxony (* 1643 )
- João Ferreira de Almeida , Portuguese missionary and translator (* 1628 )