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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Christopher Columbus lands on Guanahani
Christopher Columbus succeeds in discovering America .
Alhambra Edict
With the Alhambra Edict , the Jews are expelled from Spain .
Muhammad XII.  hands over Granada (history painting)
Muhammad XII. after nine months of siege Granada hands over to the Catholic kings of Spain.
1492 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 940/941 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1484/85
Aztec calendar 12. Tubes - Matlactli omome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th Rabbit - Matlactli ozce Tochtli )
Buddhist calendar 2035/36 (southern Buddhism); 2034/35 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 69th (70th) cycle

Year of the Water Rat壬子 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Pig 辛亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 854/855 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3825/26 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 870/871
Islamic calendar 897/898 (turn of the year 22/23 October)
Jewish calendar 5252/53 (September 21/22)
Coptic Calendar 1208/09
Malayalam calendar 667/668
Seleucid era Babylon: 1802/03 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1803/04 (New Year October)

Spanish era 1530
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1548/49 (turn of the year April)

The beginning of 1492 brought the conclusion of the Reconquista in Spain . After several months of siege , Muhammad XII. , the last Emir of Granada , passed the city to the Catholic Kings Ferdinand II and Isabella I of Spain. This is the end of almost 800 years of Muslim history on the Iberian Peninsula .

Christoph Columbus

For the navigator Christopher Columbus , a dream comes true: With the surrender of Santa Fe , Ferdinand and Isabella keep their promise and grant him three ships, funds and extensive privileges to search for the sea route to India on a western route. A few months later, the landing on Guanahani led to the discovery of America . Regardless of the fact that this voyage was neither the first nor the only successful crossing of the Atlantic and America was already settled for a long time, the crossing of Columbus is the most famous in the Age of Discovery and is often used in historical studies as the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era .

Domestically, the Catholic kings immediately use the conclusion of the Reconquista to expel the Jews: with the Alhambra Edict , tens of thousands of Sephardic Jews who do not want to be forcibly baptized are expelled from Spain.

In Rome, one of the most controversial popes in history takes the chair of Peter: Roderic Llançol i de Borja, who comes from Aragón, succeeds in collecting enough votes through bribery that he is elected successor to the late Innocent VIII at the conclave . The date of his death was correctly predicted by the fanatical penitential preacher Girolamo Savonarola , which gives him a strong political boost in his hometown of Florence . The new Pope takes the name Alexander VI. and quickly begins showering his family with favors and gifts.

In the same year Martin Behaim made the first globe .


Politics and world events

Spain and Columbus' voyage of discovery

Columbus' first voyage
  • August 3rd: Christopher Columbus sets sail for his first voyage to America .
  • October 12: Christopher Columbus arrives in America (the Bahamas ) and discovers this continent for Christian Europe ; he is convinced that he has reached Asia.
  • October 28: Christopher Columbus reaches the island of Cuba on his first voyage .
Columbus lands on Hispaniola , engraving by Theodor de Bry , 1594
  • December 5th: Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Hispaniola .
  • December 25th: The Santa Maria , the flagship of Christopher Columbus, is shipwrecked off the island of Hispaniola . Some of the crew remained in the settlement of La Navidad , which was also timbered with the remains of the ship .

Holy Roman Empire



Elector Friedrich III, Johann and Duke Georg, beard groschen 1492, mint master's mark shamrock

science and technology

Culture and society

The Mont Aiguille


The Alhambra Edict in Spain

The " Catholic Majesties " Isabella I and Ferdinand II sign the Alhambra Edict on March 31st to expel all Sephardic Jews from Spain who do not want to be baptized .

On July 31, the ultimatum expires for the expulsion of all Jews in Spain who are unwilling to coercive baptism . Between 80,000 and 300,000 Jewish people in Spain have to leave their homes and yards. A third of them go to Portugal, a third to Turkey, around 25,000 go to the Netherlands, the same number are likely to have gone to North Africa, primarily to Morocco, the rest are spread across France, Italy and Egypt. Gold and other jewelry as well as money are to be left to the Catholic government.


Pope Innocent VIII dies in Rome on July 25th. The fact that his death date of Savonarola has been correctly predicted, resulting in that this charismatic preacher that the abuses of Church state violently lashes, receives an even larger inlet and contributes significantly to its takeover 1494 in Florence.

Pope Alexander VI

Supported by funds of Ferdinand of Aragon wins Rodrigo de Borja, a Spaniard from the family Borgia , by bribing the office of Pontifex Maximus , the Pope of the Roman Church. The election of the successor to Innocent VIII, who died in July, takes place after a five-day conclave on August 11th. Rodrigo takes the name Alexander VI. on.

Archdiocese of Granada

Coat of arms of the Archbishop of Granada Hernando de Talavera

On December 10th, Pope Alexander VI. the diocese of Granada to the archbishopric . Hernando de Talavera becomes first archbishop . There are only a few priests in the new archdiocese , hardly any consecrated churches or monasteries and no ecclesiastical administrative structures. Only a small part of the population is made up of baptized Christians or speaks Spanish . Talavera has already stated his views on the conversion of the Mohammedans in various writings, now he has to put these theoretical considerations into practice. Talavera endeavors to strictly adhere to the specifications of the contracts for the transfer of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs, which he himself was involved in drafting. He demands that the conversion of Muslims should be done by conviction and not by the use of force. Talavera promotes the printing of a textbook of the Arabic language by Pedro de Alcalá and encourages his pastors to learn Arabic in order to be able to communicate with parishioners. This attitude is opposed to the new confessor of the Queen Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros .

nature and environment

Leaflet from Sebastian Brant : The Thunderstone of Ensisheim


Date of birth saved

Juan Luis Vives
  • March 6: Juan Luis Vives , Spanish humanist, philosopher and teacher († 1540)
  • March 21: Johann II of Simmern , Count Palatine († 1557)
  • March 26: Adam Ries , German arithmetic master, mathematician and author of arithmetic books († 1559)
  • April 4: Ambrosius Blarer , German Protestant theologian, hymn poet and reformer († 1564)
  • April 11: Margaret of Angoulême , Duchess of Alençon and Queen of Navarre, poet and diplomat († 1549)
  • April 20: Pietro Aretino , Italian writer († 1556)
  • April 24: Sabina of Bavaria , Duchess of Bavaria and wife of Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg († 1564)
  • April 26: Philip I , Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein († 1558)
  • May 8: Andrea Alciato , Italian lawyer and humanist († 1550)
  • September 7th: Giacomo Aconcio , Italian humanist, philosopher, theologian, lawyer and engineer († around 1567)
  • September 7: Michael Caelius , German Lutheran theologian and reformer († 1559)
Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici
  • November 12: Johann Rantzau , general in Danish service († 1565)
  • November 17: Simone Pasqua , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1565)

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1492


Date of death secured

Death mask Lorenzo il Magnifico
  • April 8th: Lorenzo de 'Medici , called il Magnifico , Italian banker and politician, city lord of Florence (* 1449)
  • September 18: Adolf von Kleve , governor-general of the Burgundian Netherlands (* 1425)
  • September 21: Konrad X. , Duke of Oels, Cosel, Steinau and half of Beuthen (* 1420)
  • September 29: Domenico Gagini , Lombard sculptor (* around 1425)
  • October 12: Piero della Francesca , Italian painter, art theorist and mathematician (* around 1420)
  • October 22nd: Simon von der Borch , Bishop of Reval
  • November 1st: René , Duke of Alençon (* 1454)
  • November 19: Jami , Persian mystic and poet (* 1414)

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

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