Swabian War the Confederates win over the Swabian League, which was allied
with the House of Habsburg .
|Ludovico Sforza is expelled from Milan,||
Ludwig XII. of France
becomes Duke in Milan .
|1499 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||947/948 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||6. Rabbit - Chicuace Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 5th house - Macuilli Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2042/43 (southern Buddhism); 2041/42 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||861/862 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3832/33 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||904/905 (turn of the year August 7/8)|
|Jewish calendar||5259/60 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1809/10 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1810/11 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1555/56 (turn of the year April)|
The central event of 1499 in the Holy Roman Empire is the Swabian War between the House of Habsburg under King Maximilian I and the Swabian Confederation on the one hand and the Swiss Confederation on the other for dominance in the Habsburg-Federal border area. The war, which lasts for almost the entire year and ends with the peace in Basel at the end of September, does not lead to any territorial changes. However, the victorious Confederates can maintain their relative independence within the Holy Roman Empire, even if they formally remain part of the Empire.
In Portugal the news arrives that the navigator Vasco da Gama has managed to find the sea route to India on the eastern route via the Cape of Good Hope . When he finally arrives in Lisbon himself, he is given a triumphant welcome.
Politics and world events
- January: A Tyrolean attack on the Münstertal in Graubünden triggers the Swabian War in the Habsburg-Federal border area.
- February 11th : Confederates and Bündner drive the Swabian troops out of Maienfeld and advance into the area of today's Principality of Liechtenstein .
- February 12 : In the battle near Triesen , the Old Confederation wins over the troops of the Swabian Federation .
- February 22nd : The Battle of Hard is the first major battle of the Swabian War. The outnumbered Swiss army clearly triumphs over the royal and Swabian mercenaries.
- March 11th : The Swiss confederates decide in a daily statute that no prisoners should be taken in the battles against the Swabian Federation and the House of Habsburg and that wounded opposing fighters should be "dismissed".
- March 22nd : In the battle on the Bruderholz , the Confederates celebrate a victory over imperial troops and the Swabian League in Solothurn .
- April 4 : In the battle of Hallau for the village of Hallau in the canton of Schaffhausen , the outnumbered Confederates and Hallau citizens can finally drive out the Swabian mercenaries under the command of Count Wolfgang von Fürstenberg .
- April 11th : The battle in Schwaderloh ends with a victory for the Confederates over the troops of the Swabian Federation .
- April 20 : The confederates under Heinrich Wohlleb stay with Frastanz , Vorarlberg, victor over imperial and Swabian units.
- May 22nd : In the Battle of Calven , the troops of the Drei Bünde defeat an army of the Swabian Federation in the Vinschgau with federal support .
- July 18 : According to tradition, the legendary Duonna Lupa prevents the occupation and sacking of the town of Tschlin in the Lower Engadine by Habsburg troops.
- July 22nd : In the battle of Dornach the Confederates win over an army of the Swabian League .
- September 22nd : The peace in Basel ends the Swabian War .
- The confederates defend their independence within the Holy Roman Empire , but legally remain part of the empire until 1648 .
- January 8th : The French King Louis XII. and Anne de Bretagne get married in the chapel of Nantes Castle .
Republic of Venice / Ottoman Empire
Antonio Grimani is appointed Captain General of the Navy of the Republic of Venice against his will . After losing Lepanto to the expanding Ottoman Empire after a severe defeat at Zonchio in August , he was arrested on September 29 and charged with high treason before the Great Council, the maggior consiglio . He is accused of losing 169 ships while at the same time making a huge fortune. He escapes threatened exile by fleeing to Rome to see his son, Cardinal Domenico Grimani .
Voyages of discovery
Sea route to India
- July 10 : The navigator Vasco da Gama is on his return to Portugal from his first trip to India . Since da Gama himself spent a few weeks in the Azores on the way home because of his fatally ill brother , the first ship of his fleet under Nicolao Coelho reached home before him and brought the news of the discovery of the sea route to India .
- September 9th : When Vasco da Gama arrives in Lisbon , he is given a triumphant welcome. At Christmas, King Manuel I da Gama grants rule over his hometown Sines , which his father already exercised.
Spanish discoveries in America
- May 21 : After rumors had spread that Christopher Columbus had embezzled gold and pearl finds and was doing business in his own pocket, the Catholic Kings appoint Francisco de Bobadilla as governor of the overseas territories and examining magistrate. However, they have been hesitating to implement this decision for more than a year.
- August 24th : Led by the Spanish navigator Alonso de Ojeda , the first Europeans cross the Gulf of Venezuela and the Maracaibo Sea . The cartographers Juan de la Cosa and Amerigo Vespucci are also on board his ship . They discover in the course of the expedition Caribbean island of Aruba , the peninsula Goajira and the coast of Guyana and land in the Orinoco -Mündung and Trinidad . They return to Spain via the Bahamas with 232 kidnapped Indians .
science and technology
- April 30 : The topping-out ceremony for the new university building built by Pere Compte marks the founding date of the University of Valencia .
- July 8th : Marcus Musurus publishes the first printed edition of the Greek dictionary Etymologicon magnum .
- During his first stay in Rome, Michelangelo Buonarotti completed his Pietà as a commissioned work for the French Cardinal Jean de Villiers de la Grolaie, Abbot of St. Denis.
- November 5th : The Catholicon appears as the first dictionary of the Breton and French languages . The incunable is printed in Tréguier by Jehan Calvez.
- The novel Hypnerotomachia Poliphili appears in Italy. The author is a Francesco Colonna whose identity is controversial. The in Offizin of Aldus Manutius in Venice resulting pressure is still admired landmark of early art of printing.
- August 8 : Pope Alexander VI. appoints his daughter Lucrezia Borgia as ruler in Spoleto , Foligno and their surroundings in the area of the Papal States .
- September 29 : Archbishop Hermann IV of Hesse from Cologne transfers the impoverished Augustinian convent Glindfeld near Medebach to the Order of the Cross . The first four brothers of the newly founded canony of the Kreuzbrüder zu Glindfeld come from the Kreuzherrenkloster Falkenhagen .
First half of the year
- January 29 : Katharina von Bora , German reformer and wife of Martin Luther († 1552 )
- February 10 : Thomas Platter the Elder , Swiss writer († 1582 )
- February 21 : Edmund Tudor, 1st Duke of Somerset , third son of Henry VII of England († 1500 )
- March 5 : Michiel Coxcie , Flemish painter († 1592 )
- March 22nd : Johann Carion , German astrologer, mathematician and historian († 1537 )
- March 31 : Giovanni Angelo Medici, under the name of Pius IV Pope († 1565 )
- June 24 : Johannes Brenz , reformer in Württemberg († 1570 )
Second half of the year
- July 17th : Maria Salviati , Florentine patrician († 1543 )
- August 29 : Johann Neefe , personal physician to Electors Moritz and August of Saxony († 1574 )
- September 8 : Peter Martyr Vermigli , Italian Reformed theologian († 1562 )
- October 13 : Claude de France , Princess of France, wife of King Francis I († 1524 )
- October 14 : Katharina von der Pfalz , Abbess of the Neuburg Monastery († 1526 )
- October 31 : Günther XL. , Count of Schwarzburg († 1552 )
- December 8 : Sebald Heyden , German cantor, headmaster and spiritual poet († 1561 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Christoph , regent of the Jever rule († 1517 )
- Hans Asper , Swiss painter († 1571 )
- Johannes Aepinus , German theologian and church political reformer († 1553 )
- Diana di Cordona , Italian courtesan and mistress of the Polish King Sigismund II August († 1550 )
- Sebastian Franck , German writer and mystic († 1542 )
- Ulrich von Regenstein , regent of the counties Regenstein and Blankenburg († 1551 )
Born around 1499
- 1499/ 1500 : Bernardino de Sahagún , Spanish missionary and anthropologist († 1590 )
- 1499/ 1500 : Diane de Poitiers , mistress of Henry II of France (†. 1566 )
- 1499/ 1500 : Mary Boleyn , English maid and mistress of Henry VIII (†. 1543 )
Date of death secured
- March 17th : Georg Antworter , auxiliary bishop in Würzburg (* around 1430 )
- July 4th : Urs Werder , Swiss glass painter
- August 23 : John Blythe , Bishop of Salisbury
- August 29 : Alesso Baldovinetti , Italian painter (* 1425 )
- October 1 : Marsilio Ficino , Italian humanist, philosopher, doctor and translator (* 1433 )
- November 23 : Perkin Warbeck , Flemish pretender to the English throne (* 1474 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Hinrik Bornemann , German painter (* around 1450 )
- Laura Cereta , Italian scholar, writer and suffragette (* 1469 )