Karl Emanuel I.

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Karl Emanuel I.

Karl Emanuel I (Italian: Carlo Emanuele I di Savoia , Spanish: Carlos Manuel I de Saboya , also called the Great , born January 12, 1562 at Château de Rivoli ; † July 26, 1630 in Savigliano ) was Duke of Savoy .


Karl Emanuel was born as the only son of Emanuel Philibert of Savoy and his wife Marguerite of France . He tried to exploit the geostrategically favorable location of his country between France and Spanish-ruled northern Italy to enlarge his country and increase its prestige. At first he leaned on Spain and pursued politics against France. This failed when he was forced by France in the Treaty of Lyon in 1601 to cede much more important own territories to France for the required Margraviate of Saluzzo . He also failed to recapture Geneva , which had previously belonged to Savoy, in 1602 in the Escalade . Disappointed at the lack of support, he then turned away from Spain and allied with France.

One of his goals was to win the cardinal's hat for his family . The family already had a cardinal, as the antipope Felix V was compensated as such in the 15th century as thanks for his resignation. He wanted to build on this tradition. In 1589 he proposed to Pope Clement VIII first his son Viktor Amadeus , then only two years old, and then his fourth-born son Moritz of Savoy . By sending a Cardinal of Savoy to the Curia, close ties with Rome were to be guaranteed. In addition, the Savoy family would then be on an equal footing with the ruling houses Gonzaga , d'Este , Medici and Farnese , who also had cardinals in their family at that time. It was only under Paul V that his efforts were successful. In 1607 the Pope appointed Moritz of Savoy cardinal.

Karl Emanuel also supported the Bohemian rebels at the beginning of the Thirty Years War and financed the army under Peter Ernst II von Mansfeld in support of Bohemia . Due to the death of Emperor Matthias in 1619, the Italian prince pursued his own intentions in negotiations with princes of the Protestant Union regarding the vacant imperial crown and the Bohemian royal crown.

Edict of Karl Emanuels of March 5, 1621 by which the export duty on olive oil was lowered at the request of the Ligurian Oneglia Valley and his son Filiberto

In 1626 the dukes of Mantua died out, and Monferrat Karl Emmanuel could lay claim to their property . France did not support Savoy's claims. Therefore, Karl Emanuel intervened in the Mantuan War of Succession , which was connected with a renewed turn against France. He died in 1630 during this war, which only his son Viktor Amadeus could end with the Peace of Cherasco .

Marriage and offspring

In 1585 Karl Emanuel I married Catherine Michaela of Spain . The marriage with the daughter of Philip II brought him a gain in prestige and should also help his territorial goals. The marriage resulted in the following children, whose marriages were in turn arranged with due regard to dynastic-political aspects:


Philip II (Savoy) (1438–1497)
Charles III (Savoy) (1486–1553)
Claudine de Brosse (1450-1513)
Emanuel Philibert (Savoy) (1528–1580)
Manuel I (Portugal) (1469–1521)
Beatrix of Portugal (1504–1538)
Mary of Aragon (1482-1517)
Charles Emanuel I (Savoy) (1562–1630)
Charles de Valois, comte d'Angoulême (1459–1496)
Francis I (France) (1494–1547)
Luise of Savoy (1476–1531)
Marguerite de Valois-Angoulême, duchesse de Berry (1523–1574)
Louis XII. (1462-1515)
Claude de France (1499-1524)
Anne de Bretagne (1477-1514)

Illegitimate children

After his wife died giving birth to Giovanna, he no longer married. With the women Luisa de Duingt , Argentina Provana, Marguerite de Roussillon , Virginia Pallavicino , Anna Caterina Meraviglia and Anna Felizita Cusa he became the father of 11 illegitimate children

  • Emanuele (* 1600 - 9 October 1652), Count di Andorno,
  • Felice (* 1604 - December 18, 1643),
  • Maurizio († October 1645),
  • Gabriele (* 1620 - † June 2, 1695),
  • Margherita († September 5, 1659), Duchess d'Este,
  • Antonio († February 24, 1688),
  • Carlo Umberto (* 1601; † January 15, 1665),
  • Silvio († December 8, 1645),
  • Vitichindo († April 4, 1668),
  • Anna Caterina, and
  • Luigi († April 23, 1684).


  • Duke Karl Emanuel the First of Savoy and the German election of 1619: A contribution to the prehistory of the Thirty Years' War , published by Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer, Leipzig 1862 ( online version )
  • Valerio Castronovo:  Carlo Emanuele I, duca di Savoia. In: Alberto M. Ghisalberti (Ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 20:  Carducci-Carusi. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 1977.
  • Toby Osborne: Dynasty and diplomacy in the court of Savoy. Political culture and the Thirty Years' War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 2002 ISBN 0-521-65268-5 .

Web links

Commons : Karl Emanuel I.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gerhard Schormann: The Thirty Years War. 3. Edition. Small Vandenhoeck series, Göttingen 2004, p. 26.
  2. Ludwig Graf Ütterodt to Scharffenberg: Ernest Count Mansfeld (1580-1626). Gotha 1867, p. 197 ff.
predecessor Office successor
Emanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy
Viktor Amadeus I.