|Mehmed II continues the campaign to conquer the Ottoman Empire .||Joan of Arc is rehabilitated by the Roman Curia .|
Battle of Belgrade , a Christian relief army
under Johann Hunyadi defeated the Ottoman besiegers Mehmed II.
|1456 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||904/905 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||2nd tubes - Ome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 1st rabbit - Ce Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1999/2000 (southern Buddhism); 1998/99 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||818/819 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||860/861 (turn of the year 28/29 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5216/17 (August 30/31)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1766/67 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1767/68 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1512/13 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- Athens is conquered by the troops of Sultan Mehmed II . This ends the existence of the Duchy of Athens . Its last ruler, Francesco II Acciaiuoli , holed up with his followers in the Acropolis .
- Golubac falls to the Ottomans.
- July 4th: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II tries to subdue the Kingdom of Hungary in a lightning campaign . It begins with the siege of Belgrade and its strong border fortress .
- July 14th: The Hungarian military leader Johann Hunyadi destroys the Ottoman fleet with his flotilla.
- July 21: The battle for Belgrade begins: Johann Hunyadi's contingent rushed to the relief of Belgrade and the voluntary “crusaders” led by Johannes Capistranus defeated the Ottoman attack on the city in a murderous scuffle that lasted all night until July 22nd persists through it, reject. The following day, Hunyadi troops and "crusaders" also overrun the Turkish positions in front of the city and force Sultan Mehmed II to retreat, leaving behind all the artillery and large parts of his entourage . Johann Hunyadi dies of the plague a few weeks later.
- Lazar Branković succeeds his late father Đurađ Branković as despot on the Serbian throne.
Thirteen Years War
- August 16: In the Thirteen Years' War , insufficient wages of the Teutonic Order lead to mercenary captains selling six castles pledged to them, including the Marienburg Castle , to the Prussian Confederation and Poland's King Casimir IV Jagiello .
- Memel is pillaged and pillaged by the Poles .
Holy Roman Empire
- The county of Falkenstein is sold to Wirich IV von Daun-Oberstein; the feudal rights are given by Emperor Friedrich III. at Lorraine .
- Freudenberg was granted town charter.
Southern and Western Europe
- July 7th: After an eight-month trial, the judgment on the rehabilitation of Joan of Arc is pronounced in the Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral by the Roman Curia . The death sentence is overturned 25 years after her cremation, but without holding those responsible for her execution accountable.
- November 4: . John II , Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis after his father's death I Charles Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne .
- King John II of Cyprus makes his 16-year-old son, later Jacob II , bishop of Nicosia .
- End of the rule of the Genoese family of Gattilusio over Ainos
- A conspiracy is uncovered in Siena , its leaders beheaded or exiled .
Voyages of discovery
- The Italian navigator Alvise Cadamosto , who is in the service of the Portuguese Infante Heinrich the Navigator , discovers several of the Cape Verde Islands , the two eastern Boa Vista and Maio as well as the main island of Santiago .
- Elector Frederick II of Saxony set up his own coin in Colditz for his wife Margaretha of Austria as compensation for the high treasure that she was entitled to . In the same year, the Colditz mint started to mint the Margarethenroschen , whereas Frederick's brother Wilhelm III. of Thuringia protests.
science and technology
- October 16: Nikolaus von Kues writes the memorandum on the legal history of Buchenstein .
- October 17: In the Hanseatic city of Greifswald , on the initiative of the local mayor, and later first rector Heinrich Rubenow after approval by Emperor Friedrich III. and Pope Calixt III. and under the protection of the Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw IX. the Academia Gryphica founded.
- The Viennese astronomer Georg von Peuerbach discovered together with Regiomontanus the differences between lunar eclipses and the appearance of comets .
- Appearance of Halley's Comet
- With the three paintings of the Battle of San Romano for the Medici Palace in Florence , Paolo Uccello uses perspective and the vanishing point to create new ways of spatial representation.
- Creation of the picture cycle of the Ursula legend from the Stefan Lochner school for St. Ursula in Cologne
- Johannes Hartlieb wrote the book of all forbidden arts (original title: Das puch aller verpoten kunst, ungelaubens und der zaubrey ), the first known record of a witch's ointment recipe .
- Thuringia von Ringoltingen wrote the story Melusine , based on a French model by Couldrette (1401) , which was later widely used as a popular book .
- The extension of the corner tower at the New Town Hall in Prague is completed.
- The German Order built more plants of Bauska Castle .
- Restoration of the Werkendam Castle
- The custom of the noon bells arises from a historical error.
- June 9th: The cathedral chapter elects Jost II von Rosenberg on the recommendation of the Bohemian King Ladislaus Postumus as Bishop of Wroclaw . The election is made by Pope Calixt III. approved.
- June 29th: Pope Calixt III. orders the noon bells in the churches, during which the believers are to pray for a victory of the Christian army over the Turks.
- Pope Calixt III. converts the Església de Lluc into a collegiate church .
- With the bull "Inter coetera", Pope Calixt III. the Portuguese kings extensive rights ( investiture and ordinary ecclesiastical jurisdiction) in the already discovered and yet to be discovered countries .
- Pope Kalixt III. appoints his nephews Rodrigo Borgia and Luis Juan del Milà as cardinals in an act of nepotism at the Holy See .
- Jean de Bourbon is appointed Abbot of Cluny .
- In the battles against the Qara Qoyunlu , the Sufi order of the Safawiyya was initially driven out of Ardabil , but was able to maintain its position in an alliance with the Aq Qoyunlu .
- Catherine of Bologna founds a Poor Clare monastery in Bologna , which she heads until her death.
- The Vedana Charterhouse near Sospirolo in the Italian Dolomites is built.
The millet trip is a bet between the Swiss from Zurich and the Alsatians from Strasbourg . With a special boat trip, the people of Zurich prove that they can be in Strasbourg within 24 hours because the millet porridge brought from Zurich on the boat was still warm in Strasbourg.
- December 5th: An earthquake destroys Naples ; the victims are estimated to have died between 30,000 and 40,000.
- A major fire devastates Brielle .
Date of birth saved
- February 16: Achille Grassi , Bishop of Bologna and Cardinal († 1523)
- March 1: Vladislav II , King of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia and Slovenia († 1516)
- March 21: Georg von Slatkonia , Catholic Bishop of Vienna († 1522)
- June 11: Anne Neville , Queen Consort of England († 1485)
- June 23: Margaret of Denmark , Queen of Scotland († 1486)
- June 25: Heinrich V. von Rosenberg , Bohemian nobleman († 1489)
- October 16: Ludmilla von Podiebrad , Duchess of Liegnitz and Brieg († 1503)
- November 7th: Margaret of Bavaria , Electress of the Palatinate († 1501)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Jan Černý , Czech doctor and priest of the Brethren University († 1530)
- Gjon Kastrioti II , Albanian prince and count in the Kingdom of Naples († 1514)
- Alonso Fernández de Lugo , Andalusian nobleman and the conqueror of some Canary Islands († 1525)
- New Year's Eve Mazzolini , Italian Dominican († 1523)
- Marco Palmezzano , Italian painter and architect († 1539)
- Guo Xu , Chinese poet († 1526)
Born around 1456
- Giovanni Aurelio Augurello , Italian humanist, poet and alchemist († 1524)
- Richard Gray , English nobleman († 1483)
Date of death secured
- January 4th: Ralph Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell , English statesman (* around 1393)
- January 17th: Elisabeth of Lorraine , pioneer of the prose novel in German (* 1395)
- February 6th: Peter II. Nowag , Bishop of Breslau
- August 11: Johann Hunyadi , Hungarian general (* around 1408)
- October 17th: Nicholas Grenon , Franco-Flemish composer, singer, cleric and music teacher (* 1385)
- October 23: Johannes Capistranus , Italian itinerant preacher who was widely famous in his time (* 1386)
- October 29: Wenzel , Duke of Troppau-Ratibor and Jägerndorf (* 1405)
- November 1: Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond , father of King Henry VII of England (* around 1430)
- November 9th: Ulrich II of Cilli , (the last Cillier), murdered in Belgrade by Ladislaus Hunyadi (* 1406)
- November 25th: Jacques Cœur , French merchant and financier of King Charles VII of France (* 1395)
- November 28: Johann Tiergart , Bishop of Courland and priest of the Teutonic Order (* 1380)
- December 4: Charles I , Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne (* 1401)
- December 24th: Đurađ Branković , despot (ruler) of Serbia (* around 1375)
Exact date of death unknown
- Juan de Mena , Spanish poet (* 1411)
- Jan Ondřejův , Czech mathematician, astronomer and doctor (* around 1375)
- Peter Payne , English reformer who worked in Bohemia (* around 1385)
- Jakob Seger , German priest and rector of the University of Cologne