siege of Constantinople ends
with the conquest of the city by the Ottoman Empire .
Hundred Years War ends with the
Battle of Castillon .
falls against the Ottomans.
|1453 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||901/902 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||12. Feuerstein - Matlactli omome Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th tubes - Matlactli ozce Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1996/97 (southern Buddhism); 1995/96 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||815/816 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||856/57 (turn of the year 11/12 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5213/14 (September 3-4)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1763/64 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1764/65 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1509/10 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Byzantine Empire / Ottoman Empire
- January 29th : The Genoese Giovanni Giustiniani Longo arrives with 700 well-armed men from Genoa , Chios and Rhodes in Constantinople, which is threatened by the Ottoman Empire . Upon his arrival he is greeted effusively, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI. gives him command of the land walls and promises him the island of Lemnos as a fief after the victory . Likewise, the captains of two Venetian galleys stopping in Constantinople on the way back from the Holy Land undertake to remain in the city and support the defenders.
- February 27th : Seven galleys with about 700 Latins leave Constantinople for Italy. Many other Venetians and Genoese, including citizens from the neighboring Genoese settlement of Pera , decide to help defend the city. These include many members of distinguished families such as the Venetian Cornaro , Mocenigo , Contarini and Venier , who recruit small troops from their own resources.
- March: A count by the Byzantine historian and imperial secretary Georgios Sphrantzes comes to 4973 Greeks capable of arms and almost 2000 foreigners who are available for the defense of Constantinople . This small number of defenders comes as a shock to the emperor, and he orders them to be kept secret. In the weeks that followed, all sailors on ships in the city were obliged to do military service. In addition, the emperor had the available precious metals melted down and used for the purchase of any troops that were somehow available and for the repair of the masonry. As a result of these measures, the number of defenders eventually increases to around 6,000 Greeks and 3,000 foreigners.
- April 2nd : The siege of Constantinople by the Ottoman army under Mehmed II begins.
- April 7th : Christian Constantinople is completely enclosed by the Ottomans and besieged until it falls .
- April 12th : The last ships of the Ottoman fleet arrive from the Black Sea and Admiral Suleyman Baltaoğlu immediately starts a major attack on the galleys guarding the chain on the Golden Horn, which is easily repulsed by the defenders who are superior in seafaring.
- April 18 : The first attack by the Ottomans on the city walls is repulsed by the defenders.
- Constantinople is conquered by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II on May 29th . This is considered to be the final end of the Byzantine Empire , the last emperor of which falls while taking the city. The Peloponnese peninsula remains under Greek rule until 1460 and the Trapezuntian Empire until 1461. The actual end of the Eastern Roman Empire, earlier equated with the end of the Middle Ages .
- Constantinople became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire , Hagia Sophia became a mosque and since then has not only been the architectural model for all Orthodox churches, but also for all Turkish mosques.
- Following the conquest of Constantinople, the Order of the Half Moon was founded in the Ottoman Empire , following the example of the European order of knights .
England / France
- July 17th : The Hundred Years War ends with the Battle of Castillon , in which the French are victorious. With the exception of Calais, England loses all of its territorial possession in France .
- October 12th : The Duchy of Guyenne , ruled by English until now , is taken by France and later part of the Domaine royal .
- October 19 : The troops of the French King Charles VII take Bordeaux , which is in English hands . After the Hundred Years War , Calais became the only British property on the mainland.
Holy Roman Empire
Austria becomes an archduchy. The Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III. confirms the (fake) Privilegium Maius and the associated privileges for the Habsburg hereditary lands . In this way, the title of Archduke is anchored in imperial law.
On December 1st, Emperor Friedrich III decides . on the court day in favor of the Teutonic Order under Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen . He declares the Prussian Confederation founded in 1440 to be illegal and orders its dissolution. The decision leads to war in 1454 .
- January 6th : A planned republican uprising against Pope Nicholas V, led by Stefano Porcari, is exposed in Rome . The conspirators will be executed on January 9th .
- In the years of power struggle at the Castilian court, Queen Isabella of Portugal finally prevails against Álvaro de Luna . King Johann II has his former favorite arrested and, after a short trial , executed on June 2nd .
- Muhammad XI. is after the death of Muhammad IX. new Emir of Granada from the Nasrid dynasty . Muhammad IX gave the son of Muhammad VIII . as early as 1447, when he came to power for the fourth time, he had to assure the succession to the throne.
- October 10 : Prince Suyang , with the help of the scholar Han Myung-hoi and other officials, stages a palace revolt in Korea which overthrows his nephew Danjong and proclaims Suyang's younger brother Anpyeong king of the Joseon Dynasty . Prince Suyang then presented himself as a savior, took power in the palace and sent Anpyeong into exile on Ganghwado Island , where he was poisoned eight days later. However, Danjong is not reinstated as ruler.
science and technology
- 1450 /1453: The main building of Montsoreau Castle is on the banks of the Loire completed.
- 1451/1453 : Hermann von Sachsenheim writes the Minner speech Des Spiegel's adventure .
- After the fall of Constantinople, numerous scientists and artists fled to Chania in the Venetian colony of Crete, which for a short time becomes a cultural center.
Date of birth saved
- January 28 : Simonetta Vespucci , Florentine patrician and muse of numerous artists, was considered the most beautiful woman in Florence († 1476 )
- March 16 : Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Aguilar , Spanish general and statesman († 1515 )
- March 25 : Giuliano di Piero de 'Medici , co-regent of his brother Lorenzo il Magnifico , victim of the Pazzi conspiracy († 1478 )
- April 24th : Dietrich von Plieningen , German nobleman, lawyer and humanist († 1520 )
- October 13 : Edward of Westminster , Prince of Wales , Duke of Cornwall († 1471 )
- November 13 : Christoph I , Margrave of Baden († 1527 )
- November 20 : Giacomo Cozzarelli , Italian architect, sculptor, bronze caster and painter († 1515 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Afonso de Albuquerque ("Afonso the Great"), Portuguese military, politician and seafarer; second governor of India († 1515 )
- Firdevsî , Turkish author and polymath
- Georg Fugger , German merchant of the Fugger family († 1506 )
- Ottilie von Katzenelnbogen , Margravine of Baden († 1517 )
- Andreas Palaiologos , titular emperor of Byzantium and titular despot of the Morea († 1502 )
- Leonhard Wagner , German calligrapher († 1522 )
Born around 1453
Date of death secured
- January 9th : Stefano Porcari , Roman Renaissance humanist, politician and conspirator
- February 28 : Isabella , Duchess of Lorraine and Queen of Naples (* around 1400 )
- May 29th : Constantine XI. Palaiologos , last Byzantine emperor (* 1404 )
- June 1st : Çandarlı II. Halil Pasha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
- June 2nd : Álvaro de Luna , constable of Castile and Grand Master of the Order of Santiago (* between 1388 and 1390)
- July 17th : John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury , English commander of the Hundred Years War (* 1384 )
- October 13 : Jakob I , Margrave of Baden (* 1407 )
- November 25th : Juan de Cervantes , Spanish cardinal (* around 1380 )
- December 24th : John Dunstable , English composer (* around 1390 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Niccolò Baroncelli , Italian sculptor
- Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell , Scottish nobleman
- Dschakmak , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt (* 1373 )
- Václav Koranda , radical Czech Hussite clergyman
- Carlo Marsuppini , Italian humanist and statesman (* 1398 )
- Bernardo Martorell , Spanish painter and book illustrator (* around 1410 )
- Muhammad IX , Sultan of Granada (* 1396 )
- Taccola , Italian engineer, artist and civil servant of the city of Siena (* 1382 )
- Thongwa Dönden , 6th Karmapa of the Karma Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1416 )