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Adoration of the Magi by Sandro Botticelli (front right in the picture), with the members of the Medici family as kings: Cosimo kneeling, Piero and Giovanni as back figures in the center, plus members of the Medici court (approx. 1475)

The Medici family ( Italian [ ˈmɛːditʃi ]; fully de 'Medici ) from Florence formed an influential Italian dynasty from the 15th to the 18th centuries , from which the Grand Dukes of Tuscany , three popes and two queens of France emerged .

The Medici acquired their wealth in the textile trade, which was operated by the Guild Arte della Lana . On this basis, they established a modern banking system and dominated  the European financial world of the early modern period - also through their relationships with the papacy . Their patronage enabled and shaped the Renaissance in Florence.

coat of arms

Medici family coat of arms since 1465

The Medici carried a horse front shield , a special form of shield that occurs only in Italian heraldry.

Blazon : "Five red pills ( balls ) in gold , placed 2: 2: 1, increased by a larger blue one, covered with three golden lilies 2: 1."

Declaration of coat of arms: The origin of the balls as coat of arms symbols is unclear; the best-known hypothesis sees it as pills (“Medici” means “doctors” in Italian) ; others derive it from a modified takeover of the coat of arms of the Florentine money changer guild, which had a shield covered with coins. Another hypothesis sees fittings that were attached to weapon shields to reduce sword blows. In the 14th century there were eight red balls (pills) (3: 3: 2), then six red ones, initially 3: 2: 1, then 1: 2: 2: 1. The lilies of the French national coat of arms (or the coat of arms of the Capetian dynasty ) were created in 1465 by King Louis XI. awarded as a sign of grace ( improvement of the coat of arms ).

The full coat of arms of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany: “On the slanted, gold-trimmed, black piercing helmet with a gold leaf crown on a leaning shield with red-gold covers, a red-tongued, gold-armored, black (or natural-colored) flying sparrowhawk , with a beak and a raised right claw one through one golden ring drawn silver band with the motto semper (lat .: always ) holding. "

The earlier Medici helmet ornament: "On a crowned helmet with helmet covers sprinkled with gold on the outside with red balls, inside silver-black monkshood a growing black dog with a silver collar."

Family history

The Medici, who come from the Florentine area, can be documented for the first time in the second half of the 13th century as holders of office in the guild of merchants. They belonged to the bourgeois patriciate of the city, which, like most of the northern Italian cities of the Middle Ages, was ruled by republican oligarchy (see the article History of Florence or Italian nobility ) .

With Salvestro de 'Medici (1331-1388), who was elected Gonfaloniere in 1378 , they first stepped into the limelight. He played a colorful role in the clashes between the conservative guilds and the revolutionary woolen weavers ( Ciompi uprising ). For a short time he exercised dictatorial power, but was banished in 1382. At that time the Medici were a wealthy, but by no means the leading merchant family in Florence. In the 14th century, the Florentine families Bardi and Peruzzi were among the largest bankers in Europe.

Cosimo de 'Medici (1389–1464)

The rise of the family began with Salvestro's nephew Giovanni di Bicci de 'Medici (1360–1429) and the development of the Banco Medici . Giovanni became the banker of the antipope John XXIII. , who was deposed by the Council of Constance in 1415. In Florence he mediated or managed between the city nobility (under the leadership of the Gonfaloniere Maso degli Albizzi ) and the people.

The older branch of the family, the Medici di Cafaggiolo , then ruled Florence until 1537 with two interruptions (1494–1512 and 1527–1530), including above all Cosimo de 'Medici , known as “il Vecchio”, the old man (1389–1464 ). In 1433, mainly supporters of the Albizzi (under the leadership of Rinaldo degli Albizzi ) were drawn in the election for the new Signoria , so that the applicant Cosimo de 'Medici was first imprisoned and then exiled to Urbino after an attempted murder on him had failed. However, he opposed the judgment and went into exile in Venice , from where he managed the business of the Banco Medici, which he had made an important company. Cosimo de 'Medici was able to return to Florence in early 1434, among other things because of an unjust tax policy by the Albizzi and papal interventions. The supporters of the Albizzi were now banished for their part. The Albizzi submitted to the Medici and left them to rule. Cosimo de 'Medici was now the most powerful of the approximately 80 bankers in Florence. In 1444 he commissioned the architect Michelozzo to build the Palazzo Medici Riccardi , which was completed in 1460.

Cosimo's son Piero di Cosimo de 'Medici (1416–1469) was de facto the leading citizen of Florence because of his wealth. His son Lorenzo il Magnifico ("the Magnificent", 1449-1492) was also officially only a banker , but in fact ruled the city with money and clever politics without any legal authority, while his protégés held the official positions. He experienced a strengthening of his position through the Peace of Lodi in 1454, but only barely survived the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478, to which his brother Giuliano fell victim. Lorenzo was given the nickname il Magnifico because of his generous support of the fine arts, especially literature, painting and sculpture, including the artists Sandro Botticelli and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Under his rule, Florence became the most important city of the arts during the Renaissance.

His eldest son Piero di Lorenzo de 'Medici took over the banking business and political leadership, while the second son, Giovanni, when Leo X. was elected the first pope of the family in 1513 († 1521). In the year of his election, he raised his nephew, Piero's son Lorenzo , to the papal nobility (thus the first ennoblement of a Medici) while Piero's youngest brother Giuliano was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Nemours in 1515 (which already marked the rise to the high nobility ). In 1516 Lorenzo was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Urbino , albeit temporarily. In 1523 the cousin Giulio was elected as Clement VII (1523–1534) the second Medici Pope. (The third, Alessandro Ottaviano de 'Medici, a nephew of Leo X., ruled as Pope Leo XI in April 1605 for only a few weeks.)

Piero di Lorenzo de 'Medici was expelled in 1494 when Girolamo Savonarola's "State of God" was established. His son Lorenzo did not manage to return until 1512, but he was expelled again in 1527. Only with the help of his cousin Giulio (now Pope Clement VII) and the emperor was it possible, following the coronation of Emperor Charles V in Bologna in 1530, to reverse this second expulsion from the then briefly renewed Republic of Florence (1527–1530) .

Alessandro de 'Medici (1510–1537), from 1531 first Duke of Florence

The transformation of the republic into a monarchy could not be stopped. Lorenzo di Piero was appointed Duke of Urbino by his uncle, Pope Leo X , in 1516 , while his illegitimate son Alessandro de 'Medici (possibly also a son of Pope Clement VII) ruled the Republic of Florence from 1523 until his expulsion in 1527 similar to a prince, after his reinstatement from 1531 openly as “Duke of the Republic” appointed by the emperor. His assassination in 1537 by Lorenzino de 'Medici , a relative of the younger line of the Medici, is seen as the last flare-up of the republic, but it may also have been simply the offended vanity of someone passed over during an inheritance rule. Lorenzo's daughter, Alessandro's half-sister, was Caterina de 'Medici , who married the future French King Henry II in 1533 . Alessandro himself had married Margaret of Parma , an illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles, in 1536 .

Cosimo I (1519–1574), 1569 first Grand Duke of Tuscany

After the death of Alessandro, his favorite Cosimo I from the younger line of the Medici prevailed. Since 1537 when Duke in Florence and since 1569 as papal Grand Duke of Tuscany (the title was in 1575 the Grand Duke Francesco I from his brother Emperor Maximilian II. Confirmed as the Tuscany not the Papal States was under, but to imperial Italy was one) had the heritability introduced during the Medici rule. His descendants, among whom especially Cosimo II (1590–1621) stood out as the protector of Galileo Galileo , and Maria de 'Medici , the daughter of Francesco and wife of the French king Henry IV , ruled Tuscany until it died out in 1737.

After the death of the last, childless Grand Duke Gian Gastone in 1737, the Grand Duchy fell back to the empire as a completed flag loan due to the extinction of the ruling Medicis in the male line and was able to get back from Emperor Charles VI. be reassigned. According to an agreement between the European powers, it passed to Franz Stephan von Lothringen , the emperor's son-in-law and husband Maria Theresa , who was to be elected emperor himself in 1745. This ceded his inherited duchy of Lorraine to France . The private fortune of the Medici, however, fell to the surviving sister of Gian Gastone, the Palatine Electress widow Anna Maria Luisa de 'Medici (1667–1743). This left behind the collected art treasures of the Medici of the city of Florence, including the Palazzo Pitti and the collection of paintings exhibited today in the Uffizi .

An important network analysis study by John Padgett and Christopher Ansell shows that a basis for the rise of the Medici was the special structure of their network of relationships between the years 1400 and 1434 after the Ciompi uprising . The Medici network shows a separation of marital and economic relations in the relations of the Medici in their party. They did trade with the rising woolen cloth dealers, but mostly married into noble families who did not come from their neighborhood, San Giovanni. This led to the fact that they, unlike the oligarchs, i.e. the ruling elite around the Albizzi , held a central and powerful position in their party and could not be blackmailed by other families.

Art, architecture and science

Palazzo Medici Riccardi , built from 1444
Tomb of Giuliano II by Michelangelo (around 1530)
Palazzo Pitti , from 1549 residence of the dukes and grand dukes

The greatest achievements with the help of Medici money were in art and architecture. Giovanni di Bicci sponsored Masaccio and commissioned Filippo Brunelleschi in 1419 to rebuild the Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze , which became the burial place of the Medici. The artists that Cosimo de 'Medici commissioned were Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello) and Filippo Lippi . However, her main contribution was promoting Michelangelo , who worked for a number of family members, starting with Lorenzo il Magnifico with whom he shared lunch. In his time, important artists and scholars such as Angelo Poliziano , Cristoforo Landino , Giovanni Pico della Mirandola , Francesco Granacci , Sandro Botticelli , Marsilio Ficino , Niccolò Machiavelli and Leonardo da Vinci were promoted in Florence . In addition to the mere commissioning of artists, the Medici were also successful collectors, whose acquisitions today form the core of the Uffizi , the art museum of the city of Florence.

In terms of architecture, some of the most important structures in Florence go back to the Medici:

Investigations of the Medici graves

Triumph of the Medici in the clouds of Olympus, frescoes in the gallery of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in Florence , Luca Giordano , 1684–1686

At the end of April 2004, Italian scientists, led by paleopathologist Gino Fornaciari, began to open the graves of a total of 49 members of the family. The goal is to research the exact causes of death, illnesses and eating habits of relatives. First, various tombs were opened in the Medici chapels and in the Church of San Lorenzo. A sensational discovery was made right at the beginning of the investigation: a previously unknown crypt was discovered under the crypt of Gian Gastone, in which eight bodies were found. The Italian scientists now tried to find out under what circumstances the dead - including children and young people - died and why they were buried in hiding. It is believed that these are also members of the Medici family.

Although the project will only be completed in the near future, it is now clear that, contrary to popular belief, the Medici did not suffer from gout , but from a genetically caused form of osteoarthritis . In addition to meat, they also ate a lot of vegetables and grains. In addition, many members of the family suffered from tooth decay . One could tell from the bones of Eleonora of Toledo that she had probably ridden a lot. Another surprising finding is that, contrary to claims made by historians of the 16th century, Don Garzia de 'Medici did not kill his brother Giovanni. No injuries could be found on its skeleton. Instead, both brothers presumably died of malaria , which they may have contracted during hunting trips in the Maremma .

Important family members

Pope Leo X with the cardinals Giulio de 'Medici, later Clement VII , and Luigi de' Rossi (by Raphael , around 1518–1519, Florence, Uffizi )

From the time of the elder Medici

From the time of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany

The art collector Cardinal Leopoldo de 'Medici (1617–1675)

More Medici

Other branches of the family

A Guglielmo Medici had fled to Naples before the clashes between the Guelphs and Ghibellines and appeared there as a judge from 1269. His descendants lived in Gragnano near Naples and founded several churches there in the 16th century; the line later went out. Other branches became extinct in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Two other branches descended from a Giuliano in the 14th century: his grandson Giuliano founded the Marchesi della Castellina , his brother Antonio founded the princes of Ottajano . Lorenzo de 'Medici (1599–1648) from the first branch received the place Castellina Marittima from Grand Duke Ferdinando II. De' Medici in 1628 as a feudal marriage with the title Marchese della Castellina . The branch took on the name Medici Tornaquinci from 1730 through the marriage of a Margherita Tornaquinci and still exists.

From the second brother was Ottaviano de'Medici (1484-1546), who was 1531 Gonfaloniere di Giustizia in Florence. His son Alessandro became Archbishop of Florence in 1574 and served briefly as Pope Leo XI in 1605 . His brother Bernadetto acquired the castle and the Ottaviano rule at the foot of Vesuvius near Naples in 1567 . In 1600 the branch received the title Principe di Ottajano in the Kingdom of Naples and in 1693 Duca di Sarno , in 1822 it also inherited the title Duca di Miranda (from the Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona-Caracciolo). From the branch u. a. Luigi de 'Medici di Ottajano (1759-1830), who represented the House of Bourbon-Sicily at the Congress of Vienna in 1814 and was Prime Minister of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816-20 and 1822-30 . From the Neapolitan main branch, which died out in 1894, the Ottaviano Castle and the Palazzo Miranda in Naples passed to female descendants, while the titles fell to a still existing secondary branch.

Family relationships

The beginnings of the Medici family

Complete coat of arms of the Medici
  1. Medico di Potrone (1046? -1102)
    1. Bono di Potrone (1069? -1123)
      1. Bernardo di Potrone (1099? –1147)
        1. Giambono (Giambuono) de 'Medici (1131–1192)
          1. Chiarissimo de 'Medici (1167–1210), 1201 member of the city council of Florence
            1. Filippo de 'Medici
              1. Chiarissimo de 'Medici
                1. Filippo de 'Medici († 1290)
                  1. Arrigo de 'Medici
                  2. Alamanno de 'Medici, 1314 accolade for services to the Republic of Florence
                    1. Salvestro di Alamanno de 'Medici (1331–1388), in office from 1360, 1370 and 1377/78 Gonfalogniere of Florence, involved in the Ciompi uprising , exile in 1382
                    2. Andrea di Alamanno de 'Medici
                    3. Bartolommeo di Alamanno
                  3. Giovanni de 'Medici († 1343), public office in Florence from 1340
                  4. Cambio de 'Medici
                    1. Vieri de 'Medici († 1395), accolade after the Ciompi uprising
                    2. Giovanni de 'Medici
                2. Giambuono de 'Medici
              2. Averardo de 'Medici
                1. Alamanno de 'Medici
                  1. Averardo de 'Medici, Prior in 1309, Gonfaloniere in Florence in 1299 and 1314 , ⚭ Mandina Argucci, is considered to be the founder of the Medici fortune
                    1. Jacopo de 'Medici
                  2. Giovenco de 'Medici
                  3. Francesco de 'Medici
                  4. Salvestro di Averardo de 'Medici (descendants see under The Lords of Florence )
                  5. Talento de 'Medici
                    1. Mario de 'Medici, ⚭ 1)? Bardi, ⚭ 2)? Strozzi
                    2. Conte di Averardo de 'Medici, 1318 and 1324 prior of Florence
                      1. Giovanni di Conte de 'Medici, Condottiere , 1349 Gonfaloniere of Florence
                        1. Filigno de 'Medici
          2. Bonagiunta de 'Medici
            1. Ugo de 'Medici
              1. Galganus de 'Medici
                1. Arrigo de 'Medici
                2. Bonagiunta de 'Medici
                  1. Ardingho de 'Medici († 1316), ⚭ Gemma de' Bardi, 1291 and around 1300 Prior, 1296 and again later Gonfaloniere of Florence
                    1. Francesco di Ardingho de 'Medici, ⚭ Contessina Adimari, 1343 one of seven popolani of the new government after Walter VI. from Brienne
                  2. Guccio de 'Medici (1298-1315)

The lords of Florence

  1. Salvestro di Averardo de 'Medici, ⚭ Lisa Donati, 1336 ambassador in Venice ( ancestors see above )
    1. Talento de 'Medici
    2. Averardo de 'Medici, ⚭ 1) Giovanna de' Bonaguisi, ⚭ 2) Giacoma di Francesco Spini
      1. Francesco de 'Medici
        1. Malatesta de 'Medici
        2. Diamante de 'Medici
        3. Dianora de 'Medici
        4. Averardo de 'Medici († 1434)
          1. Mariotto de 'Medici
          2. Selvaggia de 'Medici
          3. Giuliano de 'Medici
            1. Francesco de 'Medici
          4. Matteo de 'Medici
          5. Caterina de 'Medici, ⚭ Alamanno Schiatta
        5. Caterina de 'Medici
      2. Antonia de 'Medici, ⚭ Angiolo Ardinghelli
      3. Giovanni di Bicci de 'Medici (1360–1429), actually Giovanni di Averardo de' Medici, Florentine merchant and banker, Prior of Florence in 1402, 1408 and 1411
        1. Cosimo de 'Medici , il Vecchio, the old man (1389–1464), ⚭ Contessina de' Bardi, city lord of Florence
          1. Piero di Cosimo de 'Medici (1416–1469), ⚭ Lucrezia Tornabuoni , city lord of Florence 1464
            1. Maria de 'Medici, illegitimate, ⚭ Leopetto de' Rossi
            2. Bianca de 'Medici (1445–1488), ⚭ Guglielmo de' Pazzi
            3. Lucrezia de 'Medici (1447–1482), ⚭ Bernardo Ruccellai
            4. Lorenzo il Magnifico the Magnificent (1449–1492), ⚭ Clarice Orsini , city lord of Florence 1469
              1. Lucrezia de 'Medici , ⚭ Jacopo Salviati
              2. Piero di Lorenzo de 'Medici (1472–1503), ⚭ Alfonsina Orsini , city lord of Florence 1492
                1. Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici (1492–1519), ⚭ Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne , city lord of Florence, 1516 Duke of Urbino
                  1. Alessandro de 'Medici (1510–1537), illegitimate (probably a son of Pope Clement VII, see below, and a Moorish concubine), Duca della città di Penna, lord of Florence ⚭ 1536 Margaret of Parma , illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V.
                    1. Giulio de 'Medici (1527 / 32–1600), illegitimate
                  2. Caterina de 'Medici (1519–1589), Queen of France ⚭ 1533 Henry II, King of France (1519–1559)
                2. Clarice de 'Medici (1493–1528) ⚭ Filippo Strozzi (1489–1538)
              3. Maddalena de 'Medici (1473–1519), ⚭ Francesco Cibo
              4. Giovanni de 'Medici (1475–1521), Pope Leo X.
              5. Luisa de 'Medici (1477-1488)
              6. Contessina de 'Medici (1478–1515), ⚭ Piero Ridolfi
              7. Giuliano di Lorenzo de 'Medici (1479–1516), ⚭ Filliberta of Savoy (1498–1524), Duke of Nemours
                1. Ippolito de 'Medici (1511–1535), illegitimate, cardinal
            5. Giuliano di Piero de 'Medici (1453–1478), ⚭ Antonia Gorini
              1. Giulio de 'Medici (1478–1534), Pope Clement VII.
                1. Alessandro de 'Medici (1510–1537), Duke of Florence
          2. Giovanni de 'Medici (1421–1463), ⚭ Ginevra degli Albizzi
            1. Cosimo de 'Medici (1452-1461)
          3. Carlo de 'Medici (* 1430), illegitimate
        2. Lorenzo de 'Medici (1395-1440), ⚭ Ginevra Cavalcanti
          1. Pierfrancesco de 'Medici the Elder (1430–1476), ⚭ Laudomia Acciaiuoli
            1. Lorenzo de 'Medici (1463–1503), ⚭ Semiramide Appiano
              1. Vincenzo de 'Medici
              2. Laudomia de 'Medici, ⚭ Francesco Salviati
              3. Averardo de 'Medici
              4. Pierfrancesco de 'Medici the Younger (1487–1525), ⚭ Maria Soderini
                1. Lorenzino de 'Medici (1514–1548), writer
                2. Laudomia de 'Medici (* 1518), ⚭ 1) 1532 Alemanno Salviati, ⚭ 2) 1539 Piero Strozzi (1510–1558)
                3. Giuliano de 'Medici (1520–1588), Archbishop of Albi
                4. Maddalena de 'Medici (†; 1583), ⚭ 1539 Roberto Strozzi
              5. Ginevra de 'Medici, ⚭ Girolamo degli Albizzi
            2. Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de 'Medici , called il Popolano (1467–1498) ⚭ 1497 Caterina Sforza (1463–1509), daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza , Duke of Milan
              1. Giovanni de 'Medici , called dalle Bande Nere (1498–1526), ​​⚭ Maria Salviati , Condottiere
                1. Cosimo I (1519–1574), Duke of Florence 1537, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1569 ( descendants see below )

The Grand Dukes of Tuscany

  1. Cosimo I (1519–1574), ⚭ 1) Eleonora of Toledo , ⚭ 2) Camilla Martelli, Duke of Florence 1537, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1569 ( ancestors see above )
    1. Maria de 'Medici (1540–1557)
    2. Francesco I de 'Medici (1541–1587), regent 1564, Grand Duke 1574 ⚭ 1) 1565 Johanna von Habsburg (1547–1578), daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I , ⚭ 2) 1579 Bianca Cappello (1548–1587)
      1. Pellegrina 1564– ?, adopted, the mother was Francesco's second wife Bianca
      2. Eleonora (February 28, 1567 - September 9, 1611) ⚭ 1584 Vincenzo I. Gonzaga (1562–1612), Duke of Mantua
      3. Romola (November 20, 1568 - December 2, 1568)
      4. Anna (December 31, 1569 - February 19, 1584)
      5. Isabella (September 30, 1571 - August 8, 1572)
      6. Lucrezia (7 November 1572 - 14 August 1574)
      7. Maria (born April 26, 1575 in Florence, † July 3, 1642 in Cologne ) ⚭ October 5, 1600 Henry IV , King of France (1553–1610)
      8. Antonio 1576-1621, adopted
      9. Filippo (May 20, 1577 - March 29, 1582)
    3. Isabella de 'Medici (1542–1576), ⚭ Paolo Orsini
    4. Giovanni de 'Medici (1543–1562), Archbishop of Pisa , cardinal in 1560
    5. Lucrezia de 'Medici (1545–1562) ⚭ Alfonso II. D'Este , Duke of Ferrara (1533–1597)
    6. Garzia de 'Medici (1547–1562)
    7. Ferdinando I de 'Medici (1549–1609), cardinal 1563–1589, 1587 Grand Duke of Tuscany , ⚭ 1589 Christine of Lorraine (1565–1637), daughter of Duke Charles III. ( House Vaudémont )
      1. Cosimo II. De 'Medici (1590–1621), Grand Duke 1608 ⚭ 1608 Maria Magdalena von Habsburg (1589–1631) , daughter of Archduke Charles
        1. Maria Christine de 'Medici (1609-1632)
        2. Ferdinando II. De 'Medici (1610–1670), Grand Duke 1621, ⚭ 1634 Vittoria della Rovere (1622–1694), daughter of Federico Ubaldo della Rovere , Prince of Urbino
          1. Cosimo III. de 'Medici (1642–1723), Grand Duke 1670, ⚭ 1661, divorced 1675, Marguerite Louise d'Orléans (1645–1721), daughter of Duke Gaston
            1. Ferdinando de 'Medici (1663–1713) ⚭ 1689 Violante von Bayern (1673–1731) , daughter of Elector Ferdinand Maria
            2. Anna Maria Luisa de 'Medici (1667–1743), Grand Duchess of Tuscany , ⚭ 1691 Johann Wilhelm , Elector Palatinate-Neuburg (1658–1716)
            3. Gian Gastone de 'Medici (1671–1737), Grand Duke 1723, ⚭ 1697 Anna Maria Franziska von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1672–1741), daughter of Duke Julius Franz von Sachsen-Lauenburg
          2. Francesco Maria de 'Medici (1660–1711), 1686–1709 cardinal, ⚭ 1709 Eleonora Luisa Gonzaga (1686–1742), daughter of Vincenzo Gonzaga , Duke of Guastalla
        3. Giancarlo de 'Medici (1611–1663), 1644 cardinal
        4. Margherita de 'Medici (1612–1679) ⚭ 1628 Odoardo I Farnese , Duke of Parma (1612–1646)
        5. Matteo de 'Medici (1613–1667), governor of Siena
        6. Francesco de 'Medici (1614-1634)
        7. Anna de 'Medici (1616–1676), ⚭ 1646 Ferdinand Karl , Archduke of Austria (1628–1662)
        8. Leopoldo de 'Medici (1617–1675), 1667 cardinal
      2. Eleonora de 'Medici (1591-1617)
      3. Caterina de 'Medici (1593–1629) ⚭ 1617 Ferdinando Gonzaga (1587–1626), Duke of Mantua
      4. Francesco de 'Medici (1594-1614)
      5. Carlo di Ferdinando de 'Medici (1595–1666), cardinal and bishop
      6. Lorenzo de 'Medici (1599-1648)
      7. Maddalena de 'Medici (1600–1633)
      8. Claudia de 'Medici (1604–1648), Archduchess of Austria and Duchess of Tyrol ⚭ 1) 1621 Federico Ubaldo della Rovere , Duke of Urbino (1605–1625), ⚭ 1626 Leopold V Archduke of Austria (1586–1632)
    8. Pietro de 'Medici (1554–1604), illegitimate, ⚭ Eleonora of Toledo ( House of Álvarez de Toledo )
    9. Giovanni de 'Medici (1567–1621), illegitimate
    10. Virginia de 'Medici (1568–1615) ⚭ 1586 Cesare d'Este , Duke of Modena (1552–1628)

Other branches of the family

  1. ?
    1. Bernardino de 'Medici, origin unclear, nephew of Cosimo il Vecchio
  2. ?
    1. Bernardo de 'Medici, 1307, 1309, 1317, 1320 and 1322 prior of Florence, origin unclear, cousin to Ardingho de' Medici however clear
      1. Giovanni de 'Medici († 1343), Gonfaloniere in Florence, was by Walter VI. executed by Brienne
  1. ?
    1. Giovenco
      1. Giuliano
        1. Antonio
          1. Bernardetto (†; 1465)
            1. Lorenzo
              1. Ottaviano (1482-1546)
                1. Alessandro Ottaviano de 'Medici (1535–1605), 1574 Archbishop of Florence, 1583 Cardinal, 1605 Pope Leo XI.

See also


  • Cristina Acidini (ed.): The treasures of the Medici. Prestel, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-7913-1845-4 .
  • James Cleugh: The Medici. Power and splendor of a European family. Piper, Munich / Zurich 2002, ISBN 3-492-23667-7 (original edition Doubleday, Garden City 1975).
  • John R. Hale: The Medici and Florence. Belser, Stuttgart / Zurich 1979, ISBN 3-7630-1188-9 .
  • Christopher Hibbert: The House of Medici. Its rise and fall. Harper Perennial, London 1999, ISBN 0-688-05339-4 (original edition Allen Lane, London 1974).
  • Tobias Leuker: Building blocks of a myth: The Medici in poetry and art of the 15th century. Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2007, ISBN 3-412-33505-3 .
  • Lorenzo de 'Medici: The Medici - The story of my family. Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2006, ISBN 3-7857-2245-1 (original edition Los Medicis 2002).
  • John F. Padgett, Christopher K. Ansell: Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400-1434. In: The American Journal of Sociology. Volume 98, 1993, ISSN  0002-9602 , pp. 1259-1319 ( PDF; 1.18 MB ).
  • Tim Parks : Medici Money. Kunstmann Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-88897-472-4 .
  • Uwe A. Oster: The Medici. Bankers in the name of God. Darmstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-86312-047-4 .
  • Volker Reinhardt : The Medici. Florence in the age of the Renaissance. Beck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-44028-2 .
  • Götz-Rüdiger Tewes: Struggle for Florence - the Medici in exile (1494-1512). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2011, ISBN 978-3-412-20643-7 , p. 13 ff.
  • Alfried Wieczorek , Gae͏̈lle Rosendahl, Donatella Lippi (eds.): The Medici - people, power and passion. (= Companion volume to the exhibition of the same name). Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-7954-2634-7 .

Web links

Commons : House Medici  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Veronica Casini: Perché i Medici hanno 6 palle (sullo stemma) (Italian); German: Why the Medici have six bullets (on the coat of arms) .
  2. ^ Bernhard Peter: Gallery: Photos of beautiful old coats of arms No. 1016 - Heidelberg
  3. Pius IV. (Giovanni Angelo Medici), the fourth Pope with the name Medici and in office from 1559 to 1565, came from a different family.