1492

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Heads of State · Nekrolog

1492
Christopher Columbus lands on Guanahani
Christopher Columbus succeeds in discovering America .
Alhambra Edict
With the Alhambra Edict , the Jews are expelled from Spain .
Muhammad XII.  hands over Granada (history painting)
Muhammad XII. after nine months of siege Granada hands over to the Catholic kings of Spain.
1492 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 940/941 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1484/85
Aztec calendar 12. Tubes - Matlactli omome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th Rabbit - Matlactli ozce Tochtli )
Buddhist calendar 2035/36 (southern Buddhism); 2034/35 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 69th (70th) cycle

Year of the Water Rat壬子 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Pig 辛亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 854/855 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3825/26 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 870/871
Islamic calendar 897/898 (turn of the year 22/23 October)
Jewish calendar 5252/53 (September 21/22)
Coptic calendar 1208/09
Malayalam calendar 667/668
Seleucid era Babylon: 1802/03 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1803/04 (New Year October)

Spanish era 1530
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1548/49 (turn of the year April)

The beginning of 1492 brought the conclusion of the Reconquista in Spain . After several months of siege , Muhammad XII. , the last Emir of Granada , passed the city to the Catholic Kings Ferdinand II and Isabella I of Spain. This is the end of almost 800 years of Muslim history on the Iberian Peninsula .

Christoph Columbus

For the navigator Christopher Columbus , a dream comes true: With the surrender of Santa Fe , Ferdinand and Isabella keep their promise and grant him three ships, funds and extensive privileges to search the sea route to India on a western route. A few months later, the landing on Guanahani led to the discovery of America . Regardless of the fact that this voyage was neither the first nor the only successful crossing of the Atlantic and America was already settled for a long time, the crossing of Columbus is the most famous in the Age of Discovery and is often used in historical studies as the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era .

Domestically, the Catholic kings immediately use the conclusion of the Reconquista to expel the Jews: with the Alhambra Edict , tens of thousands of Sephardic Jews who do not want to be baptized are expelled from Spain.

In Rome, one of the most controversial popes in history takes the seat of Peter: Roderic Llançol i de Borja, who comes from Aragón, manages to collect enough votes through bribery that he is elected successor to the late Innocent VIII at the conclave . The date of his death was correctly predicted by the fanatical penitential preacher Girolamo Savonarola , which gives him a strong political boost in his hometown of Florence . The new Pope takes the name Alexander VI. and quickly begins showering his family with favors and gifts.

In the same year, Martin Behaim made the first globe .

Events

Politics and world events

Spain and the discovery of Columbus

Columbus' first voyage
Columbus lands on Hispaniola , engraving by Theodor de Bry , 1594

Holy Roman Empire

India

economy

Elector Friedrich III., Johann and Duke Georg, beard groschen 1492, mint master's mark shamrock

science and technology

Culture and society

The Mont Aiguille
  • For his large-format paintings in the hall of the great council in the Doge's Palace in Venice , Alvise Vivarini was awarded the honorary title of Depentor in Gran Conseio and from then on received a salary of five ducats a month.
  • The sweeping week is introduced in Swabia .

religion

The Alhambra Edict in Spain

The " Catholic Majesties " Isabella I and Ferdinand II sign the Alhambra Edict on March 31st to expel all Sephardic Jews from Spain who do not want to be baptized .

Sephardic Migration

On July 31st, the ultimatum expires for the expulsion of all Spanish Jews who are unwilling to coercive baptism . Between 80,000 and 300,000 Jewish people in Spain have to leave their homes and homes. A third of them go to Portugal, a third to Turkey, around 25,000 go to the Netherlands, just as many are likely to have gone to North Africa, primarily to Morocco, the rest are spread across France, Italy and Egypt. Gold and other jewelry as well as money are to be left to the Catholic government.

papacy

Pope Innocent VIII dies in Rome on July 25th . The fact that his death date of Savonarola has been correctly predicted, resulting in that this charismatic preacher that the abuses of Church state violently lashes, receives an even larger inlet and contributes significantly to its takeover 1494 in Florence.

Pope Alexander VI

Supported by funds of Ferdinand of Aragon wins Rodrigo de Borja, a Spaniard from the family Borgia , by bribing the office of Pontifex Maximus , the Pope of the Roman Church. The election of the successor to Innocent VIII, who died in July, takes place after a five-day conclave on August 11th . Rodrigo takes the name Alexander VI. on.

Archdiocese of Granada

Coat of arms of the Archbishop of Granada Hernando de Talavera

On December 10th, Pope Alexander VI. the diocese of Granada to the archbishopric . Hernando de Talavera becomes the first archbishop . There are only a few priests in the new archdiocese , hardly any consecrated churches or monasteries and no ecclesiastical administrative structures. Only a small part of the population is made up of baptized Christians or speaks Spanish . Talavera has already stated his views on the conversion of the Mohammedans in various writings, now he has to put these theoretical considerations into practice. Talavera endeavors to strictly adhere to the specifications of the contracts for the transfer of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs, which he himself was involved in drafting. He demands that the conversion of Muslims should be done by conviction and not by the use of force. Talavera promotes the printing of a textbook of the Arabic language by Pedro de Alcalá and encourages his pastors to learn Arabic in order to be able to communicate with the parishioners. This attitude is opposed to the new confessor of the Queen Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros .

nature and environment

Leaflet by Sebastian Brant : The Thunderstone of Ensisheim

Born

Date of birth saved

Juan Luis Vives

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

Date of death secured

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1492  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files