- 1453 : The Hundred Years War between England and France ends with the Battle of Castillon .
- Conquest of Constantinople (1453) : Constantinople (now Istanbul ) is conquered by the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmed II on May 29th . This is considered to be the final end of the Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire, although the Peloponnese peninsula remained under Greek rule until 1460 and the Trapezuntian Empire until 1461. Constantinople becomes the new capital of the Ottoman Empire . The Hagia Sophia is a mosque and is now not only an architectural model of all Orthodox Churches, but also all Turkish mosques.
- 1455 : Johannes Gutenberg prints the Gutenberg Bible .
- 1459 : Serbia becomes part of the Ottoman Empire .