Calendar overview 1535
|Jacques Cartier discovers the Saint Lawrence River .||Thomas More is beheaded for high treason.|
Franz von Waldeck conquered
the city of Münster after a year and ended the rule of the Anabaptists .
|1535 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||983/984 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2078/79 (southern Buddhism); 2077/78 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||897/898 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3868/69 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||941/942 (turn of the year July 1st / 2nd)|
|Jewish calendar||5295/96 (August 29/30)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1845/46 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1846/47 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1591/92 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Ottoman Empire / Tunis campaign of Charles V
- March 2nd : Emperor Charles V leaves Madrid for Barcelona, where he arrives on April 4th to inspect the joint Spanish-Portuguese-Genoese fleet. The Tunis campaign against the Ottoman Empire begins.
- End of May: The Christian fleet leaves Barcelona for Sardinia.
- June 1st : An Ottoman fleet is destroyed in a sea battle.
- June 15 : The siege of the fortress La Goletta in front of Tunis begins. The Knights of the Order of St. John from the island of Malta are also involved in the siege .
- July 14th : La Goletta is captured after three weeks of bombardment. The Christian army moves on towards Tunis inland.
- July 20 : An army of the governor Khair ad-Din Barbarossa is destroyed, as a result of which an uprising of around 12,000 Christian prisoners breaks out in the city. Khair ad-Din Barbarossa is forced to give up the city and move to Bône . Charles V then conquered Tunis and released the city for a three-day pillage that cost around 30,000 lives.
- Former Tunisian king Muley Hasan is re-enthroned as a vassal of Charles V.
- After Karl failed to pursue Khair ad-Din, instead of retreating into the Levant as the Spaniards suspected, he set sail with fifteen galleons in the direction of the Balearic Islands . While Andrea Doria searches the North African coast for him, he attacks the port city of Maó in the north of the island of Menorca with his fleet , takes six thousand soldiers prisoner and acquired numerous guns.
- August 19 : Charles V starts his way home with his fleet via Sicily, Naples and Rome.
Holy Roman Empire
- June 24th : After more than a year, the rule of the Anabaptists in Münster ends with the conquest of the city by the troops of Bishop Franz von Waldeck . Around 650 people are killed defending the city. After the city was taken, the women were driven out and most of the leaders of the Anabaptist movement, including Jan van Leiden , Bernd Krechting and Bernd Knipperdolling , were captured. Only main preacher Bernd Rothmann and "Reich Chancellor" Heinrich Krechting can escape. Heinrich Krechting initially flees to Lingen and tries, with the tolerance of Count Anton von Oldenburg , to collect the Anabaptists again. Bernd Rothmann's whereabouts are unknown.
- July 11th : After the death of Joachim I of the Hohenzollern family , his son Joachim II becomes Elector of Brandenburg . By will, the Neumark and other parts of the country go to his younger brother Johann as the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin .
- July 6 : The English statesman and author Thomas More is executed on London's Tower Hill after being sentenced to death for refusing to oath . As a Catholic , he did not want to take the oath of supremacy .
Spanish colonies in America
- Spanish conquest of Peru : Francisco Pizarro founds the city of Ciudad de los Reyes ( City of Kings ) on January 18th . The city is initially home to only a dozen conquerors, and the roofs are made of reeds. Even before the arrival of the Spaniards, the area on the Rimaq was the most densely populated area on the Peruvian coast.
- March 10 : The Spanish Bishop of Panama, Tomás de Berlanga , accidentally discovers the Galapagos Islands when he goes off course with his ship.
- March 12th : The Spanish captain and conquistador Francisco Pacheco founds the city of Villa Nueva de San Gregorio de Portoviejo in today's Ecuador .
- July 3rd : Diego de Almagro sets out from Peru on an expedition south to what is now Chile.
- Autumn: The Inca Manco Cápac II flees from the Spanish occupiers of the Inca Empire . However, he is arrested again, imprisoned and publicly humiliated. The following year an uprising breaks out against the Spaniards .
- The French navigator Jacques Cartier reaches the Indian settlement of Hochelaga on the Saint Lawrence River .
- Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse donates the Philippshospital in Riedstadt , one of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in the world.
science and technology
- 1535: Witelo describes the spherical aberration in lenses and concave mirrors as well as the qualitative behavior of refracted light rays .
Culture and religion
- August 23 : Johannes Calvin completes the first edition of the Institutio Christianae Religionis , his main theological work, which was continuously expanded until 1559 .
- October 4th : The Coverdale Bible is the first complete translation of the Bible to be written in modern English . It is published by Miles Coverdale and printed abroad.
- Christmas: Martin Luther composes the Christmas carol for his children From Heaven, I come here .
- The Bible d'Olivétan , a French translation of the Bible by Pierre-Robert Olivétan , a student of Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples , is first printed in Neuchâtel . A foreword by John Calvin will soon be added to the Bible . It is revised several times and forms the basis of the Bible de Genève , which will be the Huguenot Bible for the next few centuries .
- Martin Luther's hymn She is dear to me, the values maid appears in Klug's hymnal for the first time in print.
nature and environment
- April 20 : About Stockholm are weather anomalies observed in the image vädersolstavlan posterity have survived. The oldest known pictorial representation of the city shows Sundogs and halo -Erscheinungen.
Date of birth saved
- February 11 : Niccolò Sfondrati, under the name Gregory XIV. Pope of the Catholic Church († 1591 )
- February 24 : Éléonore de Roye , French Huguenot nobleman, Princess of Condé († 1564 )
- February 26 : Marcantonio Colonna , Admiral and Viceroy of Sicily († 1584 )
- May 31 : Alessandro Allori , Florentine painter († 1607 )
- June 2nd : Alessandro Ottaviano de 'Medici, under the name Leo XI. Pope of the Catholic Church († 1605 )
- June 24th : Johannes Clajus , German pedagogue, Protestant theologian and grammarian († 1592 )
- July 15 : Jacob Ramminger , German cartographer († after 1596)
- July 21 : García Hurtado de Mendoza , Spanish governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru († 1609 )
- July 22nd : Katharina Stenbock , Queen of Sweden († 1621 )
- September 18 : Henry Brandon, 2nd Duke of Suffolk , English nobleman († 1551 )
- November 1 : Johann Bökel , Dutch physician († 1605 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Cyprian Bazylik , Polish composer († around 1600)
- Martin Frobisher , English navigator and explorer († 1594 )
- Kaspar Cappleri de Sulewicz , Czech nobleman († 1621 )
- Niels Kaas , Danish Chancellor († 1594 )
- 5th January : Balthasar von Groschlag zu Dieburg , cathedral chapter of the Mainz cathedral chapter (* before 1479)
- March 5 : Lorenzo Costa , Italian painter (* 1460 )
- March 26th : Georg Tannstetter , German humanist, astronomer, astrologer and physician (* 1482 )
- April 4 : Beatrix von Baden , Countess Palatine von Simmern (* 1492 )
- June 11th : Johann VII. Von Hoya, German count and military leader of Lübeck and Sweden
- June 13th : George Nevill, 5th Baron Bergavenny , English nobleman, military man and politician (* 1469 )
- June 21 : Hans von Schönitz , German businessman, chief chamberlain and confidante of Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg (* 1499 )
- June 22nd : John Fisher , Catholic clergyman in England (* 1469 )
- July 6th : Thomas More , English statesman, Lord Chancellor of England, humanist author, saint and martyr of the Anglican Church (* 1478 )
- July 11 : Joachim I , Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg (* 1484 )
- July 14 : Zdeniek Lev von Rosental , member of the Bohemian gentry (* 1460 )
- August 19 : Katharina zu Stolberg , Abbess of the Drübeck Monastery (* 1463 )
- October 21 : Christian Beyer , German legal scholar (* 1482 )
- October 24th : Francesco II. Sforza , Duke of Milan (* 1495 )
- November 24th : Ulrich Zasius , German lawyer and humanist (* 1461 )
- December 1 : Gabriel von Eyb , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt (* 1455 )
- December 3 : Raymund Fugger von der Lilie , Augsburg patrician, imperial count and art collector (* 1489 )
- December 15 : Christoph Kreß von Kressenstein , German politician and diplomat, Mayor of Nuremberg (* 1484 )
- December 24th : Nils Lykke , Norwegian Imperial Council (* around 1492 )