Calendar overview 1782
Die Räuber by Friedrich Schiller is premiered at the Nationaltheater Mannheim and causes a scandal.
King of Siam ,
is executed ...
|Rama I founded the Chakri dynasty .|
|1782 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1230/31 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1774/75 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1187/88 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2325/26 (southern Buddhism); 2324/25 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1144/45 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4115/16 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1160/61 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1196/97 (December 6/7)|
|Jewish calendar||5542/43 (September 8/9)|
|Coptic calendar||1498/99 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2092/93 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2093/94 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1838/39 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
American War of Independence
- January 25th / 26th : The naval battle of St. Kitts in the West Indies between a British and a French fleet ends with a victory for the British under Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood . Nevertheless, the French under François Joseph Paul de Grasse succeed in conquering the island of St. Kitts .
- March 8 : In the Gnadenhütten massacre in Ohio, American soldiers kill 96 Christian Indians who got caught between the fronts of the American War of Independence .
- April 12th : The Caribbean island group Îles des Saintes leads to the battle of Les Saintes , in which the British fleet under George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney defeats the French under François Joseph Paul de Grasse . This ends the French threat to the British West Indies .
- May 25 to June 12 : Crawford Campaign
- November 30th : A provisional peace accord to end the American War of Independence is signed between the thirteen North American colonies and the British Crown .
Holy Roman Empire
- January 15 : Joseph II revokes serfdom in the Austrian hereditary lands .
- November 2 : Emperor Joseph II issues the tolerance patent for the Jews within the framework of Josephinism , which opens up better economic activity for them and removes restrictions in the practice of religion.
Other events in Europe
- July 1 : The Dress Act , which in Scotland wearing plaid and kilt and the use of tartan was banned, is repealed
- April 6th : King Taksin is executed after a rebellion, Rama I ascends the throne of Siam as king and establishes the Chakri dynasty .
- April 21 : King Rama I moves the seat of government from Thonburi to Rattanakosin on the opposite bank of the river, and begins to develop the area together with the village of Bang Kok into the capital of the Kingdom of Siam .
- January 7 : The private Bank of North America begins operations as the first commercial credit institution and first central bank in the United States .
- June 2nd : In Madrid , with the permission and under the patronage of King Charles III. founded the Banco Nacional de San Carlos . The central bank Banco de España emerges from it .
science and technology
- Emperor Joseph II founds the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum in Budapest.
- The natural scientist and mineralogist Franz Joseph Müller von Reichenstein discovered the element tellurium .
- The astronomer Wilhelm Herschel starts looking for foggy celestial objects .
- Charles-Joseph Panckoucke begins editing the Encyclopédie méthodique .
- March 23 : The first edition of the letter novel Les Liaisons dangereuses ( Dangerous Liaisons ) , written by Pierre-Ambroise-François Choderlos de Laclos , appears in France . After four weeks, the 2,000 printed copies are sold out.
Music and theater
- January 13th : Friedrich Schiller's drama Die Räuber is premiered in the Nationaltheater Mannheim . The public interest is great, as the print edition, which appeared a year earlier, caused quite a stir because of its open criticism of the feudal system. Theater director and director Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg wants to defuse the plot by moving it 300 years into the past. Leading actor August Wilhelm Iffland appears in the role of Franz Moor with contemporary clothing. The performance causes a scandal.
- January 25 : World premiere of the opera Armida abbandonata by Luigi Cherubini in Florence
- April 16 : World premiere of the opera Adriano in Siria by Luigi Cherubini in Livorno
- July 16 : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's German-language comic opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail has its world premiere in Vienna's Burgtheater . The libretto by Gottlieb Stephanie based on a musical play by Christoph Friedrich Bretzner protesting against the unauthorized alteration of his work.
- September 3 : The Comoedienhaus in Frankfurt am Main opens.
- September 15 : The opera buffa Il barbiere di Siviglia by Giovanni Paisiello based on the play Le Barbier de Séville by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais has its world premiere in St. Petersburg. The work was extremely successful until it was almost completely displaced from the opera stage repertoire in the 19th century by Rossini's setting of the same material.
- September 30th : World premiere of the opera Cora och Alonzo by Johann Gottlieb Naumann at the Court Opera in Stockholm
- October 6th : World premiere of the musical comedy La ballerina amante by Domenico Cimarosa at the Teatro dei Fiorentini in Naples
- December 6th : The world premiere of the opera Orlando paladino ( The Knight Roland ) by Joseph Haydn takes place in Esterház . The libretto by Nunziato Porta goes back to an episode from the world bestseller Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto from 1516. The play - written and staged for a planned but not successful visit by the Russian Grand Duke Paul and his German wife Maria Fjodorovna in the presence of Emperor Joseph II - will soon be re-enacted all over Europe.
- September 14 : World premiere of the opera Fra due Littiganti il terzo gode by Giuseppe Sarti at the Teatro alla Scala di Milano in Milan
- Great Mass in C minor by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- June 13 : Anna Göldi is convicted of an alleged poisoning in Glarus and is executed with the sword on the same day. In the verdict, the words witch and witchcraft are avoided, but Göldi is considered the last victim of the witch hunt in Switzerland.
- July 16 - September 1 : At the large Masonic Convention in Wilhelmsbad, 35 high-ranking members of the organization plan the future structure of the organization. More charitable work is to be done and the name of Strict Observance is to be changed.
- August 4th : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Constanze Weber get married in Vienna .
- October 3 : The Order of St. Vladimir is donated in Russia on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the reign of Tsaritza Catherine II as an award of merit for all classes in originally four classes.
- May 4th : Pope Pius VI. stays in Augsburg and celebrates a mass in the basilica St. Ulrich and Afra .
- August 4 : The British East Indiaman Grosvenor is shipwrecked off the east coast of South Africa. 15 people are killed in the sinking. Only six survivors reach a Dutch settlement after an odyssey through the hinterland.
- August 28 : British ship of the line Royal George (100 guns) capsizes and sinks while at anchor in the Solent . Between 800 and 950 people drown, including Vice Admiral Richard Kempenfelt and large numbers of children and women. To this day, the sinking is the worst peacetime shipwreck in the history of the Royal Navy .
Historical maps and views
- January 1 : Johann Gottfried Abraham Frenzel , German painter, engraver and art writer († 1855 )
- January 3 : Juan José de los Reyes Martínez Amaro ( El Pípila ) , Mexican miner and national hero († 1863 )
- January 4 : Charles K. Williams , American politician († 1853 )
- January 11th : Sebastian Rinz , German city gardener in Frankfurt am Main († 1861 )
- January 14 : Carl Ferdinand Langhans , German architect († 1869 )
- January 15 : Ōkubo Tadazane , Daimyō of Odawara and Rōjū († 1837 )
- January 18 : Daniel Webster , American politician, US Senator and Secretary of State († 1852 )
- January 19 : Heinrich August Wilhelm von Bülow , Chief Forester († 1839 )
- January 20 : Josef von Hormayr , Austrian historian († 1848 )
- January 20 : Archduke Johann , Austrian Prince († 1859 )
- January 20 : Adolf Theodor Roscher , German industrialist († 1861 )
- January 21 : Jakob Cederström , Swedish general and politician († 1857 )
- January 25 : Johann Michael Ackner , Austrian archaeologist and natural scientist († 1862 )
- January 26 : Cornelius P. Van Ness , American politician († 1852 )
- January 29 : Daniel-François-Esprit Auber , French composer († 1871 )
- January 31 : Franz Sinesius Weissenbach , Swiss lawyer and politician († 1848 )
- February 1 : Afanassi Grigoryevich Grigorjew , Russian architect († 1868 )
- February 2 : James Chalmers , Scottish printer and newspaper publisher in Dundee († 1853 )
- February 4 : Carl Heinrich Aster , German military writer († 1855 )
- February 14 : Johann Werner Henschel , German sculptor († 1850 )
- February 17th : Fyodor Tolstoy , Russian nobleman, army officer, notorious adventurer and duelist († 1846 )
- February 23 : John Wilson Campbell , American judge and politician († 1833 )
- February 23 : Johann Baptist Emanuel Pohl , Austrian botanist († 1834 )
- March 4 : Johann Rudolf Wyss , Swiss author († 1830 )
- March 7th : Angelo Mai , Italian cardinal and philologist († 1854 )
- March 7 : Franz Sartori , Austrian doctor and writer († 1832 )
- March 14 : Thomas Hart Benton , American politician († 1858 )
- March 18 : Johann Ludwig Hartz , German businessman, councilor and founder in Leipzig († 1833 )
- March 17 : Sophie von Kühn , German fiancée von Novalis († 1797 )
- March 18 : John C. Calhoun , American politician and Vice President († 1850 )
- March 25 : Caroline Bonaparte , sister of Napoleon Bonaparte , Queen of Naples († 1839 )
- March 24 : Orest Kiprenski , Russian painter († 1836 )
- March 31 : Samuel Prentiss , American politician († 1857 )
- April 17 : Friedrich Hellwig , German singer, actor and director († 1825 )
- April 18 : August Goldfuß , German palaeontologist and zoologist († 1848 )
- April 18 : Oldwig Anton Leopold von Natzmer , Prussian general († 1861 )
- April 21 : Friedrich Froebel , German educator († 1852 )
- April 22 : Karl Henrik Anckarswärd , Swedish colonel and politician († 1865 )
- May 3 : Pius Alexander Wolff , German actor and writer († 1828 )
- May 6 : Ernst von Krosigk , Prussian Lieutenant General († 1872 )
- May 15 : Christoph Bernoulli , Swiss natural scientist and economist († 1863 )
- May 18 : Ludwig Adolf Wilhelm von Lützow , Prussian general († 1834 )
- May 19 : Ivan Paskewitsch , Prince of Warsaw and Russian Field Marshal General († 1856 )
- May 22 : Hirose Tansō , Japanese scholar, educator and writer († 1856 )
- May 23 : Franz Joseph Konstantin Schömann , German legal scholar († 1813 )
- May 25 : Johann Gottlieb Lehmann , German educator and philologist († 1837 )
- May 26 : Joseph Drechsler , Bohemian composer and music teacher († 1852 )
- May 30 : Mikhail Voronzow , Russian commander, governor general, viceroy († 1856 )
- June 4 : Christian Martin Joachim Frähn , German orientalist and numismatist († 1851 )
- June 9 : Michael von Erdelyi , Austrian veterinarian and university lecturer († 1837 )
- June 29 : Hans Christian Lyngbye , Faroese editor of the first book in Faroese († 1837 )
- Ludwig von Welden , Austrian Feldzeugmeister († 1853 ) June:
- July 2 : Cesare Arici , Italian poet († 1836 )
- July 14th : Maximilian Joseph of Austria-Este , Austrian Archduke, Grand Master of the German Order († 1863 )
- July 21 : Ernst von Grossi . German physician and university professor († 1829 )
- July 24 : John Fox Burgoyne , British Field Marshal († 1871 )
- July 26 : John Field , Irish composer and pianist († 1837 )
- July 29 : Jesse Wharton , American politician († 1833 )
- August 1 : Eugen von Mazenod , French, Catholic saint and founder of the order († 1861 )
- August 6 : Hermann Diedrich Piepenstock , German businessman and manufacturer († 1843 )
- August 10 : Charles James Napier , British general, commander in chief of the troops of the East India Company († 1853 )
- August 18 : Marcellin de Marbot , French general († 1854 )
- August 22 : Julius August von Bernuth , German civil servant († 1857 )
- August 24 : Kilian Joseph Fischer , German Roman Catholic theologian († 1848 )
- September 3 : Christian Ludwig Nitzsch , physician and biologist († 1837 )
- September 14 : Christian Magnus Falsen , Norwegian politician († 1830 )
- September 16 : Daoguang , Emperor of China († 1850 )
- September 18 : José Tomás Boves , Venezuelan caudillo († 1814 )
- September 19 : Karl von Fischer , German architect († 1820 )
- September 19 : Robert Henry Sale , English general († 1845 )
- September 23 : Jacques Féréol Mazas , French violinist and violin teacher († 1849 )
- September 23 : Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied , German naturalist and ethnographer († 1867 )
- September 29 : Heinrich Ernst von Hoff , German officer and civil servant († 1851 )
- October 1 : Bernhard Joseph Docen , German Germanist, librarian and writer († 1828 )
- October 3 : David Johnson , American politician († 1855 )
- October 6 : Karl August Weinhold , German physician († 1829 )
- October 7 : James Lucas Yeo , British naval officer († 1818 )
- October 9 : Lewis Cass , American military officer, politician and Secretary of State († 1866 )
- October 11 : Steen Steensen Blicher , German, Evangelical Lutheran pastor and Danish writer († 1848 )
- October 12 : Henry Dodge , American politician († 1867 )
- October 25 : Levi Lincoln junior , American politician († 1868 )
- October 27 : Niccolò Paganini , Italian composer and violin virtuoso († 1840 )
- November 1 : Frederick John Robinson , British politician († 1859 )
- November 5 : Iossif Ivanovich Charlemagne , Russian architect († 1861 )
- November 12 : William Hendricks , American politician († 1850 )
- November 13 : Joseph Kornhäusel , Austrian architect († 1860 )
- November 13 : Esaias Tegnér , Swedish poet († 1846 )
- November 17th : Conrad Graf , German piano maker († 1851 )
- December 5 : Martin Van Buren , American politician and 8th President of the United States († 1862 )
- December 7th : Anton Apponyi von Nagy-Apponyi , Austrian diplomat († 1852 )
- December 16 : Louis-Barthélémy Pradher , French pianist, composer and music teacher († 1843 )
- December 23 : William Armstrong , American politician († 1865 )
- December 30th : Jonas Anton Hielm , Norwegian lawyer and politician († 1848 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- William George Keith Elphinstone , British major general († 1842 )
- George A. Waggaman , American politician († 1843 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Johann Christian Bach , German composer (* 1735 )
- January 1 : Juan Crespí , Spanish Franciscan and missionary (* 1721 )
- January 18 : John Pringle , British medic (* 1707 )
- January 28 : Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville , French geographer and cartographer (* 1697 )
- February 9th : Giuseppe Luigi Assemani , priest, orientalist and liturgist
- February 10 : Friedrich Christoph Oetinger , German theologian, leading Pietist (* 1702 )
- February 14th : Manuel d'Amat i de Junyent , Spanish officer, high official, governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru (* 1704 or 1707 )
- February 16 : Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann , German politician (* 1724 )
- March 1 : John Treutlen , American politician (* 1734 )
- March 16 : Johann Friedrich Schönemann , German actor and theater director in Schwerin (* 1704 )
- March 17 : Daniel Bernoulli , Swiss mathematician and physicist (* 1700 )
- March 18 : Ernst Jakob Danovius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1741 )
- March 22nd : Joachim Martin Falbe , German sculptor, etcher and draftsman (* 1709 )
- March 30th : Johann Gehmacher , Salzburg master stonemason and sculptor (* 1716 )
- Johan Vibe , Norwegian poet (* 1748 ) March:
- April 6 : Johann Tobias Krebs , German philologist and educator (* 1718 )
- April 12 : Pietro Metastasio , Italian poet and librettist (* 1698 )
- April 22nd : Josef Seger , Bohemian composer (* 1716 )
- May 6 : Johann Michael Strickner , Austrian master stonemason and sculptor (* 1720 )
- May 8 : Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello, Marquês de Pombal , Portuguese head of government (* 1699 )
- May 13 : Friedrich Albrecht Augusti , German theologian and clergyman (* 1691 )
- May 13 : Johann August von Hellfeld , German legal scholar (* 1717 )
- May 13 : Daniel Solander , Swedish botanist (* 1733 )
- May 15 : Philipp Friedrich von Rieger , Württemberg General (* 1722 )
- May 15 : Richard Wilson , Welsh landscape painter (* 1714 )
- May 20 : Christoph Gottlieb Schröter , German composer (* 1699 )
- May 22 : Friederike Caroline Luise of Hessen-Darmstadt , Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (* 1752 )
- May 22nd : Daniel Triller , German medic and writer (* 1695 )
- May 22nd : Friedrich Gottlieb Zoller , German legal scholar (* 1717 )
- May 24th : Carl Friedrich Weidemann , German flautist and composer (* around 1704 )
- May 25 : Johann Caspar Goethe , German lawyer and father of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (* 1710 )
- May 28 : Ernst Friedrich Wernsdorf , German Lutheran theologian and church historian (* 1718 )
- June 11 : Juan de Torrezar Díaz y Pimienta , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Granada (* after 1700 )
- June 21 : Georg Wilhelm von Hessen-Darmstadt , Hessian prince and general (* 1722 )
- June 24th : Anna Göldi , Swiss maid, executed as one of the last witches in Europe (* 1734 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Charles Watson-Wentworth , British Prime Minister (* 1730 )
- July 15 : Isaak Iselin , Swiss journalistic philosopher of history (* 1728 )
- July 21 : Placidus von Camerloher , German composer (* 1718 )
- August 7th : Andreas Sigismund Marggraf , German chemist (* 1709 )
- August 10 : Johann Gottlob Thierbach , German educator (* 1736 )
- August 14 : Christian Gottfried Struensee , Rector of the Stephaneum High School in Halberstadt (* 1717 )
- August 19 : Francesco de Mura , Italian painter (* 1696 )
- August 25 : Marianne von Auenbrugger , Austrian pianist and composer (* 1759 )
- September 14 : Nicholas Cooke , American politician (* 1717 )
- September 16 : Farinelli , Italian singer (* 1705 )
- September 24th : Jules Crozet , French explorer (* 1728 )
- October 2 : Charles Lee , British soldier, General of the Continental Army in the American War of Independence (* 1732 )
- October 23 : Joseph Riepel , Austro-German music theorist (* 1709 )
- November 9th : Anna Dorothea Therbusch , German painter (* 1721 )
- November 21 : Jacques de Vaucanson , French engineer, inventor and aviation pioneer (* 1709 )
- November 24th : Stefano Evodio Assemani , Arab orientalist (* 1707 )
- December 2 : Christian Friedrich Polz , German logician and Protestant theologian (* 1714 )
- December 13 : Carl Friedrich Aichinger , German linguist (* 1717 )
- December 26th : Wilhelm Anton von der Asseburg , Prince-Bishop of Paderborn (* 1707 )
- December 26th : Scipione Borghese , Cardinal of the Catholic Church (* 1734 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Friedrich Ludwig Abresch , Dutch philologist (* 1699 )
- Anna Maria dal violin , Italian violinist and violin teacher (* 1696 )
- Mathias Etenhueber , German poet (* 1722 )
- Franz Joseph Steinböck Austrian master stonemason and sculptor, headmaster of the Wiener Bauhütte (* 1732 )