Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg
|Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg|
|founding||1742 (first founded in Bayreuth)
1743 (relocation to Erlangen)
|place||Erlangen , Nuremberg|
|Students||38,494 (WS 2019/20)|
|Employee||6,356 (December 2018)|
|including professors||579 (December 2018)|
|Networks||DFH , TIME|
The University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg), with around 39,000 students, the third largest university among universities in Bavaria . It was settled in Erlangen in 1743 and has also been based in Nuremberg since 1961 .
Overview and key figures
There are 308 chairs . With around 40,000 students, it is the third largest university in Bavaria and around the tenth largest in Germany . It is based in Erlangen. For historical reasons, the university's locations are divided between the neighboring cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg , with around two thirds of the students studying in Erlangen and one third in Nuremberg.
Of the 40,174 students in the 2015/2016 winter semester, 19,736 were women, 4,341 came from abroad. The FAU offers a very wide range of subjects, in 2015 258 courses, of which 79 are bachelor courses , 89 master courses and 90 courses with state examination (e.g. teaching, law, medicine).
There are seven DFG research groups, six graduate colleges and two institutions of the Excellence Initiative at the university . Due to numerous collaborations with other universities and technical colleges in the region, the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität has branches in the entire northern Bavarian region. The FAU Language Center enables students from all disciplines to acquire international language qualifications with a UNIcert degree. FAU is a member of MedienCampus Bayern , the umbrella organization for media training and further education in Bavaria.
|industrial engineering||8th of 26th|
|mechanical engineering||12. of 27|
|Electrical engineering||10. of 28|
- Times Higher Education Ranking 2020: 183rd place
- QS World University Ranking 2020: 319th place
- Reuters Top 100 The World 's Most Innovative Universities 2019: 14th place worldwide, 2nd place in Europe, 1st place in Germany
- Best Global Universities Ranking 2019: 240th place
- Round University Ranking 2018: 202nd place
Since 2007 the university has been divided into the following five faculties:
- Medical school
- Faculty of Science
- Faculty of Philosophy and Theology Department
- Faculty of Law and Economics
- Technical Faculty
The faculties are in turn subdivided into a total of 23 so-called departments, in which some related disciplines are bundled; the medical faculty consists of 25 clinics and 17 institutes.
The University Library Erlangen-Nuremberg and the Regional Computing Center Erlangen should be mentioned as further central institutions of the university . The medical faculty cooperates closely with the Erlangen University Hospital , which has been an independent body of the Free State of Bavaria since the legally enforced separation.
Most of the FAU is located in the city of Erlangen , a slightly smaller part in the larger neighboring city of Nuremberg . A few institutions can also be found in Hof , Fürth , Bamberg , Pleinfeld or Ingolstadt . There are over several hundred properties in the metropolitan area.
In Erlangen, the university is divided into two spatial focal points in the inner city and the south of the city. In addition, FAU currently has numerous large and small properties spread across the entire city of Erlangen. The prominent center of the city center is the castle garden , which belongs to the university and is not only very popular with the student body.
In the city center and north of Erlangen, in addition to the university administration - in Erlanger Castle -, the philosophy faculty and the theology department and the law department (both on Bismarckstraße / Schillerstraße) as well as the medical faculty and the university clinic ("northern area") are located. In the east of the city there is the so-called "Röthelheimcampus" with mainly engineering facilities. In the south, the natural sciences (Erwin-Rommel-Strasse / Staudtstrasse) and the technical faculties are located on the FAU's “southern site”. In the southern district of Erlangen-Tennenlohe there are individual FAU facilities - temporarily u. a. the Institute of Geography.
The Faculty of Economics (the former “WiSo” = Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences) and the Faculty of Education (as part of the Philosophical Faculty) are located in Nuremberg. The former is located in the northeast of the historic old town (Lange Gasse / Maxtormauer), the former Faculty of Education (EWF), now known as the “Regensburger Strasse campus”, is located southeast of it near the Dutzendteich .
The “Central Institute for New Materials and Process Technology” (ZMP) of the FAU is located in the neighboring city of Fürth. Other branches are the Dr. Remeis observatory in Bamberg, the university's own water sports center on Brombachsee in Pleinfeld and the “Ingolstadt Institute” (INI.FAU) of the FAU in Ingolstadt. In addition, the Friedrich Alexander University has a science and engineering campus in the South Korean city of Busan .
The university was founded in 1742 by the Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth as Academia Fridericiana (Friedrichsakademie) in Bayreuth . On February 21, 1743 it was given university status by Charles VII . In addition to the universities in Altdorf and Würzburg , Friedrichs University was the third university in the Franconian region. It was moved to Erlangen as early as November 1743 and housed in the premises of the former knight academy on Erlanger Hauptstrasse. From the beginning, the entire traditional canon of subjects, theology, law, medicine and philosophy, was taught, although the number of students was consistently below 200 in the beginning. The physician Daniel de Superville became the first chancellor of the modestly funded facility .
In 1769 responsibility for the university fell to Margrave Karl Alexander of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Brandenburg-Ansbach , who had a decisive influence on it and who therefore became the university's second namesake. He put the university on a broader economic basis.
The Margrave of Ansbach-Bayreuth Secret Council and royal Prussian minister in the Franconian district, Karl Wilhelm, Freiherr Buirette von Oehlefeld (1724–1782), lord of the Wilhelmsdorf estate , bequeathed a foundation of over 20,000 guilders to the university in his will. Since the agreements on this had already been made with the margrave, this burette awarded the desired high order, the Grand Cross of the Red Eagle Order .
After Erlangen passed to Bavaria in 1810, the university - unlike the Nuremberg University in Altdorf - only escaped closure because it would be the only future Bavarian state university with a Lutheran theological faculty . It was therefore essential for the training of Protestant theologians in the new state. For a long time the university was shaped by Lutherans , but gradually lost its originally Lutheran denominational character. Even today, the Friedrich Alexander University has only one Protestant theological and no Catholic theological department. Training in the subject of Catholic religious studies for the teaching post at elementary, secondary, secondary and vocational schools, as a subject in educational studies and as an optional subject for business educators is still possible. For this purpose, there are four chairs at the Nuremberg location, which meanwhile belong to the Philosophical Faculty, to which the Theology Department has been affiliated. In 1818 the margravial castle and the Erlangen castle garden came into the possession of the university.
After a long period of moderate development, the Erlangen University, like the other German universities, began to flourish at the beginning of the 1880s. In this context, the establishment of the long overdue historical seminar on behalf of the Bavarian King Maximilians II by the historian Karl Hegel , who has been working here since 1856 and who established modern history at the University of Erlangen, should be mentioned. After Hegel had headed the university as Vice-Rector in 1870/71, the seminar was founded in 1872. Karl Hegel remained chairman of the seminar until 1884.
The number of students rose in the 1880s from 374 at the end of the winter semester 1869/70 to 1000 in 1890. While law students were ahead in the early years, the theological faculty was the most popular at the beginning of the Bavarian period. This was only overtaken by the Medical Faculty in 1890. The number of full professors rose from 20 in 1796 to 42 in 1900, almost half of whom were employed by the Philosophical Faculty, which also included the natural sciences. These did not form their own faculty until 1928.
In 1863, Jakob Herz became the first Jew professor at a university in Bavaria . After his death, a memorial was unveiled in his honor on May 6, 1875. The double life-size bronze statue erected on today's Huguenot Square was removed after the National Socialists came to power and probably melted down for war purposes in 1944 .
The first women were admitted to university in 1897 and a woman's first doctorate took place in 1904. The university was named Friedrich-Alexander-Universität after its founder, Margrave Friedrich, and after its sponsor, Margrave Alexander . From the second half of the 19th century onwards, several larger university buildings were erected on the edges of the palace garden, such as the college building and the university hospital.
About 75% of the university's students volunteered during the First World War or were drafted during the four years of the war. 384 members of the university lost their lives in the war. In the post-war period, with around 350 participants, many of the students at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität took part in the Epp Freikorps in the suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic .
In 1927 the natural sciences were spun off from the Philosophical Faculty into a joint Natural Science Faculty. The university excelled itself ingloriously during the National Socialist era : as early as the late 1920s, it was the first German university to have a student parliament dominated by the majority of National Socialists. The university survived the world wars relatively unscathed. The denazification carried out by the American occupation forces led to the impeachment of numerous university teachers after the end of the war. These were u. a. replaced by professors from the former Eastern Territories, which led to a change from a predominantly Protestant faculty to a predominantly Catholic one. After the Second World War , some faculties of the university were reopened in January 1946 and teaching was gradually expanded.
The post-war period led to further expansion, not only in student numbers but also in chairs. Above all, the cooperation with the parts of Siemens AG that had recently moved to Erlangen gave decisive impetus to the further expansion and led u. a. for the construction of the southern area for the technical and natural science faculties. In 1961, the Nuremberg University of Economics and Social Sciences, founded in 1919, was incorporated as a separate faculty, with which FAU gained its second major location. Since then it has been called "Erlangen-Nürnberg". The student revolt of the 1960s came to Erlangen with a slight delay and significantly weakened. In 1966 a technical faculty was established. A new university complex was built in the south of Erlangen, which today combines engineering, computer science, inorganic chemistry and an additional cafeteria in a typical, concrete-dominated complex for the time. The Friedrich-Alexander-Universität was thus one of the first classically shaped universities to add a technical faculty to its range of subjects. In 1972 the Nuremberg University of Education was incorporated .
In 1982 the University Hospital Erlangen received national attention with the birth of the first test tube baby in Germany. Ten years later there was a nationwide discussion about the Erlanger baby , which was supposed to be saved at the Erlangen Klinikum through life support measures for the mother, who had been brain-dead after an accident.
Since 1999 part of the new Erlangen district " Röthelheimpark " has been used by the university ("Röthelheim-Campus"). It is the old artillery barracks, which were built in 1900 and a few buildings were added a little later.
In 2004 the decision was made to found the Central Institute for New Materials and Process Technology (ZMP) in Fürth, which made Fürth a “ science city ” and another regional location for the Friedrich-Alexander University. In July 2005 a new building for the chair for crystallography and structural physics was inaugurated for 5.8 million euros. On July 14, 2006, the newly established Central Institute for Applied Ethics and Science Communication (ZIEW) was inaugurated.
In 2007, FAU was divided into eleven faculties (sorted according to the order in which they were founded): the theological faculty, the law faculty, the medical faculty, then the two philosophical faculties I (philosophy, history and social sciences) and II (linguistics and literary studies), three Natural science faculties, including I (mathematics and physics), II (biology, chemistry and pharmacy) and III (geography, geology, mineralogy, paleontology), as well as the economics and social science faculty in Nuremberg (the former Nuremberg University of Economics and Social Sciences , Founded in 1919 and incorporated in 1961), the technical faculty (1966) and finally the educational science faculty (1972) in Nuremberg. In 2007, the university was restructured as part of a structural reform: five new major faculties were formed from the previous faculties. Three faculties lost their independence and became departments within the new faculties, including the theological, educational and economic and social science faculties (the latter both located in Nuremberg). Today theology is an independent department within the Philosophical Faculty.
Since 2008 the university has had a stake in the Bavarian Center for Political Theory (BAYPOL), with the Erlangen seat of which FAU received another “research and competence center”. In 2009, a chair for human rights (“Chair for Human Rights and Human Rights Policy ”) was established at the Institute for Political Science , with which FAU contributes to research and teaching in this important but academically rather weakly institutionalized field.
In 2009 the new Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Light in Erlangen emerged from the Max Planck Research Group for Optics, Information and Photonics, which was founded at the university in 2004 for this purpose. Since then, it has hosted a large number of Max Planck junior research groups and Alexander von Humboldt fellows and, with the Faculty of Technology, participated in the two institutions of the Excellence Initiative that were established at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in 2004.
In April 2011, the university gave itself a new logo in order to establish the common abbreviation “FAU” as a trademark and to develop a corporate identity . The traditional seal, which depicts the two founders of the university, is now only to be used in a special context, for example on certificates or the like. The design of the new logo was the subject of fierce criticism from various directions right from the start. a. with satirical variations, some of which addressed the perceived similarity to other well-known trademarks. It was also criticized that university staff - students and staff alike - were not adequately informed about and not involved in this process, which is important for the university's identity.
In the course of the nationwide significant increase in the number of students in the 2011 winter semester, the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg has been one of the twelve largest universities in Germany for the first time this year.
From 2012 the graduate school "Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies" will combine the fields of optics and photonics in the natural and engineering sciences at the MPI for the Physics of Light, the Erlangen Fraunhofer Institutes and the Erlangen research focus on medical research.
In line with the general trend, the university management has been placing increased emphasis on the expansion of the so-called MINT subjects for a number of years , which, in the opinion of some, primarily affects the human and financial resources of the Philosophical Faculty.
Expansion in Erlangen
In the middle of 2013, age-related structural defects came to light in various buildings of the Friedrich Alexander University, especially in the city center. In the opinion of the university management, these are due to the state government's investments in maintaining the building fabric that were too low for many years: For example, for necessary repairs and renovation measures on the buildings of the Philosophical Faculty, most recently (2012) only around a sixth of the amount of money required (5th of approx. 33 million euros). Buildings from other faculties are also in need of renovation, such as organic chemistry or facilities on the FAU southern campus. The consequence of these years of postponement of necessary construction work is an increasing deterioration in the state of preservation of numerous properties of the university. In a seminar building of the Philosophical Faculty, for example, at the beginning of July 2013, large parts of the ceiling paneling fell onto the workplaces below.
Not least because of the poor state of preservation of the inner-city properties of the FAU and the lack of space that has arisen over the past decades, the university management and the Bavarian state government are planning to completely relocate and merge the Philosophical Faculty (with its facilities in Nuremberg) in the medium to long term Siemens buildings still to be acquired in downtown Erlangen. In particular, the main administrative building of the group in Erlangen, the so-called " Raspberry Palace ", which is now a listed building , is the focus of attention in this context. The office building with a total of 46,000 sqm usable area would offer this, as together with the in Nuremberg settled Education estimated that around 40,000 m² room area would be required. In addition, a central humanities library could be built there to replace the numerous small libraries . In September 2014, the Bavarian Minister of Education, Ludwig Spaenle, together with Finance Minister Markus Söder and Interior and Construction Minister Joachim Herrmann presented a new location concept for the university. It laid down the relocation of the philosophical faculty and the educational sciences as well as the establishment of a central humanities library in the Raspberry Palace.
This location concept was corrected in May 2017 so that the educational sciences should remain in Nuremberg; the other facilities of the philosophical faculty are to move to the raspberry palace by 2023. The background to this was the announcement that Nuremberg would have its own technical university by 2030 and that the FAU's technical faculty should therefore remain in Erlangen as a whole. At a meeting in Nuremberg on July 3, 2018, the Bavarian cabinet finally decided on an investment package totaling 1.5 billion euros for the University of Erlangen, spread over 30 years, according to Prime Minister Markus Söder. Among other things, the raspberry palace is to be purchased from this money and converted for the purposes of the proposed humanities center. In addition to the renovation of the existing building, the construction of a central humanities library in the inner courtyard and another new building in the immediate vicinity of the Raspberry Palace are required. In addition, the old chemical center on Henkestrasse is to be converted into a lecture hall for the philosophical faculty. The previous buildings of the philosophical faculty in the north of Erlangen are to be demolished, except for the Juridicum , and to make space for the nearby university clinic and the medical faculty. The Free State of Bavaria completed the purchase on September 13, 2018 at the latest. According to current plans, renovation and conversion of the building for the purposes of the Philosophical Faculty are to take place from 2019 [out of date] ; the move is scheduled for 2023 . The remaining usage time of the FAU property in Kochstrasse, which has also ended in 2023 , is to be seen as a limiting factor in this planning . In addition to the relocation of the Philosophical Faculty to Werner-von-Siemens-Strasse in Erlangen, plans are also being made to build a new central lecture hall on Henkestrasse.
Erlangen schools and the "Erlangen program"
Erlanger Schule is a term for various academic schools at Erlangen University and beyond. So the Erlanger theology in the 19th century a movement known revival moving laity and theologians, at about Christian Krafft and Karl Georg von Raumer .
The mathematician Felix Klein , son-in-law of the historian and founder of the history seminar on behalf of the Bavarian King Maximilian II at the Erlangen University Karl Hegel , developed a mathematical-geometric concept in his inaugural lecture in 1872, which was called the Erlangen program .
The philosophical school of the 20th century around the constructivists Paul Lorenzen and Wilhelm Kamlah is called Erlanger constructivism or constructivism of the "Erlanger school". The Erlangen School of Information Psychology (20th century) deals with work in the field of intelligence research.
Honourings and prices
With the first phase of the Excellence Initiative of the federal and state governments in 2007 at the University cluster of excellence and in 2006 a graduate school were established. Both institutions were extended for another five years as part of the second round of the Excellence Initiative in 2012.
The excellence cluster "Engineering of Advanced Materials" is located at the interface between engineering and natural sciences and represents a link between the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light and the two Fraunhofer Institutes based in Erlangen. As part of the Cluster of Excellence, around 81 million euros have been invested in research funds and five new buildings have been built.
Every year the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation awards the most valuable international research prizes in Germany with up to 5 million euros. From 2010 to 2012, international professors were awarded this prize for three years in a row and appointed to the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. In 2010 the newly appointed co-director of the Erlangen Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Vahid Sandoghdar , was awarded an Alexander von Humboldt professorship at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. He was previously a professor at the ETH Zurich and works in the field of nanophotonics and plasmonics.
In 2011, Robert Schober, another scientist from Erlangen, received the award for his research in the field of communications technology. Most recently, in 2012, Oskar Painter received an Alexander von Humboldt Professorship at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Like Vahid Sandoghdar, Painter, who was previously a professor at the Institute for Applied Physics at the California Institute of Technology , is taking on the position of a new director at the MPI for the Science of Light. His research in the field of quantum - Optomechanics on the nanometer scale.
The German Cancer Aid is funding the Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen ( tumor center ) with Franconian cooperation partners as a top oncological center over three years with a total of three million euros in donations. The University Hospital Erlangen and the Klinikum Bayreuth GmbH as well as the Bamberg Social Foundation together form the Franconian Comprehensive Cancer Center of the European Metropolitan Region Nuremberg (CCC Erlangen - EMN).
The university was named Germany's most innovative university in the 2018 and 2019 Reuters ranking and came second in a European comparison.
Castle garden festival
Since 1951, the university has held the so-called Castle Garden Festival every year in June / July . The festival is considered a social highlight in Bavaria's annual academic calendar. With around 6,000 participants, it is one of the largest garden festivals in Europe . The palace garden in the center of Erlangen is being converted into a large open-air "ballroom" as part of the preparations. In addition to several dance floors, lighting with fairy lights, music, seating and catering for the guests must be provided. Annually changing light objects and the colored illumination of the surrounding buildings also contribute to the ambience. These are created annually by design students from the Coburg University of Applied Sciences . After dark, a large combined baroque and high fireworks display with background music is set off. On the following Sunday there is a so-called “ Bürgerfrühschoppen ”. During the event, not only students and professors from the university but also especially the economic and political prominence of Bavaria will meet. The first castle garden festival took place under the rectorate of Rudolf Pohle . It had to be canceled in 1969 because of the student unrest , in 1966, 1980 and 2000 because of persistent bad weather and in 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic .
For many years, the University's Winter Ball took place in the Nuremberg Meistersinger Hall in January, for the last time in January 2019. Like the Castle Garden Festival, it was not only attended by students and professors, but also by many celebrities. With around 2000 guests, however, it was the much smaller FAU event.
Numerous well-known and historically significant personalities have studied or taught at FAU, including:
- Andreas Ernst Etlinger (1756–1785), doctor and botanist. Plant genus Etlingera was named after him.
- Johann Christian von Schreber (1739–1810), professor of pharmacy and botany, founder and director of the Botanical Garden at the Nürnberger Tor
- Johann Georg Meusel (1743–1820), historian
- Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814), an important representative of German idealism
- Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling (1775–1854), an important representative of German idealism
- Benjamin Constant (1767–1830), writer and liberal state theorist
- Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866), professor of oriental languages, poet
- Georg Simon Ohm (1789–1854), physicist, after whom the SI unit Ohm (Ω) is named.
- Johann Friedrich Hunger (1800–1837), professor of law
- Friedrich Julius Stahl (1802–1861), legal philosopher and conservative politician
- Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), chemist, founder of organic chemistry
- Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804–1872), philosopher and critic of religion
- Karl Hegel (1813–1901), historian, founder of the historical seminar at FAU on behalf of the Bavarian king, prorector 1870/71
- Jakob Herz (1816–1871), doctor and first Jewish professor in Bavaria
- Felix Klein (1849–1925) developed the mathematical Erlangen program .
- Emil Fischer (1852–1919), chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902
- Eduard Buchner (1860–1917), chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907
- Arthur Harden (1865–1940), chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
- Hans Geiger (1882–1945), physicist, inventor of the Geiger counter
- Margarete Meseritz-Edelheim (1891–1975), lawyer and politician
- Walter Christaller (1893–1969), geographer and founder of the theory of central places
- Ludwig Erhard (1897–1977), Federal Minister of Economics , Federal Chancellor , graduate of the Nuremberg Commercial College
- Berthold Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (* 1934), son of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
- Seren Sahin (* 1989), medical technology (not completed), film producer
Other university facilities:
- Bavarian University Center for Latin America at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (BayLAT)
- Bavarian Center for Political Theory
- Collegium Alexandrinum
- FAU Busan Campus (South Korea)
- University Teaching Training Center (FBZHL)
- Graduate School of the FAU
- Regional data center Erlangen
- language Center
- Student union
- University library
- University Hospital
- Central Institute "Anthropology of Religion (s)"
- Center for teacher training
- Erlangen baby
- Erlangen constructivism (in philosophy of science )
- Erlangen theology (neo-Lutheran theological direction within Protestant revival theology )
- Gerlach archive
- List of universities in Germany
- List of student associations in Erlangen
- List of student associations in Nuremberg
- Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
- Mydosis (online portal on drug dosages in children)
- Test tube baby (Germany's first artificial insemination baby was born in 1982 at Erlangen University Hospital)
- Top Industrial Managers for Europe
- Carl Johanny: The Friedrichs Academy in Bayreuth . Einst und Jetzt 21 (1976), pp. 185-190
- Henning Kößler (Ed.): 250 years of Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Festschrift (Erlangen Research, Special Series, Vol. 4), Erlangen 1993.
- City Museum Erlangen (ed.): The Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg 1743–1993. History of a German university (exhibition catalog, publications of the City Museum Erlangen, No. 43), Nuremberg 1993.
- Alfred Wendehorst: History of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg 1743–1993 . Verlag CH Beck, 1993
- Alfred Wendehorst (Ed.): Erlangen. The history of the city in representation and image documents , Munich 1984.
- The number of employees at the Friedrich-Alexanders University Erlangen in its first century. Kunstmann, Erlangen 1843. Digitized
- Homepage of the Friedrich-Alexander University
- FAU course directory with events and contact details
- Alumni network and faculty association of WiSo-Nürnberg eV
- Student representation
- Official website of the Schlossgartenfest
- key figures and rankings
- Key figures and rankings - personnel
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- “Overview of the personnel status at the Royal Bavarian Friedrich-Alexanders-University Erlangen together with the list of students in the winter semester 1869/70. Gain. Printed by the Kunstmann'schen Universitäts-Buchdruckerei ”, page 26 .
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-  Press release on the website of the Excellence Initiative of the federal and state governments. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
-  Prof. Sandoghdar's website for the award winners on the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation's website. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
-  Prof. Schober's website for the award winners on the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation website. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
-  Prof. Painter's website on the website of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
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