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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Colditz
Map of Germany, location of the city of Colditz highlighted

Coordinates: 51 ° 8 '  N , 12 ° 48'  E

Basic data
State : Saxony
County : Leipzig
Height : 156 m above sea level NHN
Area : 84.09 km 2
Residents: 8422 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 100 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 04680
Area code : 034381
License plate : L , BNA, GHA, GRM, MTL, WUR
Community key : 14 7 29 080
City structure: Core city; 25 districts

City administration address :
Markt 1
04680 Colditz
Website :
Mayor : Robert Zillmann since June 1, 2018 (independent)
Location of the city of Colditz in the Leipzig district
Sachsen-Anhalt Thüringen Landkreis Mittelsachsen Landkreis Nordsachsen Leipzig Bennewitz Böhlen (Sachsen) Borna Borsdorf Brandis Colditz Frohburg Grimma Groitzsch Großpösna Kitzscher Lossatal Machern Markkleeberg Markranstädt Neukieritzsch Neukieritzsch Thallwitz Trebsen/Mulde Bad Lausick Otterwisch Geithain Belgershain Naunhof Parthenstein Elstertrebnitz Pegau Pegau Regis-Breitingen Wurzen Zwenkau Röthamap
About this picture
View of Colditz
Colditz market square, view of the castle

Colditz is a town in the Leipzig district in Saxony , directly on the Zwickauer Mulde . The Zwickau and Freiberg Mulde merge in the Sermuth district . The city is known nationwide for Colditz Castle .


Neighboring communities

Neighboring communities are (clockwise, starting west) the city of Bad Lausick and the city of Grimma (both in the district of Leipzig) as well as the cities of Leisnig , Hartha and Geringswalde and the communities of Zettlitz and Königsfeld in the district of central Saxony .

Grimma Quietly
Bad Lausick Neighboring communities Hartha
Koenigsfeld Zettlitz Geringswalde



Colditz around 1650
View around 1850

The Colditz region was first mentioned in 1046 as the Burgward district "Cholidistcha". Kol-dici as a possible Old Sorbian sound could belong to the Slavic kol- (member of a community), this is considered possible as a name interpretation. In the 12th century a merchant settlement and the later St. Nikolaikirche arose. The city of Colditz itself was first mentioned in 1265 as "civitas". In 1404 the rule of the Colditz dynasty was acquired by the House of Wettin , which resulted in the incorporation as the margravial office of Colditz into the margraviate of Meißen . In 1456, Elector Friedrich II of Saxony set up the Colditz Mint for his wife Margaretha of Austria as compensation for the high treasure that she was entitled to and allowed her to mint her own coins, the so-called Margaret groschen.

In 1504 Colditz was hit by a great fire in the city; subsequently the conversion of Colditz Castle into Colditz Castle began. In the 16th century the cloth-making and linen weaving trade flourished.

From the 1520s the castle was the hunting seat of the Electoral Saxon court and one of the favored castles of Frederick the Wise. From 1602 to 1622 it was the widow's seat of Electress Sophie von Brandenburg Rochlitz . In Colditz, 1568–1679 witch hunts were carried out. Five people got into witch trials , three women were sentenced to expulsion from the country and in the district of Collmen Anna, daughter of Thomas Scheffer, was sentenced to death in 1568 for love spells. From the early 18th century, Colditzer clay began to be used in the Meissen porcelain factory founded in 1710 on the instructions of the elector. On September 20, 1750, another major fire destroyed the city. 130 houses and barns fell victim to the flames. From 1803 a state workhouse was set up in the castle in order to accustom "tramps" and beggars to work ethic and time discipline. In 1804 the first clay processing began in the Colditz stoneware factory Thomsberger & Hermann. In 1829 the castle became the state care institution for the incurably mentally ill. As its "agricole colony", a psychiatric clinic was founded in Zschadraß in 1868, which for a long time was one of the most important and innovative institutions in its field in Saxony.

House on Wassergasse with high water mark

From March 1933 to August 1934 was in the castle , the concentration camp Colditz , where more than 2,000 opponents of Nazism from the SA were severely beaten and police forces. The castle then served as a Reich Labor Service camp between 1936 and 1937 and as a prisoner-of-war camp for officers from 1940 to 1945 ( Oflag IV-C ). This fact was filmed in the British film Colditz - Escape to Freedom 2005. In April 1941, the French officer and later resistance fighter Alain Le Ray was the first to escape from this prison camp, which was considered to be safe from escaping. Towards the end of the Second World War in November 1944 on the grounds of Steingutfabrik Südwerk a satellite camp of Buchenwald concentration camp set up in which more than 450 Jewish concentration camp inmates for the Hugo Schneider AG had to make bazookas. Many died of the cruel living conditions, the sadism of the SS guards and finally on the death march in April 1945.

During the GDR era, a children's holiday camp was operated and maintained in the "stone house" on the outskirts , which was abandoned after 1990.

1958 marks the beginning of the porcelain production in Colditz in the VEB Colditzer Porzellanwerk. This was in a combine with u. a. associated with the Kahla porcelain factory . Colditz manufactured a considerable part of the Mitropa porcelain known in the GDR , which can be recognized by the manufacturer's logo "cp".

Colditz can also look back on an important chamotte industry, which, like the porcelain industry, did not survive the upheaval after 1990.

In 2002 and 2013 the city was hit by a flood of the century .


Former parish date annotation
Bockwitz 07/01/1991 Incorporation to Zschadraß
Collmen 07/01/1961 Incorporation to Zschadraß
Commichau 01/01/1969 Incorporation to Zschadraß
Erlbach 01/01/1995 Incorporation to Zschadraß
Erlln 01/01/1952 Incorporation to Tanndorf
Generosity 01.10.1937
Merger with Kleinsermuth and Kötteritzsch zu Sermuth,
merger of Sermuth and Schönbach to Sermuth-Schönbach,
reclassification to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
House village 01/01/1995 Incorporation to Zschadraß
Hohnbach December 01, 1973
Kaltenborn 09/01/1969 Incorporation to Hausdorf
Kleinsermuth 01.10.1937
Merger with Großsermuth and Kötteritzsch zu Sermuth,
merger of Sermuth and Schönbach to Sermuth-Schönbach,
reclassification to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
Kötteritzsch 01.10.1937
Merger with Großsermuth and Kleinsermuth to Sermuth,
merger of Sermuth and Schönbach to Sermuth-Schönbach,
reclassification to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
Koltzschen 07/01/1973 Incorporation to Hausdorf
Lastau 01/01/1994
Leisenau 01/01/1994
Incorporation to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
Maaschwitz before 1880 Incorporation to Tanndorf
Meuselwitz 01/01/1952 Incorporation to Bockwitz
Möseln 07/01/1950
Podelwitz 01/01/1952 Incorporation to Tanndorf
Raschütz 01/01/1952 Incorporation to Erlbach
Schönbach 01.03.1991
Merger with Sermuth to Sermuth-Schönbach,
reclassification to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
Sermuth 01.10.1937
Merger of Großsermuth, Kleinsermuth and Kötteritzsch,
merger with Schönbach to Sermuth-Schönbach,
reclassification to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
Skoplau 07/01/1950 Incorporation to Commichau
Tanndorf 01/01/1996 Incorporation to Zschadraß
Terpitzsch 04/01/1938 Incorporation to Hausdorf
Thumirot 04/01/1935
Zollwitz 04/01/1938 Incorporation to Hausdorf
Zschadraß 01/01/2011
Zschetzsch 01.07.1950
Incorporation to Schönbach,
merger of Schönbach and Sermuth to Sermuth-Schönbach,
reclassification to Großbothen,
reclassification to Colditz
Zschirla 04/01/1937 Incorporation to Kaltenborn

Population development

Development of the population (from 1960 December 31) :

year 1834 1895 1960 1990 2000 2004 2007 2009 2012 2013 2015 2018
Residents 3248 5121 6797 6635 * 5756 5286 5048 4870 8980 8897 8752 8472

* October 3, data source from 1990: State Statistical Office Saxony

Transport and economy

Colditz station, reception building (2016)


In Colditz, the B 107 running in north-south direction from Pritzwalk to Chemnitz intersects with the B 176 running in west-east direction from Bad Langensalza to Hartha . Via the B 107 you can reach the A 14 in approx. 16 km . Colditz is also located on the disused Muldentalbahn . The city is located in the network area of ​​the Central German Transport Association and is connected by the Leipzig regional bus with a PlusBus and other regional bus routes.


Anona GmbH emerged from the grain mill founded by Carl Ludwig Schlobach in 1826, which now has over 450 employees.

From 1946 to 1996 the castle housed a 400-bed primary care hospital. The specialist hospital for psychiatry, psychotherapy and neurology is located in the district of Zschadraß .

Revier 05 of the Leipzig forest district is based in Colditz.


City council election 2014
Turnout: 50.8%
Colditz Town Hall

City council

Since the municipal council election on May 25, 2014 , the 18 seats of the city council have been distributed among the individual groups as follows:

  • Free voter association "For our home" (FWV): 9 seats
  • Colditz Citizens' Initiative (BIC): 3 seats
  • FDP : 3 seats
  • CDU : 1 seat
  • SPD : 1 seat
  • LEFT : 1 seat


Mayor is Robert Zillmann (since June 1, 2018), who is non-party.

coat of arms

Description : In red, a silver brick castle with an open gate and three tinned towers. A golden shield with an upright black lion hovers over the smaller central tower . On each side a tower with dome and knob in silver and applied shields; On the right, in silver, a red rose with green sepals and a golden lug , on the left, in the divided golden shield, a growing black lion and, below, in silver, three red diagonal bars .

Town twinning


  • Mass grave and memorial complex in the New Cemetery for concentration camp prisoners of the satellite camp who were victims of forced labor ; since 1995 with two more boards for forced laborers and the Allied prisoners of war
  • Soviet honor grove in the same cemetery with a memorial stone for two Red Army soldiers and 16 prisoners of war who were abducted to Germany during the Second World War and were victims of forced labor
  • Memorial plaques in the castle for the abused prisoners of the early concentration camp, as well as for captured Polish officers (1940–45) and for interned landowners and nobles in autumn 1945.
  • Row graves in the New Cemetery with Colditz soldiers from the Second World War , who mostly died in home hospitals.

Culture and sights

Colditz Castle


Honorary citizen

sons and daughters of the town

House with plaque commemorating Johann David Koehler

Other personalities with a relationship to the city


  • Karlheinz Blaschke : The early history of the city of Colditz. in: Sächsische Heimatblätter 11 Heft 4, 1965, pp. 290–307. ISSN  0486-8234 . Reprinted in: Peter Johanek (Ed.) With the assistance of Uwe John: Stadtgrundriß und Stadtentwicklung. Research into the development of central European cities. Selected essays by Karlheinz Blaschke (= urban research: series A, representations vol. 44). Cologne, Weimar, Vienna: Böhlau 1997, pp. 207–224. ISBN 3-412-06897-7 . 2nd, unchanged edition, ibid. 2001. ISBN 3-412-02601-8 .
  • Karlheinz Blaschke: German city atlas. Vol. 3, Part 1. Acta Collegii Historiae Urbanae Societatis Historicorum Internationalis. Series C. City folder Colditz, Dortmund-Altenbeken 1984. ISBN 3-89115-001-6 .
  • Council of the City of Colditz (ed.): 700 years of the city of Colditz. Colditz 1965.
  • Colditz . In: August Schumann : Complete State, Post and Newspaper Lexicon of Saxony. 5th volume. Schumann, Zwickau 1818, pp. 48-63.
  • Cornelius Gurlitt : Colditz. In:  Descriptive representation of the older architectural and art monuments of the Kingdom of Saxony. 19. Issue: Amtshauptmannschaft Grimma (1st half) . CC Meinhold, Dresden 1897, p. 36 ff.
  • Johann Kamprad : Leisnigker Chronica or description of the very old town of Leisnigk. A chronica of the neighboring town of Colditz is particularly attached . Leisnig 1753, p. 515 ff .
  • A record of the Colditz City Court for the period 1540–1849 on criminal, civil and voluntary jurisdiction as well as court books is in the Saxon State Archives, State Archives Leipzig, stock 20600 City Colditz (City Court).

Web links

Commons : Colditz  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Colditz  - sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019  ( help on this ).
  2. ^ Ernst Eichler and Hans Walther : Saxony. All city names and their history , Faber and Faber Verlag, Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-86730-038-4 , p. 50
  3. Manfred Wilde : The sorcery and witch trials in Kursachsen , Cologne, Weimar, Vienna 2003, p. 477 and 510
  4. ^ Deutsche Fotothek: Plan after the city fire in 1750
  5. , accessed on August 2, 2020
  6. On the history of the porcelain and chamotte industry
  7. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony: Area changes
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l municipalities 1994 and their changes since 01.01.1948 in the new federal states , Metzler-Poeschel publishing house, Stuttgart, 1995, ISBN 3-8246-0321-7 , publisher: Federal Statistical Office
  9. a b c d e f g h Das Sachsenbuch , Kommunal-Verlag Sachsen KG, Dresden, 1943
  10. ^ Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon , FA Brockhaus in Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna, 1894.
  11. From aristocratic residence to hospital ( Memento from January 7, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Article in Ärzteblatt Sachsen 1/2013, p. 29 (PDF; 252 kB)
  12. Results of the 2014 municipal council elections
  13. ^ City of Colditz - Official Gazette. Retrieved June 16, 2018 .
  14. Colditz mayor celebrates his 60th birthday today. Retrieved April 27, 2020 .
  15. Eckart Roloff and Karin Henke-Wendt: Everything together: installation, experiment, reflection, warning. (Museum 'Place across the street') In: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 1, Northern Germany. S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, pp. 188–190, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2 .
  16. Eckart Roloff and Karin Henke-Wendt: Teeth with records, premieres and curiosities. (Museum of Dental History and 'Quadriga Dentaria') In: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 1, Northern Germany. S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, pp. 186-187, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2 .
  17. ^ Robert Koch: Elias Gerlach (1560-1628). In search of a forgotten Colditz composer. in: Sächsische Heimatblätter 62 (2016) 1, pp. 7–13
  18. 20600 City of Colditz (City Court). In: State Archives Leipzig. Retrieved March 26, 2020 . (Info text on the Colditzer City Court under "Introduction")