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Finis Poloniae 1831
After almost a year, Russian troops crush
the November uprising of the Poles .
Sir James Clark Ross, by John R. Wildman, 1833–1834, National Maritime Museum, London
James Clark Ross discovers the Magnetic North Pole .
Pope Gregory XVI.
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari is called Gregory XVI. Pope.
1831 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1279/80 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1823/24 (September 11-12)
Bengali solar calendar 1236/37 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2374/75 (southern Buddhism); 2373/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 75th (76th) cycle

Year of the metal rabbit辛卯 ( at the beginning of the year metal tiger庚寅)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1193/94 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4164/65 (October 2-3)
Iranian calendar 1209/10
Islamic calendar 1246/1247 (turn of the year June 11th / 12th)
Jewish calendar 5591/92 (September 7/8)
Coptic Calendar 1547/48 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1006/07
Seleucid era Babylon: 2141/42 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2142/43 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1887/88 (April)


Politics and world events

Polish November Uprising

Battle of Grochów, historical painting by Bogdan Willewalde

Brazil / Portugal

Emperor Peter II of Brazil (portrait by Victor Meirelles de Lima )

Belgian revolution

King Leopold I (painting by Franz Xaver Winterhalter in the red reception room of Ehrenburg Palace in Coburg)
Dutch troops in Belgium during the ten-day campaign (lithograph 1831)
  • August 2nd: King William I of the Netherlands, not recognizing the result of the Belgian Revolution, allows troops to march into Belgium. They take Turnhout on August 3rd . In the next few days the Belgian vigilante loses all along the line, Antwerp is conquered, the Dutch army faces Lions . Leopold I then opened the borders for the French army on August 8th. A truce is concluded on August 12th.
  • August 20: The last Dutch troops leave Belgium. Only in the citadel of Antwerp does a Dutch occupation remain.

Other events in Europe

Street fighting in front of the Saint-Nizier church in Lyon in 1831 (illustration from the 19th century)

middle East



  • March 31: The Mainz Act regulates shipping on the Rhine as an international agreement . In 1868 the agreement in the Mannheim Act was revised.
  • October 20: The Madrid Stock Exchange , founded by King Ferdinand VII of Spain, experiences its first day of trading.
  • November 21st: The silk weavers' revolt begins in Lyon . They protest against the employers' failure to apply minimum wages agreed between the collective bargaining partners in October. Gunfire by the police in the demonstration led to open rioting.

science and technology


Lewis chess pieces

Natural sciences

Induction: A moving permanent magnet generates an electrical voltage at the terminals of a coil

Teaching and Research



Technical inventions


Visual arts

Mosaic "Battle of Alexander"


Music and theater

Zampa , scene from the second act
Poster for the premiere
Theater bill of the premiere




Coming from India via Russia, a violent cholera epidemic is spreading in northern Central Europe.

nature and environment

In July, the island of Ferdinandea is formed for a short time south of Sicily due to volcanic activity , but it sinks again under the sea surface in December.


January February

Eduard Wölfflin, 1911
Leo von Caprivi, 1880

March April

Friedrich von Bodelschwingh the Elder, 1906

May June

James Clerk Maxwell

July August

Werner Hagedorn
John Pemberton

September October

Victorien Sardou
Friedrich III., 1874

November December

Harry Atkinson
James A. Garfield

Exact date of birth unknown

Subh-i-Azal, Captive 1889–1890

Born around 1831

  • Sitting Bull , chief and medicine man of the Hunkpapa-Lakota-Sioux († 1890)


First quarter

Barthold Georg Niebuhr (drawing by Louise Seidler )
Achim von Arnim

Second quarter

James Lloyd
Freiherr vom Stein

Third quarter

General Langéron
August Neidhardt von Gneisenau

Fourth Quarter

Ioannis Kapodistrias
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, 1831

Web links

Commons : 1831  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files