Life up to the papacy
Giovanni Angelo Medici was the son of an insignificant Milanese family who were not related to the Medici from Florence (but Pius IV with his papal coat of arms was based on their coat of arms) and was originally called Medigino. His early career was based on the rise of his older brother Gian Giacomo Medici to Marchese di Marignano, i.e. Margrave of Marignano.
After studying in Bologna and gaining some reputation as a lawyer, he came to Rome in 1527, where he became the favorite of Pope Paul III. rise and was entrusted with the power of rule over numerous cities. 1542–1543 he was apostolic commissioner with the troops against the Turks. In 1546 he was appointed Archbishop of Ragusa and Vice Delegate of Bologna. In addition, from 1546 he was general commissioner of the papal auxiliary troops in the Schmalkaldic War in Germany. Finally he was on April 8, 1549 by Pope Paul III. appointed cardinal with the titular church Santa Pudenziana , after which he u. a. Cardinal priest of Sant'Anastasia and finally moved to the titular church of Santa Prisca in 1557 .
After the death of Pope Paul IV , Gianangelo Medici was elected Pope in the conclave on December 25, 1559 and was introduced to the office on January 6, 1560. The Pope's name was meant programmatically ( pius = the pious), in contrast to the rigorous policies of his predecessor from the Neapolitan Carafa family .
His first important public acts were a general amnesty for all participants in a revolt during the pontificate of his predecessor and the sentencing of two nephews of Paul: Cardinal Carlo Carafa was hanged and the Duke of Paliano was beheaded.
On January 18, 1562, the Council of Trent was convened for the third time, by Pope Julius III. had initially been repealed. With great care and understanding, it was possible to clarify numerous important questions. The three leading Catholic nations, Spain, France and Germany, participated, although they were politically against the interests of the Holy See. The interpretations and decrees of the council were confirmed by a papal bull of January 26, 1564 and, although they were enforced against opposition from France and Spain , the famous Creed of Pius IV remained in force. His final version Professio fidei Tridentinae ( Trento Creed ) was published on November 13, 1564 with the bull " Iniunctum nobis ".
In this spirit in 1564 the Pope invited the Queen of Navarre , Joan III. , before the Inquisition on charges of Calvinism . However, he withdrew this after the express protest of the French king Charles IX. back. In the same year a bull was published in which the faithful of Austria and Bohemia were allowed the lay chalice , i.e. the reception of the blood of Christ (converted wine) during communion , in addition to the body of Christ , the host (converted bread).
A great passion of Pius IV was the erection of buildings in the Papal States . This led to the strain on fiscal resources, but also to the beautification of Rome: For example, he had the Casino di Pio IV built in the Vatican Gardens , a kind of small summer residence in the shape of a multi-part garden house in Mannerist style with a fountain in the center of the courtyard; today it is the seat of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The establishment of the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli in the main room of the former Diocletian's baths by Michelangelo Buonarotti was also important. In addition, other regions within the papal territory were favored by his willingness to build, such as the ports of Ostia , Civitavecchia and Ancona .
Pius IV was also known for his moderate nepotism. One of his sisters, Chiara, was married to the Vorarlberg condottiere in the service of Emperor Charles V , Wolf Dietrich von Hohenems . Both sons Jakob Hannibal and Marcus Sitticus benefited from their uncle's ascent to pope. While the former remained in military service, the younger son became a cardinal and for a time served as chairman of the Council of Trent; He also became known as a builder, for example the Villa Mondragone in Frascati . His son Roberto was enfeoffed in 1579 with the towns of Gallese and Soriano bought by his father and made duke. With the Latinized name Altemps , the family has belonged to the high nobility of the city since then. Pius also paved the way for another nephew, later St. Carlo Borromeo , to become the Archdiocese of Milan and the Cardinalate. All of these nephews were also given due consideration in his will.
Pius IV also showed himself to be favored towards one of the two most important families in Rome, the Orsini . The then representative of the main line, Paolo Giordano I ,. was made Duke of Bracciano by him in 1560 , giving this center of the Orsini estate in north-western Lazio a hereditary title of nobility. Bracciano remained in the Orsini's possession until 1696.
A conspiracy against Pius, led by a son of Cardinal Benedetto Accolti , who died in 1549 , was uncovered and crushed in 1565. A short time later the Pope died on December 9th of the same year. He was succeeded by Pius V.
- Flavio Rurale: Pio IV. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi. Volume 3: Innocenzo VIII, Giovanni Paolo II. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2000 ( treccani.it ).
- Georg Denzler: Pius IV. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 7, Bautz, Herzberg 1994, ISBN 3-88309-048-4 , Sp. 665
- Tilman Schmidt: Altemps. In: Volker Reinhardt (ed.): The great families of Italy (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 485). Kröner, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-520-48501-X , pp. 24-27.
- Entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia , Robert Appleton Company, New York 1913.
- MEDICI, Giovanni Angelo de '(1499-1565). In: Salvador Miranda : The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ( Florida International University website), accessed November 28, 2013.
- Entry on Pope Pius IV (Giovanni Angelo de 'Medici) on catholic-hierarchy.org
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Medici, Giovanni Angelo|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Pope (1559–1565)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 31, 1499|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 9, 1565|
|Place of death||Rome|