Calendar overview 1772
great powers Russia , Prussia and Austria
agree on the first partition of Poland .
Gustav III of Sweden is a coup against the nobility
in his country.
Danish cabinet minister Johann Friedrich Struensee
is arrested and executed.
|1772 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1220/21 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1764/65 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1177/78 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2315/16 (southern Buddhism); 2314/15 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1134/35 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4105/06 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1150/51 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1185/86 (April 3-4)|
|Jewish calendar||5532/33 (September 27-28)|
|Coptic calendar||1488/89 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2082/83 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2083/84 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1828/29 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 17 : The wife of Danish King, Caroline Mathilde , and the Danish Minister of State Count Johann Friedrich Struensee be one against King on suspicion Christian VII. Directed plot set. The queen is taken to Kronborg Castle and Struensee, her lover, is arrested. The Minister and his confidante Enevold von Brandt were executed on April 28th and the Queen banished.
- May 26th : King Gustav III. of Sweden donates the Wasa Order on his coronation day .
- August 19 : The Swedish King Gustav III. coups with officers devoted to him against the aristocratic oligarchy . The Imperial Council , which met in a hall, was locked up, and citizenship in Stockholm was won through brilliant speeches from the ruler. Shortly thereafter, the Imperial Council accepted a constitution that was convenient for the king.
Central and Eastern Europe
- February 17th : Russia and Prussia essentially agree on the partition of Poland and wait for Austria to approve the plan on March 4th.
- April: Envoys from Russia and the Ottoman Empire meet for negotiations in what is now Focșani , which is now Romanian .
- April 26 : Kraków Castle surrenders to the Russian army under Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov .
- August 5 : Treaties of Petersburg : First partition of Poland (second partition of Poland 1793 , third partition of Poland 1795 )
- November 6th : A Russian squadron of 7 warships defeats and largely destroys a Turkish squadron in the Gulf of Patras.
Great Britain and its colonies
- April 1 : King George III. signs the Royal Marriages Act 1772 . This declares any marriage invalid that members of the British royal family enter into before the age of 25 without the consent of the monarch. The provision applies to all descendants of George II with the exception of the descendants of the princesses who were married into other families. Members of the royal families who are older than 25 years of age can marry even after their request for marriage has been rejected, provided they have reported this to the Privy Council one year in advance and Parliament does not prohibit it. The Royal Marriage Act also makes it a criminal offense to assist in any form with an illegal marriage of a member of the royal family.
- June 22nd : British land chief William Murray, Earl of Mansfield , declares slavery unlawful in Great Britain in a landmark judgment on a lawsuit brought by the slave James Somerset .
Voyages of discovery
- January 23 : The Crozet Islands in the Indian Ocean are discovered by Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne and Jules Crozet .
- January 24th : The French territory expands to include the Crozet Islands in the Indian Ocean . The archipelago is named after the officer Jules Crozet . His commander Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne goes ashore on the largest island Île de la Possession and takes possession of it for France.
- February 12th : The Kerguelen archipelago is discovered by the French navigator Yves Joseph de Kerguelen de Trémarec
- November 2 : The conservative daily Morning Post starts in London with a circulation of 350 copies .
- The private Wiener Kleine Post is founded.
- The company Wilkinson Sword , a British manufacturer of razor blades, swords, cutlery and garden tools, is by Henry Nock founded
science and technology
- July 13 : James Cook begins his second South Seas voyage from Plymouth ; He is accompanied by, among others, the German naturalist Georg Forster and his father Johann Reinhold Forster .
- November 1st : Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier revolutionizes the scientific phlogiston theory with his observation that phosphorus and sulfur become heavier after combustion .
- Johann Heinrich Lambert develops the Lambert pyramid of colors
- In an experiment, which is absurd by today's standards, scientists find that eunuchs can also feel electric shocks.
- Denis Diderot writes the story This is not a story .
- The 13-year-old Friedrich Schiller wrote the two theater plays Absalon and The Christians that have not survived .
Music and theater
- March 13 : The world premiere of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's bourgeois tragedy Emilia Galotti by Karl Theophil Döbbelin takes place at the Ducal Opera House in Braunschweig on the occasion of the birthday of Duchess Philippine Charlotte . Lessing himself is not present at the world premiere.
- January 29th : The opera La fiera di Venezia by Antonio Salieri celebrates a great success at its premiere at the Burgtheater in Vienna .
- On the occasion of the enthronement of the Prince Archbishop of Salzburg on May 1st, Pietro Metastasio wrote the work Il sogno di Scipione , set to music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Presumably only part of the opera will be premiered at the enthronement.
- August 17th : World premiere of the comic opera Der Krieg by Johann Adam Hiller in Berlin
- November 5th : World premiere of the opera Themistocles by Johann Christian Bach in Mannheim
- December 16 : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Lucio Silla is premiered in Milan .
- January 4 : Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut , German legal scholar († 1840 )
- January 12th : Michail Speranski , Russian statesman and liberal reformer († 1839 )
- January 14 : Duncan McArthur , American politician († 1839 )
- January 14 : Elias Thomas , American businessman and politician († 1872 )
- January 19 : Friedrich Carl Arndt , German lawyer, city judge and mayor († 1815 )
- February 2 : Ferdinand Eßlair , Slavonian actor († 1840 )
- February 2 : Christoph Martin (lawyer) , German lawyer and university professor († 1857 )
- February 3 : Johann Heinrich Fritsch , German Protestant preacher, historian and astronomer († 1829 )
- February 6 : Gerhard von Kügelgen , German painter († 1820 )
- February 6 : Karl von Kügelgen , German landscape and history painter († 1832 )
- February 11 : Carl Philipp Emil von Hanstein , Hessian Minister of State († 1861 )
- February 13 : Joachim Leonz Eder , Swiss lawyer and politician († 1848 )
- February 13 : Henriette Hendel-Schütz , German actress († 1849 )
- February 15 : Leander van Eß , German Catholic theologian († 1847 )
- February 16 : Friedrich Gilly , German architect and builder († 1800 )
- February 20 : Isaac Chauncey , American naval officer († 1840 )
- February 22 : Josef Lipavský , Czech composer († 1810 )
- February 24 : William Harris Crawford , American politician († 1834 )
- February 24 : Gustav Dietrich von Oertzen , Mecklenburg District Administrator († 1838 )
- February 28 : Karl Gottlieb Schweikart , Austrian portrait painter († 1855 )
- March 3 : Engelbert Schue , German Catholic clergyman and university professor († 1847 )
- March 5 : Friedrich Pfluger , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman († 1848 )
- March 10 : Friedrich Schlegel , German cultural philosopher († 1829 )
- March 17 : Charles Leclerc d'Ostin , French general († 1802 )
- March 23 : Ludwig Schellenberg , German bookseller, printer and publisher († 1834 )
- March 30 : Johann Wilhelm Wilms , German-Dutch composer († 1847 )
- March 31 : Franz Ferdinand Fritz , Bishop of Hildesheim from 1836 to 1840 († 1840 )
- April 2 : Sir John Abercrombie , British general († 1817 )
- April 7 : Charles Fourier , French social theorist († 1837 )
- April 15 : Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire , French zoologist († 1844 )
- April 18 : David Ricardo , British economist († 1823 )
- April 19 : Maria Therese von Artner , Austrian writer († 1829 )
- April 21 : Friedrich Christoph Perthes , German bookseller and publisher († 1843 )
- April 25 : James Burrill , American politician († 1820 )
- April 30 : Karl Gustav Himly , German ophthalmologist († 1837 )
- May 4 : Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus , German publisher († 1823 )
- May 12 : Heinrich Menu von Minutoli , Swiss explorer and archaeologist († 1846 )
- May 20 : William Congreve , British artilleryman, engineer and rocket technician († 1828 )
- May 27 : Marie Anne Lenormand , French fortune teller († 1843 )
- June 10 : David L. Morril , American politician († 1849 )
- June 14 : Ludwig Philipp Christian von Türcke , German lawyer († 1829 )
- June 17 : Martin Schrettinger , German priest and librarian († 1851 )
- June 22nd : Karl Heinrich Gottfried Lommatzsch , German Protestant clergyman († 1834 )
- June 26 : Johan Lorentz Aschan , Swedish entrepreneur († 1856 )
- July 1 : Johann Rudolf Fischer , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1800 )
- July 11 : Pietro Carlo Guglielmi , Italian composer († 1817 )
- July 30th : Ignaz zu Hardegg , Austrian cavalry general and President of the Court War Council († 1848 )
- August 2 : Louis Antoine Henri de Condé , Duke of Enghien († 1804 )
- August 8 : Wilhelm August Lampadius , German metallurgical chemist († 1842 )
- August 8 : Franz Paul Scholz , German clergyman, scientist and explorer († 1837 )
- August 9 : Christian Jakob von Schneider , German writer and publisher († 1829 )
- August 11 : Eduard Joseph d'Alton , Bavarian anatomist, archaeologist and engraver († 1840 )
- August 11 : Archibald Austin , American politician († 1837 )
- August 11 : Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill , British general († 1842 )
- August 15 : Johann Nepomuk Mälzel , Bavarian inventor and mechanic († 1838 )
- August 16 : Anton Bauer , German legal scholar († 1843 )
- August 20 : Ferdinand Bernhard Vietz , Austrian physician and botanist († 1815 )
- August 24 : Wilhelm I , first king of the Netherlands († 1843 )
- September 6 : Carl Gottlieb Bellmann , German musician († 1861 )
- September 14 : Josef Alois Gleich , Austrian civil servant and theater poet († 1841 )
- September 15 : Friedrich Konrad Hornemann , German African explorer († 1801 )
- September 16 : Friedrich Karl Rumpf , German literary scholar, rhetorician, Protestant theologian and classical philologist († 1824 )
- September 21 : John Samuel Peters , American politician, governor of Connecticut († 1858 )
- September 24 : Guillaume de Vaudoncourt , French general and war historian († 1845 )
- September 25 : Henrich zu Stolberg-Wernigerode , regent of the county of Wernigerode († 1854 )
- September 27 : Antonio Casimir Cartellieri , German composer († 1807 )
- September 27 : Gordon Drummond , British general († 1854 )
- September 27 : Sándor Kisfaludy , Hungarian poet and playwright († 1844 )
- October 9 : Mary Tighe , Irish writer († 1810 )
- October 20 : Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Autenrieth , German physician († 1835 )
- October 21 : Samuel Taylor Coleridge , British writer († 1834 )
- October 25 : Géraud-Christophe-Michel Duroc , French general and diplomat († 1813 )
- October 27 : Franz Peter Nick , German Catholic clergyman and university professor († 1825 )
- October 30 : Peter Irving , American writer († 1838 )
- October 31 : Carl Borromäus Egger , German Roman Catholic clergyman and politician († 1849 )
- November 8 : David Ferdinand Howaldt , German goldsmith († 1850 )
- November 8 : William Wirt , American lawyer and politician († 1834 )
- November 10 : Horace-François Sébastiani , French general and Marshal of France († 1851 )
- November 10 : Johann Nepomuk Kaňka junior , Bohemian lawyer and composer († 1865 )
- November 11th : August Hiller von Gaertringen , Prussian general († 1856 )
- November 18 : Louis Ferdinand Prince of Prussia , son of Prince Ferdinand of Prussia († 1806 )
- November 23 : Emil Leopold August , Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg († 1822 )
- November 23 : Johann Christoph Winters , German puppeteer and founder of the Hänneschen Theater in Cologne († 1862 )
- November 28 : Gottfried Hermann , German classical philologist († 1848 )
- December 2 : Johann Christoph von Aretin , German publicist, historian, librarian and lawyer († 1824 )
- December 11 : Immanuel Christian Leberecht von Ampach , German numismatist, art collector and patron († 1831 )
- December 11th : Hans Georg von Carlowitz , Saxon Minister († 1840 )
- December 12 : Bertrand Clausel , French general and Marshal of France († 1842 )
- December 26 : Friederike Julie Lisiewska , German portrait painter († 1856 )
- December 27 : Benjamin Williams Crowninshield , American politician († 1851 )
- December 29 : Louis-Simon Auger , French journalist and writer († 1829 )
- December 30 : Paul Christoph Gottlob Andreä , German legal scholar († 1824 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Matthias Joseph Anker , Austrian geologist († 1843 )
- Julius Miller , German musician († 1851 )
- Giacomo Monzino , Italian guitarist and composer († 1854 )
- Jenkin Whiteside , American politician († 1822 )
First half of the year
- January 14th : Maria von Hannover , Countess of Hessen-Kassel (* 1723 )
- January 14th : Susanna Margaretha Brandt , Frankfurt maid who killed her newborn child, role model for Goethe's Gretchen (* 1746 )
- March 12 : Franz de Paula Penz , Austrian pastor and church builder (* 1707 )
- March 21 : Jacques-Nicolas Bellin , French cartographer (* 1703 )
- March 22nd : John Canton , English physicist (* 1718 )
- March 29 : Emanuel Swedenborg , Swedish scientist, mystic and theologian (* 1688 )
- April 9 : Johann Joseph Resler , Austrian, civil and court sculptor (* 1702 )
- April 15 : Karl Josef Batthyány , Austrian general and field marshal (* 1697 )
- April 19 : Johann Peter Kellner , German composer (* 1705 )
- April 21 : Samuel Urlsperger , German Lutheran theologian (* 1685 )
- April 22nd : Marie Duronceray , wife of Charles-Simon Favart (* 1727 )
- April 28 : Johann Friedrich Struensee , German doctor and minister at the Danish court (* 1737 )
- May 1st : Gottfried Achenwall , German inventor of the term statistics (* 1719 )
- May 12 : Johann Friedrich Gühling , German Protestant theologian (* 1702 )
- May 25 : Johann Gottfried Teske , German physicist (* 1704 )
- June 4th : Johann Michael Feuchtmayer the Younger , German plasterer and sculptor (* 1709 )
- June 12 : Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne , French explorer (* 1724 )
- June 15 : Louis-Claude Daquin , French composer (* 1694 )
- June 18 : Johann Ulrich von Cramer , German lawyer and philosopher (* 1706 )
- June 18 : Gerard van Swieten , Austrian medic (* 1700 )
Second half of the year
- July 5 : Wolfgang Thomas Rau , German medic (* 1721)
- July 2 : Johann Georg Krafft , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1740 )
- July 6 : Karl Gottlob Sperbach , German philologist (* 1694 )
- August 14 : Ferdinand Karl Gobert von Aspremont-Lynden , Habsburg military (* 1689 )
- September 19 : Henriette-Louise de Bourbon , Abbess of Beaumont-lés-Tours (* 1703 )
- October 7 : John Woolman , North American traveling preacher and author (* 1720 )
- October 8 : Jean Cassanéa de Mondonville , French violin virtuoso and composer (* 1711 )
- October 16 : Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the Durrani state in what is now Afghanistan (* approx. 1722 )
- October 30 : Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem , German lawyer (* 1747 )
- November 15 : Johann Christian Senckenberg , Hessian doctor and naturalist (* 1707 )
- December 12th : Johann Gottfried Seyfert , German composer (* 1731 )
- December 29th : Ernst Johann von Biron , Duke of Courland (* 1690 )