Justus von Liebig

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Justus von Liebig, ca.1866
Signature Justus von Liebig.PNG

Justus Liebig , from 1845 Justus Freiherr von Liebig (* May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt , † April 18, 1873 in Munich ), was a German chemist and university professor in Giessen and Munich . Liebig recognized that plants absorb important inorganic nutrients in the form of salts and, through his research, founded modern mineral fertilization and the beginning of agrochemistry . He developed a manufacturing process for beef extracts as well as modern analysis methods and founded the renowned journal Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie . At the same time as two other researchers, he discovered the anesthetic chloroform .


Childhood, school and apprenticeship

Justus Liebig was born as the son of the chemist and paint dealer Johann Georg Liebig and his wife Maria Caroline Liebig, née. Fuchs called Moeser was born in Darmstadt. He belonged to the Darmstadt branch of the Liebig family . His baptismal name was Johann Justus.

At an early age he experimented with the materials he found in his father's workshop and developed a strong affinity for chemistry. The chemical experiments that were performed by showmen at fairs aroused his interest, especially the production of cracked peas, where he first got to know the cracked mercury .

He finished attending the Ludwig-Georgs-Gymnasium in Darmstadt in his secondary school . One of his teachers rated his intellectual abilities with the words: “You are a sheep's head! For you it's not even enough to become a pharmacy apprentice. ”In fact, Liebig broke off an apprenticeship as a pharmacist with Gottfried Pirsch (1792–1870) in Heppenheim prematurely after about a year because he had caused a roof truss fire in the pharmacy during his private experiments with bright silver .

He returned to Darmstadt and helped his father in the workshop. On the side, he often visited the grand ducal library to study chemistry as an autodidact from books and through private studies.


Justus Liebig as a young student in 1821, drawing from 1843

Through his father's mediation, Justus Liebig began studying chemistry in Bonn in autumn 1819 with Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner , whom Liebig had already met in his father's business, who quickly recognized his talent and employed him as an assistant in his laboratory. As Kastner 1821 a call to the University of Erlangen assumed he was succeeded Liebig, where he started his doctoral dissertation about the relationship of mineral chemistry to chemical plants , thus became a doctorate 1822 to the doctor of philosophy and joined the Corps of Rhenania I. In March 1822 Liebig, who was also a member of the Bonn and Erlangen fraternity from 1820/22, took part in demonstrations by the liberal-minded students against the authorities. As a result, the police wanted him and had to flee home.

A little later, through his advocacy and recommendation from Grand Duke Ludwig I of Hesse , his teacher Karl Kastner obtained that Liebig received a two-year scholarship to study at the Sorbonne University in Paris , at that time a leading center for chemistry. Liebig began studying chemistry there in 1823. Here he analyzed minerals, among other things, and learned the most progressive chemistry classes of the time from Professors Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac , Louis Jacques Thénard and Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin . The French chemists Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Théophile-Jules Pelouze also contributed to his chemical training.

Professorship in Giessen

He soon emerged with his own work on fiery mercury , which made the German natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt , who also worked in Paris, aware of him. Through his recommendation to the Hessian Grand Duke, Liebig, who was only 21 years old, became an associate professor of chemistry at the Ludwig University of Giessen on May 26, 1824 ; on December 7, 1825, he became a full professor of chemistry and pharmacy. His working conditions reflected the previously poor reputation of the chemical faculty: his salary was low and he received minimal allowances for equipment, chemicals, coal, etc. He had to pay for a lot of urgently needed equipment and materials out of his own pocket in order to be able to teach at all. Nevertheless, he quickly found great interest and support among the Giessen students because of his teaching methods.

In 1826 Justus Liebig met Friedrich Wöhler , with whom he did research and was on friendly terms. In the same year he married Henriette Moldenhauer.

Liebig's Giessen laboratory, around 1841, illustration after a painting by Wilhelm Trautschold

In order to alleviate his financial problems, he ran a private institute for pharmacy and technical trade from 1827 to 1833, where he trained pharmacy assistants and future heads of technical trades together with Professors Hermann Umpfenbach , Friedrich Christian Gregor Wernekink and Georg Gottlieb Schmidt . He thus laid the foundation for his journal Annalen der Pharmacie , founded in 1832 , later generally known as Liebig's Annalen and highly regarded in Great Britain by the Chemical Society .

His teaching method, his discoveries and his writings soon made him known worldwide, with the result that, in addition to many Germans, numerous foreigners, including 84 Englishmen and 18 Americans, came to Giessen to listen to Liebig's lectures on chemistry and pharmacy. Important students of his were August Wilhelm von Hofmann , who studied with Liebig from 1836 to 1845, obtained his doctorate and qualified as his assistant, and the doctor and chemist Johann Joseph von Scherer in Würzburg. In 1843 Liebig was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences .

Liebig declined appointments to the universities of Reval 1827, Göttingen 1835, St. Petersburg 1839, Vienna 1841, London 1845 and Heidelberg 1851, but was always able to improve his financial and professional situation by negotiating with the responsible ministry. Liebig received a medical doctorate from the University of Göttingen in 1847.

In 1845, at his own request, he was ennobled by Grand Duke Ludwig II of Hesse for his services with the title of baron .

Change to Munich

Justus von Liebig (approx. 1860)
Liebig's grave in the Old Southern Cemetery Location
Bust of Justus Liebig on his grave; the bronze bust was created by the sculptor Michael Wagmüller

Finally, the University of Munich sounded out through Professor Max von Pettenkofer for an appointment. King Maximilian II of Bavaria invited Liebig personally, offered him in a private audience the construction of a new chemical institute with an adjoining house and assured him extensive freedom in teaching and research. Liebig accepted the appointment as professor of chemistry and taught in Munich from 1852. His successor in Giessen was his student Heinrich Will .

In the 1850s, Justus von Liebig succeeded in coating glass bodies with a silver solution and giving them a mirror-like shine. Liebig wanted to use it to improve his scientific device.

Around 1860 the photo chemist and later inventor Johann Baptist Obernetter became Liebig's assistant.

In Munich , Liebig was made a corresponding or honorary member by many scientific associations at home and abroad and received numerous honors and orders from ruling rulers around the world. When he developed the superphosphate fertilizer, he was a co-founder of the "Bavarian Corporation for Chemical and Agricultural-Chemical Manufacturers" (BAG, plant in Heufeld ) based in Munich, which existed until 2012 under the name Süd-Chemie and is now part of the Swiss Clariant -Group is. On December 15, 1859 he was appointed President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences . He held this office until his death. In 1870 he was made an honorary citizen of the city of Munich. In 1859 he was also elected a member of the Leopoldina . In 1830 he became a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg , in 1833 of the Prussian Academy of Sciences , and in 1840 a foreign member of the Royal Society , whose Copley Medal he received in the same year. In 1842 he was admitted to the Académie des Sciences in Paris and in 1867 to the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.

Justus Liebig died on April 18, 1873 in Munich at a pneumonia and the population was born on April 21, buried under large sympathy.


Justus Liebig's grave is located in the Old Southern Cemetery in Munich (grave field 40, row 12, place 11 - location ). Due to the family ties, members of the Liebig and Carriere families are in the grave . The sculptor Anselm Sickinger designed the tomb . Michael Wagmüller created the bust of Justus von Liebig . Originally it was made of marble and protected by a glass case. It was later replaced by a bronze copy.

Offspring and relatives

Justus Liebig married Henriette Moldenhauer in Darmstadt in 1828, the daughter of war councilor , court and court chamber councilor Michael August Wilhelm Moldenhauer. He had five children with her, including the physician Georg von Liebig and the agricultural scientist Hermann von Liebig as well as the daughters Agnes (married to the philosopher Moritz Carrière ) and Johanna (married to the surgeon Carl Thiersch ).

His descendants also include the painter Clara Harnack (granddaughter), the chemist Hans von Liebig (grandson), the government councilor Eugen von Liebig (grandson), the geneticist Max Delbrück (great-grandson), the women's rights activist Agnes von Zahn-Harnack (great-granddaughter) , the athlete Luz Long (great-great-grandson), the psychiatrist Bern Carrière and the actors Mathieu , Till and Mareike Carrière .

The Boßler family from southern Hesse was born through Elisabeth Margaretha Liebig. Boßler, the wife of Justus Liebig's uncle Johann Jacob Liebig, is related to the family tree and the descendants of the great chemist Liebig. Justus Liebig's other relatives also include the chemist Friedrich Konrad Beilstein , who was also one of Liebig's students.

Scientific work

Liebig began his scientific work in Gießen with the investigation of Hessian and Bavarian medicinal springs and their utilization for salt production . In doing so, he quickly realized that the analysis methods of the time were very tedious and provided comparatively inaccurate results.

Liebig's potash apparatus

In years of attempts he succeeded in perfecting the analysis equipment, but above all the elemental analysis , i. H. to simplify and accelerate the determination of the elementary composition of animal and plant parts using the five-ball apparatus (originally called the Kali apparatus ) developed by him in 1831 and other changes. Together with his colleagues and students, he examined hundreds of plants and plant parts and many organs and products of animals for their composition and published their results. In doing so, he practically founded organic chemistry , because no one had previously been able to carry out so many precise and always verifiable investigations.

He examined, among other things, highly explosive salts ( fulminates ; Knallsäure ), organic acids , uric acid , sulfur cyanides and products of alcohol oxidation.

Together with his friend Friedrich Wöhler, who worked at the Höhere Gewerbeschule (Polytechnikum) in Kassel (and in 1836 followed a call to the chair of chemistry and pharmacy in Göttingen ), he developed the radical theory in 1832 , which explains the multitude of substances that only consist of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon (see also the history of the substitution reaction ).

Also with Wöhler, he discovered isomerism using the example of flawless silver on the one hand and silver cyanate on the other . H. the fact that two different substances can have the same composition but different structure and properties.

In 1831, at the same time as other researchers, he discovered chloroform , which he called "chlorocarbon" , the exact chemical composition of which was clarified three years later by Liebig's teacher Dumas, who also called the substance "chloroform" for the first time in 1834 Decades later as one of the first narcotics was used in medicine.

His main interest during his time in Giessen was the promotion of agriculture with the aim of preventing the sometimes devastating famines of the time - he had experienced one himself in 1816 in the year without a summer . He summarized his findings in this field in two works in 1840 and 1842: Organic chemistry in its application to agriculture and physiology , or agricultural chemistry for short , and Thierchemie or organic chemistry in its application to physiology and pathology . These two books caused a tremendous sensation, not only among scientists, but among all educated people of his time. The agricultural chemistry , in which he advocated the use of mineral fertilizers and explained its importance for the quality and yield of the plants experienced nine editions and was also translated into 34 languages.

Five-ball apparatus (modern replica)
CO 2 compressor in Liebig's private laboratory

In his private laboratory he devoted himself from 1846 to 1849 a. a. the development of a water-soluble phosphate fertilizer , together with his English students Edward Frankland and James Sheridan Muspratt . The result was what is known as superphosphate, which is still the most widely used phosphate fertilizer in the world today. The fertilizer improved the harvest and thus the food supply in the second half of the 19th century.

Liebig achieved worldwide recognition through his research at the Giessen Institute, through his pioneering teaching methods, especially his experimental lectures, and through his publications in the fields of chemistry, pharmacy, physiology and agriculture. His laboratory in Giessen became a Mecca for chemists from all over the world.

In Munich he moved into a house built entirely according to his wishes and the chemical institute next to it. In the following years he also gave lectures to the students here, but to a greatly reduced extent. He left most of the lectures and internships to his assistants.

When the daughter of his friend James Muspratt fell ill with cholera in his house in 1852 , it gave him the idea of ​​developing a “meat infusion” with which people with severe stomach and intestinal diseases could be saved from death. He later developed "Liebig's meat extract" from this infusion .

Piston with silver mirror

He also worked on the development of a silver mirror instead of the mercury level that was common up until that point, but was dangerous to health. The mirror production he had initiated in 1858 had to be discontinued after a few years because the population preferred mercury levels. It was only when these were banned in 1886 because of their toxicity that there was a general transition to silver mirror manufacture.

In order to keep babies from poor, poorly nourished families from starvation for health or other reasons, for whom no breast milk or wet nurse was available, Liebig developed a "soup for babies", as he called the product, after lengthy research recommended in newspapers. It was an early forerunner of today's baby food.

Liebig invested a lot of time and work in creating a chemical mixture with which one could bake bread without having to rely on the perishable yeast. Together with his American student Eben Norton Horsford , these experiments led to a product that we now call baking powder . In America, Horsford had great financial success with baking powder . In Germany the baking powder became widespread from 1892, because August Oetker recommended the baking powder not to bakers for baking bread, but to housewives for baking cakes. Justus Liebig was denied the breakthrough because the housewives at that time had no precise scales at their disposal. Oetker's idea of ​​offering the filling and dosage size for a certain amount of flour that had to be weighed well (1 pound) made economic success possible, even if not for Liebig.

The greatest publicity for Liebig was the development of his meat extract. It was the further development of his meat infusion produced in 1852 and was initially only sold to a small extent in Munich pharmacies. It was not until the German engineer Georg Christian Giebert received a license for large-scale production in Uruguay from Liebig in 1862 that "Liebig's meat extract " was produced in huge quantities in Fray Bentos and sold worldwide. According to Liebig's ideas, the meat extract should be a nutrient primarily for the poorer population. However, the relatively high price and its composition did not allow this. Ultimately, the meat extract proved to be a very popular condiment for soups and dishes. The extract thus became the forerunner of today's common spices such as Maggi wort and Knorr . The meat extract was sold in packs with collector's pictures. These so-called Liebig pictures enjoyed great popularity for decades. From 1873 to 1975 over 7000 series of these Liebig pictures were published.

In the last years of his life Liebig dealt with the physiology of fermentation and, in his chemical explanation, had the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur as a bitter opponent. Liebig took the view that cell-free fermentation was possible, while Pasteur only believed in fermentation in the presence of microorganisms . In the end, research has proven both right: there is fermentation linked to microorganisms, for example the yeast fermentation of alcohol, but also cell-free fermentation, for example muscle fermentation .

Liebig's most important discoveries
Radical theory Mineral fertilizers
Theory of isomerism Meat extract
Five-ball apparatus Silver mirror
Superphosphate Iron-nickel alloy 
Chloroform and chloral  baking powder
Pyrogallol Baby food

Liebig's Law of the Minimum is named after Liebig , which originally came from Carl Philipp Sprengel , but was purposefully distributed and made known by Liebig - in an expanded form. In Sprengel's version, the important non-material factors such as warmth, light, etc., which Liebig then included, were still missing. The Liebig cooler was not invented by Liebig, as assumed, but was used much earlier, but it was popularized by Liebig.


Significance for organic chemistry

Thank you letter from Justus Liebig to Heinrich Emanuel Merck

Justus Liebig went down in history as one of the best-known and most successful chemists of his century and as the founder of agrochemistry. In addition, his experimental and theoretical findings pointed the way for the entire development of organic chemistry .

Through his literary work he had a great influence on the development of his field. From 1832 he was, together with Philipp Lorenz Geiger and Rudolph Brandes, editor of the then authoritative scientific journal Annalen der Pharmacie (later Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie and Liebig's Annalen der Chemie ). Alone or together with his colleagues Poggendorff, Geiger and Wöhler, he published various trend-setting textbooks and reference works from 1837.

Founder of agrochemistry

Chemical letters , title page

In 1840 he published his fundamental work on agricultural chemistry . In the early days of its publication, its basic statements were controversial and considered incompetent by science and practical agriculture. It was only around 20 years after the publication of Agricultural Chemistry that Liebig received broad scientific recognition. Since then, the practical application of his teaching has led to an increase in crop yields. The nutrition of industrially and metropolitan organized societies would not be possible without knowledge of Liebig's basic agricultural and chemical statements. In Germany, for example, agricultural production increased by 90% between 1873 and 1913. In addition to the mechanization of agriculture and scientifically based animal breeding, this increase was based in particular on the use of fertilizers obtained by mining or industrially produced fertilizers.

Chemical letters

In order to bring the knowledge of chemistry closer to a broader public, Liebig wrote so-called chemical letters , popular scientific treatises, which appeared in the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung at irregular intervals and which were very well received by the readers.

Experimental teaching

Justus Liebig introduced experimental teaching in the natural sciences with his lectures. Through his research in the field of analytics, chemistry became an exact science. On the occasion of his 200th birthday, the Science Year 2003 was celebrated as the "Year of Chemistry".

Teacher of eminent chemists

Chemical research of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was based on Liebig's findings and methods. Among the first 60 Nobel Prize winners in chemistry, 42 were successors of his students.

International company formation

Monument in Fray Bentos

The name Liebig and its invention became known worldwide primarily through the international Liebig's Extract of Meat Company, founded in London in 1865 with headquarters in Fray Bentos (Uruguay) and through their products, logos and advertising. In 1964 the Liebig Co. and the world tea company Brook Bond & Company (founded in Manchester by Arthur Brook in 1869) merged to form Brook Bond Liebig Co. and later became the Unilever Group (founded in 1874 by the Lever brothers, from 1929 Unilever ) accepted. The Liebig concentrate cubes were still a common household food item in France and Belgium in the 1950s under the name Cubes Liebig (pronunciation: "Küb Lie-ebig").


  • A few remarks on the preparation and composition of Brugnatellian and Howard fuzzy silver. In: Repertory for Pharmacy. Volume 12. Nuremberg 1822, pp. 412-426 ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ).
  • About the compounds which arise from the action of chlorine on alcohol, ether, oil-forming gas, and spirit. In: To. Pharm. Volume 1, 1832, pp. 182-230 ( free full text in the Google book search).
  • Instructions for the analysis of organic bodies 1837, Vieweg Verlag , Braunschweig, ( digitized / facsimile ); 2nd edition 1853 ( archive.org ).
  • Organic chemistry in its application to physiology and pathology. Braunschweig 1842 ( digitized version ).
  • Chemistry in its application to agriculture and physiology 1840, Verlag Vieweg Braunschweig ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ); 5. corr. and very increased edition 1843. ( free full text in the Google book search).
  • About the study of the natural sciences and about the state of chemistry in Prussia . Vieweg, Braunschweig 1840 ( digitized version ).
  • Animal chemistry, or organic chemistry in its application to physiology and pathology, 1842, Vieweg Braunschweig publishing house ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ); 2nd ed. 1843.
  • Liebig, Geiger: Handbook of organic chemistry - with consideration for pharmacy 1843, Verlag Winter , Leipzig and Heidelberg ( digitized version ).
  • About some urea compounds and a new method for the determination of table salt and urea in urine. In: Ann. Pharm. Volume 85, 1853, pp. 289-328 ( free full text in the Google book search).
  • Liebig, Poggendorff, Wöhler: Concise dictionary of pure and applied chemistry Verlag Vieweg Braunschweig, 1st volume, 1842, ( archive.org ); 2nd volume, 2nd edition 1858 ( archive.org ); Volume 3, 1848 ( archive.org ).
  • About theory and practice in agriculture. Brunswick 1856.
  • About the behavior of the topsoil to the water-soluble nutrients of the plants. Munich, Cotta , 1858 ( free full text in the Google book search).
  • Chemical letters (No. 1–33) Leipzig and Heidelberg, 3rd edition. 1851 ( archive.org ) and Chemical Letters (No. 1–50) 1865 - cheap edition 1865, Verlag Winter, Leipzig and Heidelberg ( digitized version ).
  • About fermentation, about the source of muscle strength and nutrition. Leipzig 1870 ( digitized ).
  • Soup for babies. 3. Edition. Braunschweig 1877 ( digitized version ).


During his lifetime he was honored by John Laurence Smith , who named a new mineral he discovered in 1848, which Liebigit named after him.

Also a plant genus Liebigia Endl. from the Gesneriae family (Gesneriaceae) is named after him.

In the years after Liebig's death, Liebig monuments were erected to him in some cities in Germany . a. in Munich on Maximiliansplatz (1883), in Darmstadt on Luisenplatz and in Gießen on the Ostanlage. The original large Gießen Liebig monument, created by Fritz Schaper in 1890 , was destroyed in 1945, but the head could be transferred to the new, simpler monument in 1952.

His laboratory, which can now be visited as the Liebig Museum , has also been preserved in Liebigstrasse, which is named after him . A memorial plaque of the Society of German Chemists (GDCh) attached to the museum honors Liebig's work in Giessen as part of the Historic Sites of Chemistry program .

The former Giessen Ludwigs University was after the Second World War in Justus Liebig University renamed. A building belonging to the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna is also named after Liebig. The high school in Neusäß was renamed Justus-von-Liebig-Gymnasium in 1982, and the Liebig School in Gießen has also existed since 1937 .

From 1953 until it was dissolved after the fall of the Wall (1989/1990), the Magdeburg School of Engineering for Chemistry was named after Liebig. A bust of Liebig, created in 1953 by Max Roßdeutscher , still stands in front of the building .

In recognition of his achievements, two prizes were associated with his name, the Justus von Liebig Prize for World Food and the Liebig Wöhler Friendship Prize .

In the Maxdorf BASF estate , a street was named after him Liebigstrasse. The main office of the Darmstadt City Library and the Darmstadt Adult Education Center are housed in the Justus Liebig House named after him. The Liebig House in Namibia bears his name. In 2009 the thermal bath in Bad Salzhausen , whose brine water he once examined, was renamed Justus von Liebig-Therme .

The researcher Ernest Giles named Mount Liebig in the Northern Territory in Australia after the world-famous German. In 1935 the lunar crater Liebig was named after him. Since 1960 he has also given its name to Liebig Peak in the Antarctic. In 2004 the asteroid (69286) was named after him by Liebig .

In the hometown of his ancestors Groß-Bieberau , Justus-von-Liebig-Straße is named after the chemist and professor. His great-grandfather settled there in 1722.



  • Wilhelm Strube , Helga Strube: Justus Liebig. A biography. Sax-Verlag, Markkleeberg 2005, ISBN 3-930076-58-6 .
  • The President of the Justus Liebig University Giessen (Ed.): Justus Liebig: (1803–1873). Exhibition of the Justus Liebig University on the occasion of Justus Liebig's 200th birthday. 3 volumes. Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen 2003, ISBN 3-9808949-0-8 .
  • Society of German Chemists (Frankfurt am Main): Historic sites of chemistry: Justus von Liebig - Gießen. May 16, 2003.
  • Georg Schwedt : Liebig and his students - the new school of chemistry. Springer Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-540-43205-1 .
  • Barrie Blake Coleman: Brand names and product dynasties - Lessons in retrospect. Westland Books Pvt, Chennai / India 2000, ISBN 1-85252-462-6 , pp. 47f, 40, 183, 102.
  • William H. Brock : Justus von Liebig: A biography of the great natural scientist and European. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1999, ISBN 3-528-06995-3 .
  • Antonio Saltini: Storia delle scienze agrarie. Part III: L'età della machina a vapore e dei concimi industriali. Edagricole, Bologna 1989, ISBN 88-206-2414-1 .
  • S. Schulz, P. Menzel: Justus von Liebig. “Everything is chemistry”. Stuttgart-Hohenheim 1999, ( DNB 982652887 ).
  • Hertha von Dechend : Justus von Liebig. In his own testimonies and those of his contemporaries. Verlag Chemie , Weinheim 1963.
  • Liebig, Justus, Baron von . In: Brockhaus - Kleines Konversations-Lexikon , 5th edition, Volume 2. Leipzig 1911, p. 56 ( digitized version ).
  • Jacob Volhard : Justus von Liebig - A picture of life (2 volumes). Leipzig 1909.
  • Adolph Kohut : Justus von Liebig. His life and work. Described from the best and most reliable sources. With unprinted letters from Liebig, two letters from Liebig in facsimile and 34 original illustrations . Emil Roth, Giessen 1904.
  • Georg Klemperer : Justus von Liebig and the Medicin . Publishing house August Hirschwald, Berlin 1900.


Web links

Wikisource: Justus von Liebig  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Justus von Liebig  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Dr. Bernhard Koerner (Ed.): Hessian gender book . tape 3 - volume 52 of the complete series of the Genealogical Handbook of Bourgeois Families . Starke Verlag , 1927, ZDB -ID 2252-4 , p. 296, 304-311 .
  2. Historic sites of chemistry: Justus von Liebig.
  3. ^ Justus Freiherr von Liebig, Friedrich Wöhler, August Wilhelm von Hofmann: From Justus Liebig's and Friedrich Wöhler's correspondence in the years 1829–1873. F. Vieweg and son, Braunschweig 1888.
  4. Christina Renata Grund: Johann Joseph von Scherer's letters to Justus von Liebig. Scope of the corpus and content-related aspects. In: Würzburg medical history reports. 11, 1993, pp. 101-106.
  5. ^ Günther Klaus Judel: The story of Liebig's meat extract: On the most popular invention of the famous chemist . In: Mirror of Research . tape 20 , no. 1 , October 2003, p. 6–17 ( uni-giessen.de ).
  6. History of the Christmas ball - history of the Christmas tree decorations. In: roedentaler.de. Retrieved May 12, 2018 .
  7. Justus von Liebig and the Christmas ball. ( Memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) on: rhein-main.net December 2, 2011.
  8. Manfred Becker-Huberti: "Apples, nuts and almond kernels ..." on: needum.de .
  9. Obernetter . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 14, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1908, p.  867 .
  10. Member entry by Justus Frhr. von Liebig at the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina , accessed on May 14, 2018.
  11. ^ Foreign members of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1724: Liebig, Johann Justus von. Russian Academy of Sciences, accessed January 13, 2020 (Russian).
  12. ^ Historical members of the academy: Justus Freiherr von (1845) Liebig. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, accessed on January 13, 2020 .
  13. ^ Entry on Liebig, Justus (1803 - 1873) in the archive of the Royal Society , London
  14. ^ List of members since 1666: Letter L. Académie des sciences, accessed on January 13, 2020 (French).
  15. Claudia Denk, John Ziesemer: Art and Memoria. The old southern cemetery in Munich. 2014, Grabstätte 183, p. 490 f.
  16. Dr. Bernhard Koerner (Ed.): Darmstädter gender book . tape 7 - volume 69 of the complete series of the Genealogical Handbook of Bourgeois Families. Starke Verlag, 1927, ZDB -ID 2252-4 , p. 310-311 .
  17. Dr. Bernhard Koerner (Ed.): Hessian gender book . tape 3 - volume 52 of the complete series of the Genealogical Handbook of Bourgeois Families. Starke Verlag, 1927, ZDB -ID 2252-4 , p. 311-314 .
  18. Dr. Bernhard Koerner (Ed.): Hessian gender book . tape 3 - volume 52 of the complete series of the Genealogical Handbook of Bourgeois Families. Starke Verlag, 1927, ZDB -ID 2252-4 , p. 304-309, 321 .
  19. ^ Rudolf Ostertag:  Beilstein, Friedrich. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 20 ( digitized version ).
  20. ^ Albert Faulconer, Thomas Edward Keys: Justus von Liebig. In: Foundations of Anesthesiology. 2 volumes, Charles C Thomas, Springfield (Illinois) 1965, Volume 1, p. 454.
  21. J. Dumas: Investigation into the effect of chlorine on alcohol. In: Annals of Physics and Chemistry. New series, Volume 31, 1834, pp. 650-673.
  22. ^ Albert Faulconer, Thomas Edward Keys: Chloroform. In: Foundations of Anesthesiology. 2 volumes, Charles C Thomas, Springfield (Illinois) 1965, Volume 1, pp. 442-481, here: pp. 442 and 454-458.
  23. See Ludwig Hartmann: Faraday to Liebig (1858): To the history of silver mirror production. In: Sudhoff's archive. Volume 32, 1939/40, pp. 397 f., JSTOR 20773952 .
  24. ^ Ulrich Thimm: Reformer of world food. Justus Liebig University Giessen, press release from April 16, 1998 at the Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (idw-online.de), accessed on May 12, 2018.
  25. Gerd Fesser : The Imperial Era in Germany 1871-1918 . State Center for Civic Education Thuringia, Erfurt 2000, ISBN 3-931426-39-4 , p. 14 ( archive.org [PDF]).
  26. Chemical letters on the Liebig Museum website
  27. ^ Information service science: Reformer of world food. Communication No. 27 of April 16, 1998, reference to the list contained therein.
  28. Mindat: Liebigite (English).
  29. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names . Extended Edition. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Free University Berlin Berlin 2018. online
  30. Brine exercise bath now "Justus von Liebig-Therme". In: Gießener Allgemeine Zeitung. November 25, 2009.
  31. Minor Planet Circ. 51191 (PDF).
  32. Dr. Adam Heldmann: 1200 years of Groß-Bieberau - contributions to its history . Ed .: Magistrate of the City of Groß-Bieberau. Groß-Bieberau 1987, OCLC 74938227 , The founding of families in the new Bieberau , p. 69-70 .
predecessor Office successor
Friedrich Thiersch President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences from
1859 to 1873
Ignaz von Döllinger
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on July 15, 2005 .