Charles VII (HRR)

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Charles VII as emperor; he wears the order sash of St. George and the order chain of the Golden Fleece (picture by George Desmarées , posthumously around 1766, today Nymphenburg Palace )

Karl Albrecht von Bayern (born August 6, 1697 in Brussels , † January 20, 1745 in Munich ) from the House of Wittelsbach was from 1726 to 1745 as Karl I Elector and Duke of Bavaria . After the death of the Habsburg emperor Charles VI. In 1740, due to his marriage to Maria Amalia of Austria , the niece of Charles VI., he also claimed the Archduchy of Austria and was from 1741 to 1743 as Karl III. briefly King of Bohemia , but was unable to prevail against Maria Theresa in the War of the Austrian Succession , which even cost him his rule in Bavaria at times.

When he appeared to be victorious in the meantime, he was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire as Charles VII in 1742 and remained so until his death, but due to the poor war situation, most of the time without his home power in Bavaria. His election made him the only non- Habsburg on the imperial throne since 1437 and - four centuries after his progenitor Ludwig IV - the third Wittelsbacher on the Roman-German throne. He was followed by Franz I Stephan , who, as Maria Theresa's husband, founded the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

From a cultural point of view, the rule of Karl Albrecht marks the climax of the Rococo in old Bavaria.

Early years

Karl Albrecht was born in Brussels as the son of the Bavarian Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel and his second wife, Therese Kunigunde , the daughter of the Polish King Johann III. Sobieski , born. Max Emanuel resided there as General Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from the end of 1691 .

The young Karl Albrecht with a light allonge wig , 1717–1719, Joseph Vivien , Warsaw Royal Castle

The elector's family and his extensive court returned from Brussels to Munich in 1701. After Max Emanuel's flight back to the Spanish Netherlands after the defeat in the Battle of Höchstädt on August 13, 1704, Karl Albrecht and his siblings initially stayed with their mother, who now ruled Munich. In May 1705 the Austrian authorities refused to allow the Electress to re-enter Bavaria after a stay in Venice and forced her into an exile that was to last ten years. Since his father, over whom the imperial ban was imposed on April 29, 1706 , went from Brussels into exile to Compiègne after the defeat of Ramillies on May 23, 1706 , Karl Albrecht did not see his parents again until he was 17.

In 1706 Karl Albrecht and three of his brothers were brought to Klagenfurt on the instructions of Emperor Joseph I , where they were mainly educated and educated by Jesuits , while his sister and the two youngest brothers stayed in Munich. Joseph's successor, Emperor Karl VI. , enlarged the royal court of the princes in 1712, moved it to Graz and also brought Karl's fourth brother Johann Theodor there. Since the youngest brother, Maximilian Emanuel, had died in the meantime, only Karl's only sister, Princess Maria Anna , remained in Munich. After the end of the war, the family lived in Bavaria again from April 1715.

On August 6, 1715, Karl Albrecht came of age and thus formally capable of governing. From December 3, 1715 to August 24, 1716 he went on an educational trip to Italy and in 1717 took part in the campaign against the Turks with a Bavarian troop contingent . During his stays at the imperial court in Vienna, he met his future wife Maria Amalia , the younger daughter of the late Emperor Joseph I. The marriage to Archduchess Maria Amalia took place on October 5, 1722. Although Bavaria had officially renounced claims to the throne against Habsburg through this marriage, it nevertheless opened up prospects for a hereditary claim to Austrian possessions. In honor of the newly wed couple, Elector Maximilian Emanuel had glamorous celebrations held in Munich and the surrounding area from October 17th to November 4th.

On a journey of several weeks with his brothers to France, where Karl Albrecht attended the wedding of King Louis XV on September 5, 1725 . participated, he made contacts with the French court.

Emperor Charles VII in armor; He wears the Order of
St. George's Sash and the Order of the Golden Fleece


Elector of Bavaria

After the death of Elector Maximilian Emanuel, Karl Albrecht became Elector on February 25, 1726. With this he also took on a debt burden of 26 million guilders . At first the new ruler tried to improve the budget situation, austerity measures began with the court, the indirect tax income could be increased slightly and the debt mountain began to be reduced. In the 1830s, however, the elector gave up the austerity policy in favor of entitlement to the imperial throne and the display of splendor that was felt to be necessary.

Karl Albrecht pursued a policy of friendship based on the Habsburgs , but also determined his father's policy of acquiring the Habsburg inheritance and the crown of the empire. In 1727 the alliance with France was renewed. This already included the goal of acquiring the imperial crown. So Karl Albrecht continued his father's policy, which was aimed entirely at raising his rank.

In 1729 he founded the House of Knights Order of St. George . In the same year he started building the Rothenberg Fortress .

On the Austrian question of succession, he moved away from his father's recognition of the pragmatic sanction . In 1732/33 he put in a protest against the recognition of the pragmatic sanction by the Reich together with the also Wittelsbach Electoral Palatinate and Electoral Saxony . He also had a memorandum drawn up in which he claimed the entire Austrian heritage for himself. However, there were no concrete plans for Bavarian action in the event of the inheritance. It was also not possible to pay off the high debts of his predecessor.

In the Munich residence , Karl Albrecht had the rich rooms (inaugurated on November 4, 1737) and the Green Gallery set up. He had the Amalienburg built for his wife in the Nymphenburg Palace Park from 1734 to 1739 . He gave the Palais Porcia to his lover, Josepha Topor Freiin von Morawitzky, whom he later married to Count Antonio Porcia . His son Franz Ludwig , born in 1723, came from his connection with Sophie Caroline von Ingenheim , to whom he conferred the nobility title of Count von Holnstein and who gave the Palais Holnstein in Munich. On the occasion of the birth of the heir to the throne, the first rococo church in Old Bavaria was built in 1727 with St. Anna in Lehel . The elector held court extremely splendidly. Around 1740 court spending amounted to 760,000 of 2.13 million guilders, 35 percent of government spending. At the same time he had his army upgraded regardless of the financial situation . The indecisive policy between Vienna and Versailles led to Karl Albrecht following a pro-France course of neutrality during the War of the Polish Succession of 1738/39, which did not prevent him from simultaneously providing the emperor with Bavarian troops for the Turkish war , which then promptly suffered heavy losses.

When after the surprising death of Emperor Charles VI. In October 1740 the two secular Wittelsbach electors Karl Albrecht and Karl Philipp von der Pfalz announced the assumption of the imperial vicariate on October 30, 1740, which led to the protest of the evangelical imperial estates . The Wittelsbach house union of 1724 had not been recognized by either the emperor or the imperial estates. Only when Karl Albrecht and Karl Philipp came to an agreement on January 18, 1741 with the Saxon Elector Friedrich August II. , Who insisted on his certified participation in the imperial vicariate, as their vicar, the disputes could be ended. The unity of the two Wittelsbach electors is expressed through vicariate coins depicting their two half-length portraits.

Start of war and homage as ruler of Bohemia

Allegorical representation of Charles VII's coronation with the imperial crown , 1742
Taler with Karl's portrait, 1743
Charles VII's coat of arms with imperial eagle, electoral hat , imperial crown , golden fleece and order of St. George

With the death of Emperor Charles VI. the male Habsburgs died out, his daughter Maria Theresa was intended to be the heir , as stated in the Pragmatic Sanction of Female Succession. On the basis of his marriage, Karl Albrecht, as well as Friedrich August of Saxony and Poland , who had married Maria Josepha , the older daughter of Joseph I, also referred to the female line of succession in Austria that had existed since Privilegium Minus . In addition, Karl Albrecht justified his claim with his descent from Anna of Austria . Bavaria was to have Bohemia , Austria above the Enns and southern Austria below the Enns , while Saxony was to have Moravia and northern Austria below the Enns. Karl Albrecht ignored the advice of his Chancellor Unertl , who had already served his father and pointed out his fate. The Elector lay down now himself the title of Archduke of Austria, and said Maria Theresia just over . Highness  Grand Duchess of Tuscany at (their highest conjugal title of the Lorena).

Because France had been involved in the War of Jenkins' Ear since 1739 , it was reluctant to give any effective support to Karl Albrecht. In December 1740 the Austrian War of Succession began , which was triggered by Frederick II of Prussia because he fought for Silesia in the First Silesian War .

Only now was France ready to enter the war. In spring 1741 Karl Albrecht concluded an alliance with Spain, Prussia and a short time later with France with the Nymphenburg Treaty . In the autumn of that year, Electoral Saxony also joined this alliance. However, it turned out to be double-edged: the French had no interest in leaving the place of the Habsburgs to the Wittelsbachers and offered only half-hearted support. There was also no really effective cooperation between the Prussian, Bavarian and French armies. Karl Albrecht and his Bavarian troops occupied Passau and the Oberhaus fortress there in July and advanced to Upper Austria in September with the help of Saxon troops. In September the French Army on the Rhine was placed under Karl Albrecht's command. At that time it had already reached Linz . Instead of taking Vienna , as requested by Frederick II, the army under Duke de Belle-Isle was ordered to Bohemia under French pressure. It was important for France to split up the Austrian legacy. Meanwhile the Viennese court had already fled to Pressburg . After Karl Albrecht had received hereditary homage in Linz in September 1741 from the state's pro-Bavarian estates, he moved on to Bohemia and there conquered the coronation city of Prague on November 26th. However, since the Bohemian Wenceslas crown was in the possession of his adversary Maria Theresa , he could not be crowned King of Bohemia there. Instead, on December 19, he received homage from the Bohemian estates present as the new ruler. More than half of the Bohemian nobility, however, avoided taking the oath of allegiance under all sorts of pretexts - despite the threat of punishment from Karl Albrecht. His French half-brother Emmanuel-François-Joseph de Bavière was installed as governor of Prague.

On January 17, 1742, with the double wedding of Elector Karl Philip's granddaughter Elisabeth Auguste with his designated successor Karl Theodor von Pfalz-Sulzbach and her sister Maria Anna with Duke Klemens of Bavaria, the relations between the Wittelsbach lines of Bavaria and the Palatinate after the previous house union Max Emanuels intensified even further.

Emperor under the sign of war

On January 24, 1742, Karl Albrecht was unanimously elected emperor with the Hanoverian electoral vote of George II of Great Britain , who was allied with Maria Theresa . Via Dresden and Munich he moved to Frankfurt for the imperial coronation. On February 12, 1742, the magnificent coronation of the emperor took place in Frankfurt am Main by his brother Clemens August . The city of Frankfurt had gold ducats and silver markings minted on this occasion.

One day after the festival he wrote to his hapless Field Marshal Count Ignaz von Törring :

"My coronation took place yesterday with a splendor and a jubilation without equal, but at the same time I saw myself attacked by stone pains and gout pains - sick, without land, without money I can truly relate to Job, the man of pain, to compare."

- The Chronicle of Bavaria . 1994, p. 245.

Maria Theresa had meanwhile reached an armistice with Prussia , gathered troops from Italy and Hungary, and went over to the counterattack. The Austrian Commander-in-Chief Ludwig Andreas Graf Khevenhüller first retook Linz, and their armies were able to march into Munich just two days after Karl Albrecht's coronation as emperor . At the end of July 1742, Prussia left the coalition for the second time with the Peace of Berlin , which aroused bitterness in France and deep disappointment among the homeless Emperor Charles VII. In the summer of 1742, the Austrians under Khevenhüller had to withdraw due to a lack of troops, a French-Bavarian army recaptured Bavaria by autumn of that year. However, the Austrians were able to claim parts of Bohemia and Moravia and in the following campaign under the command of Prince Karl Alexander of Lorraine, they again occupied southern Bavaria. The misfortune of the French army called the ally of the Emperor de Belle-Isle back to Bohemia. Left by Saxony and Prussia, the two French military commanders de Belle-Isle and de Broglie were attacked by the overall Austrian power and forced to retreat to Prague, from where they managed to withdraw to Eger in December 1742 through the middle of the opposing forces .

Charles VII now not only had to give up the Habsburg lands, but had also lost his own land. The imperial title itself was only an honorary title with a strongly representative character, the powers of the office were already limited by the middle of the 18th century and the imperial idea had been damaged overall in the previous decades. Charles VII lived, robbed of his creative powers, in exile in Frankfurt in the Barckhausen palace and awarded one or the other honorary title himself. One of the recipients was Johann Caspar Goethe , whom the Emperor appointed as Real Imperial Councilor in 1742 . Alexander Ferdinand von Thurn und Taxis became principal commissioner at the Perpetual Reichstag , which was moved from Regensburg to Frankfurt. Johann Georg von Königsfeld as the new Reich Vice Chancellor was at least able to effectively defend the emperor's interests. During the short period of his activity, the Reichshof Chancellery, under his leadership, greatly expanded its leeway, particularly against the Reichserzkanzler . However, the nickname et Caesar et nihil (“both emperor and nothing”) had been coined for Charles VII (alluding to the saying aut Caesar aut nihil , 'emperor or nothing') . The change of fronts offered to him was refused by Charles VII, who in return unsuccessfully demanded the elevation of Bavaria to kingdom, on the given conditions several times; so he remained dependent on France. Proposals emanating from Great Britain and Prussia, through secularization on imperial soil, to give the emperor a more independent position through increased domestic power, remained unrealizable.

Released by Maria Theresa, the disgraced former Imperial Field Marshal Lieutenant Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff entered Bavarian service and became Commander in Chief of the Bavarian Army. In the spring of 1743, the emperor's troops and their allies again launched a counterattack. After taking Munich, Charles VII was able to return to the city for some time in April. On May 12th, however, Maria Theresa received the Bohemian crown in Prague. In June there were two theaters of war in Germany: In Kur-Hanover , under King George II, a British-Hanoverian army assembled and moved to the Main . France sent her her own army from Alsace under Marshal Noailles , which, however , was defeated in the Battle of Dettingen on June 27th. The day before, however, Seckendorff had negotiated the Niederschönenfeld Convention in the Austrian field camp, which temporarily neutralized the Bavarian army and thus withdrew the Austrians from access. After the allied French had to retreat to the Rhine after defeats and the Bavarians under their General Minuzzi and their Hessian allies had been defeated by Karl Alexander von Lorraine in a battle near Simbach am Inn on May 9, Charles VII lost Bavaria again and went to Frankfurt again at the end of June. Both the French and the Bavarians withdrew behind the Rhine in the further course, where they finally went to winter quarters. The Pragmatic Army of George II. Encamped after a brief foray across the Rhine finally in Westphalia and the Netherlands, while the troops of the Austrians in Bavaria and on the Rhine were.

In order to counter the strengthening of Austria and to secure the profit of Silesia, the Prussian King Frederick II found on June 5, 1744 rejoin the anti-Austrian coalition, which in the meantime also includes Sweden , the Bourbon Kingdom of Naples , the Electoral Palatinate and Kurköln had connected. In August Prussia invaded Bohemia. Since Austria's hands were tied because of the outbreak of the Second Silesian War , Charles VII was able to move back into Munich on October 23, after Seckendorff had appalled the city and after several vicissitudes the Austrians had evaded to Bohemia to meet Prussia. Austria, however, did not engage in a battle, but skilfully evaded and disrupted the enemy supplies. These delaying tactics, the lack of supplies and the enormously increasing number of deserters ultimately forced Prussia to retreat to Silesia. With the mediation of the former Reich Vice Chancellor Friedrich Karl von Schönborn-Buchheim , the emperor tried to find a compromise with Vienna, but at the same time unsuccessfully negotiated with France for new arms aid. His most important ally at the court of Versailles, de Belle-Isle, was arrested by a Hanoverian bailiff in December 1744 on a diplomatic trip to Berlin and taken to England. In addition to Prussia and the Electoral Palatinate, Hessen-Kassel was ultimately the strongest military support of the Kaiser ( Frankfurter Union ) under the regent Wilhelm .

Death and succession

Heart urn of Emperor Charles VII in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting

On January 8 of the following year, the situation for Charles VII and Frederick II became increasingly threatening when Great Britain, the Netherlands, Austria and Saxony formed a quadruple alliance in Warsaw. The French troops were still on the Upper Rhine, and the Kaiser had written to Louis XV. represented the extreme danger of its position. Even during the war, Emperor Charles VII died completely unexpectedly for outsiders on January 20, 1745 in the Munich residence of gout . On the day of his death, by virtue of imperial authority, he had declared his not yet 18-year-old son Maximilian to be of legal age, which enabled him to take over the throne as Bavarian Elector without a guardian and spa administrator. Duke Clemens Franz or Max Joseph's later father-in-law, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland August III., Would have been possible guardians .

Charles VII was buried in the Theatine Church in Munich ; his heart was buried separately and is in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting . Georg Philipp Telemann wrote funeral music for him with the title I hoped for light . King Friedrich II of Prussia wrote in 1746:

"This death deprived me of the emperor who was my friend."

- The modern emperors, 1519–1918 . 1990, p. 230.

The sovereign debt of the electorate had risen to 35 million guilders during Charles's reign.

On April 22, 1745, his son, Elector Maximilian III. Joseph of Bavaria , with Maria Theresa the Peace of Füssen . Bavaria recognized the Austrian supremacy in the empire. Max III. Joseph promised to give Maria Theresa's husband, Franz Stephan von Lothringen , his electoral vote in the election of the emperor. Austria for its part waived war compensation, withdrew all troops from Bavaria and in return recognized Charles VII's dignity retrospectively.


Since the Wittelsbach Elector Karl Albrecht was the first non-Habsburg to be elected Roman-German Emperor in a long time and the insignia of his predecessors were not available to him, some of them were newly commissioned. The two imperial crowns of Charles VII can still be found in the treasury of the Munich residence , and the magnificent car that the emperor used for his coronation in 1742, one of the most magnificent state carriages of the French Rococo, is exhibited in the Marstallmuseum Nymphenburg . Further evidence of the imperial era are the rococo frames with the emperor's coat of arms in the pilgrimage church of St. Anna in Harlaching, which Charles VII donated to the church at the time.


Coffin of Emperor Charles VII in the Theatine Church

On October 5, 1722, Emperor Karl VII married Archduchess Maria Amalie of Austria , daughter of Emperor Joseph I and his wife Wilhelmine Amalie of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Vienna . With her he had seven children:

From his connection with Maria Caroline Charlotte von Ingenheim (sister of Field Marshal Lieutenant Karl Wilhelm von Ingenheim ) he had a daughter and a son:


Pedigree of Charles VII.

Wilhelm V of Bavaria (1548–1626)
⚭ 1568
Renata of Lorraine (1544–1602)

Ferdinand II. (1578–1637)
⚭ 1600
Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616)

Karl Emanuel I of Savoy (1562–1630)
⚭ 1585
Katharina Michaela of Spain (1567–1597)

Henry IV of France (1553–1610)
⚭ 1600
Maria de 'Medici (1575–1642)

Marek Sobieski (1548 / 50–1605)

Jadwiga Snopkowska (1556 / 59–1588 / 89)

Jan Daniłowicz (1570–1628)

Zofia Żółkiewska (1590–1634)

Antoine de La Grange d'Arquien

Anne d'Ancienville

Baptiste de La Châtre of Bruillebault

Gabrielle Lamy

Great grandparents

Maximilian I of Bavaria
⚭ 1635
Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665)

Viktor Amadeus I of Savoy (1587–1637)
⚭ 1619
Christina of France (1606–1663)

Jakub Sobieski (1590–1646)
⚭ 1627
Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz (1607–1661)

Henri Albert de La Grange d'Arquien (1613–1707)

Françoise de la Châtre


Elector Ferdinand Maria of Bavaria (1636–1679)
⚭ 1652
Henriette Adelheid of Savoy (1636–1676)

King John III Sobieski of Poland (1629–1696)
⚭ 1665
Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien (1641–1716)


Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel of Bavaria (1662–1726)
⚭ 1695
Therese Kunigunde of Poland (1676–1730)

Emperor Karl VII, Elector of Bavaria



  • Karl VII. (Holy Roman Empire): The diary of Emperor Karl VII. From the time of the Austrian War of Succession . Ed .: Karl Theodor von Heigel. Munich 1883 ( online ).
  • Entwurff, those festivities that are held because of the prominent-highest Beylager, between ... Carolo Alberto, And ... Maria Amalia, In ... Munich, Anno 1722 . Hanck, Stadt am Hoff 1772, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 355-ubr09740-5 .


Web links

Commons : Kaiser Karl VII.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Britta Kägler: Female reign in times of crisis. On the interim government of the Bavarian Electress Therese Kunigunde (1704/05). In: zeitenblicke 8, no.2 June 30, 2009, accessed on September 9, 2013 (urn = nbn: de: 0009-9-19660).
  2. Ludwig Hüttl: Max Emanuel. The Blue Elector, 1679–1726 . A political biography. 3. Edition. Süddeutscher Verlag, Munich 1976, ISBN 3-7991-5863-4 , p. 475 .
  3. ^ Hüttl: Max Emanuel . S. 413 .
  4. Andrea Zedler: All the bliss of his education to thank the very mildest Ertz house in Austria. Court, education and musical instruction of the Bavarian Prince Elector Karl Albrecht in Graz (1712–1715). In: Historical yearbook of the city of Graz. 42 (2012), pp. 337-366.
  5. ^ Hüttl: Max Emanuel . S. 481 .
  6. Andreas Kraus: From the ostracism of the elector to the conclusion of peace . In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . founded by Max Spindler. 2nd revised edition. Volume II. Old Bavaria. The territorial state. Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-32320-0 , p. 513 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  7. Marcus Junkelmann : Max Emanuel . In: Alois Schmid and Katharina Weigand (eds.): The rulers of Bavaria . 25 historical portraits of Tassilo III. until Ludwig III. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-48230-9 , pp. 244 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  8. 200 years of the Bavarian Supreme Audit Office. Retrieved May 5, 2017 .
  9. ^ Maria Josepha Hyacinthe Topor, Freiin von Morawitzky. In: Geneall. Retrieved September 10, 2013 .
  10. ^ Fritz Rudolf Künker: Bavaria and the House of Wittelsbach, an important special collection. Osnabrück 2006, p. 66.
  11. ^ Maximilian V. Sattler: Textbook of Bavarian History , Lindauer, 1868, p. 292
  12. Karl von Spruner: Guide to the history of Bavaria , Buchner, 1853, p. 81.
  13. a b Churbairisches Manifest. Munich, 1741. Quart, 1 vol. BP
    Oesterr. War of Succession, thorough execution and clear evidence of the inheritance and other rights to ... Austria, Bohemia, etc. Fol., Munich 1741.
    Treated in detail in: Gustav Otruba : Die Erbhuldigung der Oberösterreichischen Estände 1732–1741– 1743. A study on the history of the loyal behavior of the clergy, nobility and bourgeoisie towards Charles VI, Karl Albert and Maria Theresa. In: Communications from the Upper Austrian Provincial Archives. Volume 16, 1990, III. The death of Charles VI, the Pragmatic Sanction, the Wittelsbachers' inheritance claims and the hereditary homage (1741). Pp. 161-191; IV. The reconquest of the country Ob der Enns by Khevenhüller's royal troops and the punishment of the faithless. Pp. 191-204; V. From the files of the investigative commission: Appeals for clemency and letters of justification. Pp. 204–191 [total amount pp. 135–301.] ( Entry in the forum with 8 PDF files for download; the contemporary motives [justifications of inheritance claims], which were also included in the Dektet for homage to the heir, can be found P. 177 ff [= 2nd PDF file, p. 21.] reproduced and discussed)
  14. ^ Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger: Maria Theresia. The empress in her time . 3. Edition. CH Beck, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-406-69748-7 , pp. 103-106 .
  15. ^ Gerhard Schön, German coin catalog 18th century, Frankfurt am Main, No. 29–35
  16. ^ Anton Schindling , Walter Ziegler (ed.): The emperors of the modern times. 1519-1918. Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Germany. Beck, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-406-34395-3 , p. 227.
  17. Egon Friedell : Cultural History of the Modern Age. CH Beck, Munich 1927-31, p. 590.
  18. Alois Schmid: Max III. Joseph and the European Powers. The foreign policy of the Electorate of Bavaria from 1745–1765 . Oldenbourg, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-486-53631-1 , p. 151 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  19. ^ Schmid: Max III. Joseph . Munich 1987, p. 34 f . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  20. on , accessed on March 11, 2014.
  21. on youtube ( memento of July 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 11, 2014.
  22. ^ Egon Johannes Greipl : Karl Albrecht. The second Wittelsbach emperor . In: Alois Schmid and Katharina Weigand (eds.): The rulers of Bavaria . 25 historical portraits of Tassilo III. until Ludwig III. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-48230-9 , pp. 253 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
predecessor Office successor
Maximilian II Electorate of BavariaElectorate of Bavaria Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian III
Charles II (Counter) King of Bohemia
Maria Theresa
Charles VI Roman-German Emperor
Franz I.