Calendar overview 1495
|Venice defeats Charles VIII of France in the Battle of Fornovo .||Manuel I from the house of Avis becomes King of Portugal .|
|"French disease" is spreading in Europe.|
|1495 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||943/944 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||2nd rabbit - Ome Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 1st house - Ce Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2038/39 (southern Buddhism); 2037/38 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||857/858 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3828/29 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||900/901 (turn of the year 20/21 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5255/56 (September 18-19)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1805/06 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1806/07 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1551/52 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 23 : After almost a year of reign, Alfonso II abdicates in favor of his son Ferdinand II as King of Naples . He flees to Sicily and goes to a monastery in Messina, where he dies on December 18th .
- February 22nd : Ferdinand II flees from France to Ischia from the approaching Charles VIII . Karl marches into Naples without resistance.
- March 31st : The League of Venice includes Spain , England , Venice , Milan and Pope Alexander VI. together to stop the advance of France in Italy. The main objective is the resistance against the expanding Ottoman Empire under Bayezid II. The goal of the Holy League.
- May 12 : Charles VIII of France is crowned King of Naples in Naples.
- June 28th : Despite a French victory in the Battle of Seminara in Calabria, this does not change the overall situation of the isolated French units in southern Italy.
- On July 6th, the Battle of Fornovo takes place southeast of Parma . The Venetians and their allies actually succeeded temporarily in driving the French out of Italy in the first major battle of the Italian Wars .
- July 7th : Ferdinand II returns to Naples as king .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 18 : Maximilian I arrives in Worms . He is planning an Italian campaign, which he wants to combine with an imperial coronation in Rome.
- March 26 : The Diet of Worms is opened by the Roman-German King Maximilian I. Contrary to his optimistic ideas, he will not leave Worms until September because the imperial estates are not interested in his campaign but in a comprehensive imperial reform . The Estates negotiations did not officially begin until April 7th , with the Estates first discussing their reform wishes among themselves and without the presence of the King.
- On April 27, Maximilian declares himself ready at the Reich Assembly to negotiate first about the Reich Regiment , Landfriede and Kammergericht , after which foreign aid and Reich taxes are to be discussed. In the following, Maximilian asked several times for support in Italy and tried to stir up fear that France would be too strong. Despite the terrible news from Italy and appearances by ambassadors from the members of the Holy League, Maximilian was unable to assert himself against the estates.
- July 21 : The previous county of Württemberg is elevated to a duchy by Maximilian I at the Reichstag in Worms . The previous Count Eberhard V becomes Eberhard I. First Duke.
- August 7th : Reichstag in Worms. The Eternal Public Peace in the Holy Roman Empire is proclaimed. The Reich Chamber Court begins its work.
- The Russo-Swedish War begins. Muscovite troops under the command of Prince Daniel Wassiljewitsch Shtschenja set out from Novgorod against Wiborg.
- October 25th : After the death of his grandfather Johann II , Emanuel I of the Avis family becomes King of Portugal with the support of his grandmother Eleanor of Portugal .
Spain and its colonial policy
- January 20 : Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros becomes Archbishop of Toledo and, as confessor of Queen Isabella I, also Grand Chancellor of Castile .
- November 14th : In the Battle of Aguere , the troops of the Kingdom of Castile succeed in defeating the Guanches , the indigenous people of the Canary Islands .
- December 25th : After almost a hundred years of fighting the Guanches , the Spaniards finally defeat the indigenous people of the Canary Islands near La Victoria de Acentejo on Tenerife. Tenerife is the last island to come under Spanish rule .
- By resolution of the Reichstag in Worms , the first direct Reich tax, the “common pfennig”, is introduced .
science and technology
- The University of Aberdeen is founded.
- The University of Santiago de Compostela is founded in the Galician city of Santiago de Compostela .
- The first medical work on “French Disease” appears in print after an outbreak of the disease among his troops during the occupation of Naples by Charles VIII . The disease then spreads epidemically in Italy and Europe.
- around 1495: The pulling train to the Hohensalzburg Fortress is built. The intended for material transportation funicular is now the oldest operating cable car in the world.
- May 15 : The chess book Libre dels jochs partits dels schacs en nombre de 100, ordenat e compost per mi Francesch Vicent nat en la ciutat de Segorb e criat e vehi de la insigne e valerosa ciutat de Valencia by Francesc Vicent appears in print in Valencia .
- After the expulsion of the Medici, the people of Florence took the sculpture Judith and Holofernes created by Donatello from their pedestal in the garden of the Palazzo Medici and placed them on the Piazza della Signoria in front of the Palazzo Vecchio as a symbol of the people's victory over tyranny.
- After the death of Sigmund II. Of Hollenegg on July 3 will Leonhard of Keutschach as his successor as Archbishop of Salzburg chosen.
- North of Berlau build hermits of the Order of Paulaner , by Peter IV. Von Rosenberg and his brother Ulrich have been called into the country, the monastery Kuklov near the eponymous castle.
- Giuliano da Sangallo completes the church of Santa Maria delle Carceri in Prato .
- Pope Alexander VI grants the Florentine preacher Girolamo Savonarola a ban on preaching, which he also holds for the time being.
Date of birth saved
- January 6th : Augustin Schurff , German physicist and medic († 1548 )
- February 4th : Francesco II. Sforza , last sovereign Duke of Milan († 1535 )
- March 8 : Rosso Fiorentino , Italian painter († 1540 )
- March 26 : Michael Anton , Margrave of Saluzzo († 1528 )
- April 16 : Peter Apian , German mathematician, astronomer, geographer and cartographer, also printer and editor († 1552 )
- April 27 : Suleyman I , "the Magnificent", Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1566 )
- August 1 : Jan van Scorel , Dutch painter († 1562 )
- September 18 : Ludwig X. , Duke of Bavaria († 1545 )
- September 24 : Barbara von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach , Landgravine von Leuchtenberg († 1552 )
- November 1 : Erhard Schnepf , German theologian and reformer († 1558 )
- December 4 : Matthäus Alber , German reformer († 1570 )
Date of birth unknown
- Antoinette d'Amboise , French nobleman († 1552 )
- Jan van Batenburg , Dutch militant Anabaptist leader of the Batenburgs († 1538 )
- Marie Dentière , German Reformed theologian, writer and Reformation historian († 1561 )
- Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne , Franco-Florentine noblewoman († 1519 )
- Hans Lufft , printer during the Reformation, called the "Bible printer" († 1584 )
Born around 1495
- Robert Barnes , English theologian and martyr († 1540 )
- Eustorg de Beaulieu , French author, clergyman, organist and composer († 1552 )
- Melchior Hofmann , leader of the Anabaptist movement in Germany († around 1543 )
- John of God , founder of the Order of the Brothers of Mercy and a saint of the Catholic Church († 1550 )
- James Wedderburn , Scottish poet († 1553 )
- Stephan Wild , German physician († 1550 )
First half of the year
- February 10 : William Stanley , English knight (* around 1435 )
- February 25 : Cem Sultan , Ottoman prince and poet, pretender to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (* 1459 )
- February 26 : Siegmund von Brandenburg-Kulmbach , Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (* 1468 )
- March 31 : Guy Pot , French nobleman (* around 1428 )
- May 2nd : Georg Altdorfer , Bishop of Chiemsee (* 1437 )
- May 31 : Cecily Neville , Duchess of York (* 1415 )
- June 18 : Johannes von Bärenfels , politician and mayor of Basel
- June 29th : Antoine Champion , Bishop of Mondovì and Geneva (* 1425 )
Second half of the year
- October 25 : John II , King of Portugal (* 1455 )
- October 30 : François de Bourbon , Count of Vendôme (* 1470 )
- October 31 : Wenzeslaus Brack , early German humanist and dictionary author
- November 25 : Dorothea von Brandenburg-Kulmbach , Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, as well as Duchess of Schleswig and Holstein and Countess of Oldenburg (* 1430 )
- December 6th : Jakob Sprenger , Federal Inquisitor, alleged co-author of the medieval treatise "Hexenhammer" (* 1435 )
- December 7th : Gabriel Biel , German scholastic philosopher (* around 1415 )
- December 18 : Alfonso II , King of Naples (* 1448 )