Calendar overview 1769
|Clement XIV .||
Charles Messier discovers
comet Messier in 1769 .
Nicholas Cugnot presents his steam car in Paris.
The first trip ends at a wall.
|1769 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1217/18 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1761/62 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1175/76 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2312/13 (southern Buddhism); 2311/12 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1131/32 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4102/03 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1147/48 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1182/83 (May 6/7)|
|Jewish calendar||5529/30 (October 1-2)|
|Coptic calendar||1485/86 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2079/80 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2080/81 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1825/26 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- April 22nd : Marie-Jeanne Bécu, comtesse du Barry is presented to the French court. As a mistress she is soon King Louis XV. at your service.
- May 9 : The Corsican resistance fighters under Pasquale Paoli are defeated by the French under Governor Noël de Jourda, comte de Vaux , in the battle of Ponte Novu . The victory secures France the possession of the island acquired by Genoa . Paoli goes into exile in England. His adjutant Carlo Buonaparte held up the resistance in a cave on Corsica's second highest mountain, Monte Rotondo , for two weeks until a French parliamentarian brought him an invitation to negotiate with Count Vaux on May 23 . In CorteCount Vaux proposes to him and all freedom fighters a peace with amnesty and promises that France will protect the Corsican identity and promote the way of life and prosperity of Corsica. Since his wife is pregnant again, Buonaparte submits and receives all his goods back in Ajaccio .
- August 25 : After initial resistance, Maria Theresa it comes to meeting with Frederick II, Emperor Joseph II in Neisse in 1769.. .
Poland / Russia / Ottoman Empire
- After initial successes due to the withdrawal of Russian troops to the Turkish front, the Bar Confederation suffered two defeats on July 16 at Białystok and on September 13 at Orzechowo.
- September 17th : Russian troops cross the Dniester in the Russo-Turkish War and invade Moldova . The fortress of Chotin is enclosed after a victory, almost the entire Ottoman garrison refuses to serve arms after a panic. On October 7th, the Russians occupy the Moldovan capital Jassy and continue their advance south into Wallachia . On November 17 is Bucharest occupied. At the same time, troops of the Russian General Gottlob Curt Heinrich von Tottleben openthe war in the northern Caucasus . The Russians advance to the south of Georgia . Tottleben took a number of Ottoman fortresses and occupied the capital of the principality of Imereti , Kutaisi .
- May 7th : The era of Zemene Mesafint , the time of princes, begins in Ethiopia with the deposition of Emperor Joas I by Ras Michael Sehul . Joas is murdered a week later on Michael Sehul's orders. The new Emperor Yohannes II suffers the same fate on October 18th . The new Negus negest will be 15-year-old Tekle Haymanot II.
- Mazagan is abandoned by the Spanish after several attacks by Moroccan troops . That leaves Ceuta as the last remnant of the former Algarve across the sea .
- March 29 : The First Mysore War between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali ends with a defense pact dictated by the latter, which is signed in Madras. Hyder Ali now has a free hand to counterattack Maratha .
- The Siamese-Burmese War 1764–1769 ends with the expulsion of the Burmese from Siam by King Taksin . He also conquered the breakaway province of Khorat , thereby unifying the Siamese kingdom of Thonburi and invading Cambodia at short notice .
James Cook's first South Seas voyage
- Beginning of January: James Cook arrives on his first South Seas voyage in the Bay of Good Success on Le-Maire-Strasse / Tierra del Fuego . At the end of January he will circle Cape Horn with luck . The aim of the trip is to observe the transit of Venus in front of the sun, which takes place on June 3rd . The aim is to determine the distance between the sun and the earth .
- April 13th : James Cook arrives in Tahiti , the Endeavor anchors in the Endeavor lay in the Matavai Bay. At the end of May, the observatory is ready for use and the team is dedicated to exploring Tahiti.
- Mid-July: The Endeavor leaves Tahiti after successful observations, the local guide Tupaia is also on board . The expedition crosses between Tetiaroa , Moorea , Huahine , Bora Bora , Raiatea and leaves the Society Islands in mid-August with a south course. New Zealand is sighted in early October .
- October 7th : James Cook lands on New Zealand's North Island and takes possession of the land for the British Crown. It took six months to accurately map the country.
- December 25th : James Cook visits the Poor Knights Islands .
- March 16 : After a circumnavigation of the world of two years and four months, the frigate La Boudeuse , led by Louis Antoine de Bougainville and her escort ship L'Étoile, arrives in Saint-Malo in north-west France.
- March 20 : Philipp Carteret arrives with his barely seaworthy ship HMS Swallow after his second circumnavigation of the world in the English city of Spithead . On his voyage, he was separated from the main ship Dolphin , which was commanded by Samuel Wallis . On February 20th, the British expedition met the faster expedition of Bougainville on the Atlantic.
Viceroyalty of New Spain
- January 10 : On behalf of José de Gálvez y Gallardo , visitador general of the Viceroyalty of New Spain , Gaspar de Portolà sails north from La Paz to expand the possessions of Spain on the Pacific coast and the influence of Great Britain and Russia in the Pacific Ocean to push back. On February 15 another ship follows. On land, the advance will begin on March 24th under the leadership of Fernando Rivera y Moncada and on May 15 under the leadership of Portolà of the San Fernando Velicata Missionout. Portolà is accompanied by religious, missionaries and soldiers. The Franciscan Junípero Serra is also part of the expedition. The first ship arrives in San Diego Bay on April 11th . Gaspar de Portolá follows in June and set up a military post and Junipero Serra founded on July 16 , the Mission San Diego de Alcalá and celebrating there first exhibition, which is a founding date for San Diego is considered.
- July 14th : Gaspar de Portolà sets out from San Diego and sets off on El Camino Real , the royal road, in search of the Bay of Monterey . He reached Santa Barbara via Santa Monica on August 19th . They move on via San Simeon and finally, on October 1, after a march of about a thousand miles north, they reach the mouth of the Salinas River north of Monterey . The fog, however, obscures the coast, so that they march on until they see the San Francisco Bay , which is now known as the Golden Gatereach known strait. Then they march south again.
- After a rebellion by French settlers, the Spaniards take control of Louisiana again . The Spanish law collection Las Siete Partidas and the Coartación also regulate slavery in Spanish Louisiana . The Spanish release law is far more liberal than the French one and also enables the slaves to apply for their release themselves or to request a self-purchase.
- November 6th : Samuel Hearne undertakes an overland expedition on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company with the aim of providing evidence of the Northwest Passage , investigating the copper mines on the Coppermine River , exploring the tracts of land it has roamed, and establishing trade relations with the Hudson's Bay Company to move. The size of the expedition and the carrying of too much equipment lead to the desertion of his Indian companions and the failure of the expedition.
- November: The Falklands crisis begins between Great Britain and Spain when the Spanish ship San Felipe under captain Angel Santos meets the British sloop Tamar between West and East Falklands. Their commander, Anthony Hunt, invites Santos to join him, but he detains him briefly before dismissing him with the request to leave the Falkland Islands with his ship. As a result, both nations claim ownership rights to the islands .
- The Scot Alexander Gordon founded a distillery in the London borough of Southwark , which later became known as Gordon's Gin .
science and technology
- June 3 : The transit of Venus in 1769 is observed by numerous expeditions around the world. A total of 77 stations provide usable observation data. The results are significantly better than 1761 , but different evaluators still receive noticeably different results due to different calculation methods and different ways of combining the data.
- August 8 : Charles Messier discovers Comet 1769 Messier , the Great Comet of 1769. Over the next few months, the comet will be observed by many people around the world with telescopes and with free eyes. On September 10th it reaches its closest point to earth, on September 22nd its maximum apparent magnitude of 0 mag. The last observation was made on December 3rd by Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin .
- Nicholas Cugnot presents his steam car in Paris. The first trip ends at a wall.
- Richard Arkwright receives a patent for the Waterframe spinning machine , which heralds the industrial revolution with the automation of textile production .
Teaching and Research
- Maria Theresa founds a medical faculty at the university in Nagyszombat , Hungary, founded by Péter Pázmány in 1635 , which later developed into the Semmelweis University .
- The University of Pont-à-Mousson is moved to Nancy by royal edict and the University of Nancy is founded.
- January 5 : The piece Lucile of Jean François Marmontel also has the song be Où peut être mieux on qu'au de sa famille its premiere , which is the unofficial anthem of France during the Restoration period.
- May 1st : one year late , the opera buffa La finta semplice, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at the suggestion of Emperor Joseph II, is premiered in Salzburg . Rumors that the work was actually not composed by 12-year-old Wolferl himself, but by his father, delayed the performance. The libretto is by Marco Coltellini .
- June 22nd : The drama Ugolino by Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg has its world premiere in Berlin.
- July 9 : The Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique , built by Jakob Ignaz Hittorff on the Boulevard du Temple in Paris , opens. Because of its competition with the privileged theaters, it soon faces bans.
- December 9 : The Theater Royal in Edinburgh opens. The event is recorded in verse by James Boswell .
- The inventor Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen (1734–1804) constructed a "chess machine ", in which, however, a small chess player is hidden. The so-called " Turk " is a possible interpretation of the phrase " turks somewhat " or "a Turk build".
- The royal vineyard on Klausberg 'is laid out in Potsdam on behalf of Frederick the Great . Fruit and vines are grown on it to supply the royal court at the nearby Sanssouci Palace with fresh fruit.
- The Royal Clarence Hotel in Exeter is being built as Assembly Rooms .
- February 19th bis 19th May : Lorenzo Ganganelli after a three-month conclave and 185 ballots under the name Clement XIV. To the Pope selected. He solves Clemens XIII , who died on February 2nd . from. He was ordained bishop on May 28th and ascended the papal throne on June 4th .
- September 12th : With his first encyclical Decet quam maxime , the new Pope addresses the bishops of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In it he denounced the increasing abuse of taxes and duties paid to the bishops.
- December 12th : Pope Clement XIV publishes the encyclical Cum summi apostolatus , with which he takes up the tradition of the Holy Year . On the same date he also published the closely related encyclical Inscrutabili divinae sapientiae , with which he referred to the need for a jubilee year .
- January 1 : Johann Caspar Rahn , Swiss painter and drawing teacher († 1840 )
- January 5 : Ludwig Adolf Peter zu Sayn-Wittgenstein , Russian Field Marshal General († 1843 )
- January 10 : Michel Ney , French officer, Marshal of France, Duke of Elchingen, Prince of the Moscow River († 1815 )
- January 30th : Dietrich von Miltitz , Prussian general and founder of the Scharfenberger Kreis († 1853 )
- January 31 : Charles Cutts , American politician († 1846 )
- January 31 : André-Jacques Garnerin , French aviation pioneer, parachutist and inventor († 1823 )
- February 6 : Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn , Austrian cavalry general († 1862 )
- February 9 : Susette Gontard , German lover of the poet Friedrich Hölderlin († 1802 )
- February 13 : Ivan Krylov , Russian fabulous poet († 1844 )
- February 13 : José Antonio Picasarri , Argentine clergyman and musician († 1843 )
- February 17 : Carl Joseph Pratobevera , Austrian lawyer († 1853 )
- March 1 : François Séverin Marceau , French general († 1796 )
- March 3 : Laurent Mourguet , French puppeteer and creator of various famous hand puppets († 1844 )
- March 11 : Hans Joachim Steinmann , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1836 )
- March 12 : Archibald Campbell , British general († 1843 )
- March 23 : Augustin-Daniel Belliard , French general († 1832 )
- March 23 : William Smith , English engineer and geologist († 1839 )
- March 24 : Christian August Scheller , Privy Councilor of Justice († 1848 )
- March 28 : Adolph Wilhelm Schack von Staffeldt , Danish romantic poet († 1826 )
- March 28 : Friedrich Georg von Stein , German officer and landowner († 1851 )
- March 29 : Friedrich Accum , German chemist († 1838 )
- March 29 : Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult , French general and Marshal of France († 1851 )
- April 1 : Franz Xaver von Pflimmern , Bavarian civil servant († 1851 )
- April 2 : Georg Walter Vincent von Wiese , Prussian Vice Chancellor of the Princely House of Reuss zu Gera († 1824 )
- April 5 : Thomas Masterman Hardy , British naval officer, admiral († 1839 )
- April 11 : Jean Lannes , French general, Marshal of France († 1809 )
- April 11 : František Vladislav Hek , Czech patriot, poet and publicist († 1847 )
- April 13 : Thomas Lawrence , British painter († 1830 )
- April 14 : Barthélemy-Catherine Joubert , French general († 1799 )
- April 16 : Bahne Asmussen , Frisian pastor, poet, and teacher († 1844 )
- April 24 : Johann Wilhelm Aschenberg , German pastor († 1819 )
- May 1 : Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington , British general and statesman († 1852 )
- May 6 : Ferdinand III. , Grand Duke of Tuscany, Elector of Salzburg and Grand Duke of Würzburg († 1824 )
- May 6 : Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette , French mathematician († 1834 )
- May 11 : Samuel Ludwig Löffler , German civil servant († 1836 )
- May 25 : Friedrich von der Betten , Hanoverian general field master and diplomat († 1840 )
- May 27 : Gustav Alexander Bielitz , German lawyer († 1841 )
- May 30 : Friedrich Hansmann , honorary citizen of Berlin († 1836 )
- May 31 : Johann Traugott Leberecht Danz , German Lutheran church historian and theologian († 1851 )
- June 1 : Joseph Xaver Elsner , Polish composer († 1854 )
- June 5 : Edward Daniel Clarke , English mineralogist († 1822 )
- June 10 : Jean-François Vuarin , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman († 1843 )
- June 15 : Jean-Baptiste Berton , French general († 1822 )
- June 18 : Robert Stewart , English statesman († 1822 )
- June 24th : August Ferdinand Bernhardi , German linguist and writer († 1820 )
- June 25 : Ferdinand Friedrich , Duke of Anhalt-Köthen († 1830 )
- June 26 : George Samuel Browne, 8th Viscount Montagu , English lord and tourist († 1793 )
- June 30 : Pierre Derbigny , American politician, governor of Louisiana († 1829 )
- July 1 : Giovanni Salucci , Italian architect († 1845 )
- July 23 : Alexei Titow , Russian composer († 1827 )
- July 28 : Hudson Lowe , British general and governor of St. Helena († 1844 )
- August 4th : Wassili Stassow , Russian builder († 1848 )
- August 5 : Wilhelm Carl Ferdinand von Ahlefeldt-Laurvigen , Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Lübeck Cathedral († 1852 )
- August 7th : Karl Kajetan von Gaisruck , Archbishop of Milan and Cardinal († 1846 )
- August 7 : Johann Christian August Grohmann , German philosopher, psychologist and rhetorician († 1847 )
- August 15 : Napoleone Buonaparte , Corsican nobleman, French general and Emperor of the French († 1821 )
- August 15 : Johann Philipp von Ladenberg , honorary citizen of Berlin († 1847 )
- August 17th : Peter Alois Gratz , Bavarian Catholic biblical scholar († 1849 )
- August 23 : Georges Cuvier , French naturalist († 1832 )
- August 27 : Johann Adam Freiherr von Aretin , Bavarian politician († 1822 )
- August 30 : Bonifazio Asioli , Italian music theorist, music pedagogue, harpsichordist, conductor and composer († 1832 )
- September 8 : Johann Horkel , German physician and plant physiologist († 1846 )
- September 8 : Mariano de Urquijo y Muga , Spanish politician and representative of the Enlightenment († 1817 )
- September 9 : Cornelis Felix van Maanen , Dutch statesman († 1846 )
- September 9 : Ivan Kotlyarevsky , Ukrainian poet († 1838 )
- September 11th : Johann Erdmann Hummel , German painter († 1852 )
- September 14 : Alexander von Humboldt , German naturalist and explorer († 1859 )
- September 16 : Karl Albert von Kamptz , Prussian Minister of State and Justice († 1849 )
- September 22nd : Johann Hüsgen , Prussian priest and vicar general († 1841 )
- October 2 : Joseph McIlvaine , American politician († 1826 )
- October 6 : Isaac Brock , British general († 1812 )
- October 10 : Benjamin Christoph Gimmerthal , German Protestant clergyman († 1837 )
- October 23 : James Ward , British painter († 1859 )
- October 24 : James Pleasants , American politician († 1836 )
- October 26 : Friedrich Reinhard Ricklefs , German classical philologist and grammar school director († 1827 )
- October 28 : Simón Rodríguez , Venezuelan pedagogue, philosopher, utopian socialist and tutor († 1854 )
- October 28 : Johann Christian Stark the Younger , German doctor († 1837 )
- October 29 : Georg von Hofmann , Austrian playwright and librettist († 1845 )
- November 1 : Garlieb Helwig Merkel , German-Baltic publicist and writer († 1850 )
- November 3 : Ernst Gottlieb Bengel , German theologian († 1826 )
- November 8 : Michael Bille , Danish-Norwegian and Prussian naval officer († 1845 )
- November 18 : August Christian Friedrich , Duke of Anhalt-Köthen († 1812 )
- November 19 : Elise Bürger , Württemberg poet, third wife of Gottfried August Bürger († 1833 )
- December 17th : Christian Friedrich von Cochenhausen , Hessian Lieutenant General and Minister of War, founder of the library († 1839 )
- December 22nd : Franz Abart , South Tyrolean sculptor († 1863 )
- December 22nd : Johann Philipp Christian Aulenbach , German pastor and poet († 1844 )
- December 24th : Franz Alexander von Kleist , Prussian poet († 1797 )
- December 26 : Ernst Moritz Arndt , German scholar and national poet († 1860 )
- December: James Lloyd , American politician († 1831 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- George Anson , British politician († 1849 )
- John Roger Arnold , English watchmaker († 1843 )
- Christoph Franz Dangel , German lawyer and politician († 1841 )
- William Daniell , British painter († 1837 )
- Álvaro Flórez Estrada , Spanish economist († 1853 )
- Joseph Haslet , American politician († 1823 )
- Daniil Kashin , Russian composer († 1841 )
- Karel Postl , Czech classical landscape painter, draftsman and graphic artist († 1818 )
- Henry S. Thibodaux , American politician († 1827 )
- Nicholas Ware , American politician († 1824 )
- January 7th : Johann Thomas Wagner , German sculptor (* 1691 )
- January 16 : Johan Pasch , Swedish painter (* 1706 )
- January 20 : Friedrich Christian , Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (* 1708 )
- January 24th : Marie Elisabeth von Ahlefeldt , conventual and lady-in-waiting of Princess Louise of Denmark and Norway (* 1719 )
- January 27 : Matthias Amoor , Dutch organ builder in Groningen
- February 2 : Carlo (della Torre) Rezzonico, under the name of Clement XIII. Pope (* 1693 )
- February 6 : Georg Friedrich Baermann , German mathematician (* 1717 )
- February 13 : Johann Hildebrand Withof , Prussian professor of eloquence and history in Duisburg (* 1694 )
- February 15 : Johann Balthasar Bernhold , German Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1687 )
- April 3 : Gerhard Tersteegen , German mystic and poet of hymns (* 1697 )
- April 3 : Johann Conrad Wirz , Swiss Antistes from Zurich (* 1688 )
- April 20 : Pontiac , (war) chief of the Ottawa tribe (* between 1712 and 1720)
- April 24 : Philipp Friedrich Hiller , German pastor and hymn poet (* 1699 )
- May 14 : Joas I , Negus negest (emperor) of Ethiopia (* 1755 )
- May 16 : Andreas Rehberger , German Protestant clergyman and hymn poet (* 1716 )
- May 30th : Francesco Fontebasso , Venetian painter (* 1707 )
- June 4th : Giambattista Lolli , Italian chess player (* 1698 )
- June 17th : Gustav Friedrich von Rosen , Livonian general in the Swedish service (* 1688 )
- July 18 : Christoph Jacob Trew German doctor and botanist (* 1695 )
- July 29th : Andreas Elias Büchner , German physician (* 1701 )
- October 12 : Johann Christian Ernesti , German Protestant theologian (* 1695 )
- October 13 : Vito D'Anna , Sicilian painter (* 1718 )
- October 14 : Francesco Corradini , Italian composer (* around 1700 )
- October 18 : Yohannes II , Negus negest (Emperor) of Ethiopia (* 1699 )
- October 21 : Johann Samuel Agner , German clergyman and writer (* 1701 )
- November 6th : Carl Friedrich Kaltschmied , German medic (* 1706 )
- November 23 : Constantin Mavrocordat , Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldova (* 1711 )
- November 27 : Kamo no Mabuchi , Japanese poet and literary scholar (* 1697 )
- December 8 : Joseph Friedrich Ernst , Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (* 1702 )
- December 13 : Christian Fürchtegott Gellert , German poet (* 1715 )