As forced labor work will be referred to which people under threat of punishment are forced or other sensitive evil against their will. It is - with blurred transitions - the sharpest form of "duty to work". The slavery and serfdom describe similar dependency relationships in which people but as property or objects of human trafficking in the foreground. Forced prostitution is currently one of the most widespread forms of forced labor.
Definition and international agreements
Prohibition of forced labor
The International Labor Organization (ILO) in 1930 defined in Art. 2 para. 1 of the Convention on forced or compulsory labor , forced labor as involuntary work or service which is exerted on pain of a penalty. The ILO prohibits the use of forced labor:
- as a means of political coercion or political education or as a punishment against persons who have or express certain political views or who express their ideological opposition to the existing political, social or economic order;
- as a method of recruiting and using labor for economic development purposes;
- as a measure of work discipline;
- as a punishment for participating in strikes ;
- as a measure of racial, social, national or religious discrimination.
Exceptions to the ban on forced labor
Forced labor should be abolished except for the following offenses listed in paragraph 2 of the Convention:
- a mandatory service in the military or paramilitary equipment, such as the military or the border defense service and their alternative military services such as the civil service .
- usual civic duties, such as compulsory service in a compulsory or militia fire brigade
- work in the penal system
- Necessary work in cases of force majeure, for example mandatory clean-up work after natural disasters, such as dike assistance , or civil service in exceptional economic situations
- Work that serves the immediate good of the community, such as hand and clamping services for municipalities.
Further international agreements prohibiting forced labor
There are also a number of other agreements that deal with various forms of forced labor:
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- UN Human Rights Convention, Pact II, Article 8
- Children's Rights Convention , Art. 32 ff. And optional protocols to prevent child trafficking, child prostitution, child and forced labor
- Migrant Workers Convention
- Disability Rights Convention
- International anti-trafficking agreements
- Hague Land Warfare Regulations and Geneva Convention regulate the rights of prisoners of war and civilians in the event of war
Irrespective of the above-mentioned exceptions in international agreements, some states have linked the payment of social assistance or unemployment benefits to the compulsory exercise of community service . In Australia , Great Britain and the USA this concept is referred to as workfare ( Work + Social Welfare = workfare , ie "work and social welfare").
In Germany, a similar program, civil work , is discussed from time to time or the introduction of a compulsory social year as part of a legally controversial general service obligation for all genders.
There are only estimates of the extent of forced labor, whereby the system and the respective definition must be observed.
In May 2014 the ILO published the report Profits und Poverty , according to which
- around 21 million people worldwide worked under forced labor, including around 55 percent women and 5.5 million children,
- The contractors of this forced labor achieved around 150 billion dollars in income, of which 99 billion dollars from forced prostitution , 9 billion dollars in agriculture and forestry, 8 billion dollars in private households and 33 billion dollars from other industries such as construction , manufacturing or Mining .
90 percent of all forced labor is done in the private sector , 2.2 million people would be carried out by the state e.g. B. forced to work as prison inmates and soldiers.
History of Germany
First World War
Forced labor already existed during the First World War . In addition to prisoners of war , it was Belgian , Polish and Lithuanian civilians who were deported to Germany for forced labor in industry, mining and agriculture. The forced drafting of about 61,000 Belgian workers in particular was catastrophic for the image of the empire and led to numerous protests from neutral states. The Polish forced laborers were clearly discriminated against.
time of the nationalsocialism
The Nazis imprisoned starting from 1933 arbitrary political opponents and later " anti-socials ", vagrants , homosexuals and allegedly "racially inferior" Jews , Sinti and Roma ( "Gypsies") and Jehovah's Witnesses ( " Witnesses ") in labor camps. The names of the camps were euphemistic and, depending on the purpose and responsibility, also varied over time. The first larger concentration camps such as Dachau and Oranienburg were originally called " protective custody camps ". In almost all concentration camps , labor camps and re-education camps , hard forced labor, arbitrary abuse and, in some cases, extermination through work were the order of the day.
As early as November 28, 1933, the local Chamber of Crafts feared unbearable competition for the local craft businesses from forced labor in Dachau.
Second World War
During the Second World War , several million people in the German Reich were forced to do forced labor, mostly prisoners of war , concentration camp inmates and civilians from the occupied territories; From 1940 onwards, German Jews, later also so-called first-degree mixed race, were forced into compulsory labor. They had to replace the missing workers who were at war and, above all, maintain war production. In Eastern Europe in particular , they were largely recruited through raids . From January 1942, the first “ Eastern workers ” were deported to the German Reich by train. The forced laborers were referred to as foreign workers or, if they came from the Soviet Union (mostly Ukraine or Russia ), as eastern workers. The forced laborers also included young people and children who were often snatched from their parents or abducted. Forced laborers were used in agriculture and the ( armaments ) industry , but public institutions, the church and private individuals also called for forced laborers. Forced laborers were often humiliated, poorly fed and often received no wages. They had to do the hardest work. They were accommodated in forced labor camps , the main camps (called Stalag in National Socialist parlance ), often barrack camps , fenced with barbed wire . The sanitary and hygienic conditions in these barracks were extremely poor, as was the clothing. Eastern workers in particular lived in poorly self-built barracks and were forced “to go to work unshod even in winter”. They were also frequently mistreated by the Germans: "People often rolled over in pain because of the constant beating with rubber truncheons and ox pigs". No occupational safety was applied to forced laborers , so that they were exposed to all health risks in the workplace. They were not allowed to go to shelters when there was a bomb alarm . If they violated the orders and orders of the Germans, they were threatened with admission to a “ labor education camp ” (AEL), in which conditions similar to concentration camps prevailed.
Pregnant forced laborers, especially those from Eastern Europe , were often forced to have abortions . Children of such women were placed in foster homes for foreign children , which had no other purpose than to let these unwanted children starve to death unnoticed by the public.
Polish and Soviet forced laborers were treated even worse than the Italian so-called military internees or French and others. a. Western prisoners of war and civilian workers, as they in the NS - racial ideology as Slavic subhumans were. Special Polish and Eastern workers ' decrees were in force for them, which largely deprived them of their rights. For example, the possession of money, valuables, bicycles and lighters and the purchase of tickets were prohibited. Intercourse with Germans was severely punished, sometimes even with the death penalty . For the forced laborers, the general agent for labor, Fritz Sauckel, was responsible, while the governor general of occupied Poland , Hans Frank and the Reich commissioners Hinrich Lohse ( Ostland ) and Erich Koch ( Ukraine ) organized the raids in order to round up enough forced laborers. The forced labor program fitted in with Heinrich (Himmler )’s program to decimate the Slavic peoples by around 30 million.
Since the forced laborers were not subject to many regulations (for example on safety at work ), they were often so popular that the German Reich had to introduce an Eastern worker tax in order to avoid the complete displacement of German workers by forced laborers. Forced labor took a special course in the border zones, where, for example, specific traditions of cross-border commuter employment remained in effect, the deployment of prisoners of war only began with a delay and border-specific peculiarities existed in the form of repression.
Leaflet for Eastern workers from the Soviet Union, 1942
ID card of a 16-year-old Polish forced laborer at Kienzle Uhren
- Poland decrees
- Nazi forced labor in the Büdingen area
- Nazi forced labor in the Münsterland
- "Slaves of the Church" in Berlin's Hermannstrasse
- German reparation policy
- Online archive of forced labor 1939–1945
Processing after 1945
After the war exemplary trials were carried out against the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office (it had rented forced laborers to companies for bonuses) and those responsible for companies from Flick , IG-Farben and Krupp (they had hired thousands of forced laborers from the SS). In the Nuremberg follow-up trials, there were convictions for enslavement, mistreatment, intimidation, torture and murder of the civilian population and the scheduled use of slave labor.
In the course of the Cold War, the interest in coordinated criminal prosecution ebbed and there were further trials mainly in the most exploited Eastern European countries.
Lawsuits by former forced laborers in the USA against German companies that had employed them led to the foundation of the “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” foundation . The federal government and the business community each brought in 10 billion Deutschmarks (around 5.1 billion euros ). In return, such lawsuits against individual companies are now excluded in the USA. Payouts began on June 15, 2001 and ended in June 2007. 1.66 million forced laborers or their heirs received up to 7,500 euros each. A total of 4.37 billion euros was paid out. The foundation intends to use the remaining capital of 400 million euros to support educational and mutual understanding projects. This completes the financial compensation for former forced laborers in Germany. However, prisoners of war who had to do forced labor in the German Reich were not compensated.
→ Main article: German forced laborers after 1945
One of the immediate consequences of the Second World War was the obligation of German prisoners of war and civilians to do forced labor. First and foremost, they should make amends . The fate of those affected varied greatly among the individual victorious powers .
In the Federal Republic of Germany , Paragraph 2 of the Basic Law in 1949 expressly stipulated that no one may be forced to do a particular job; as well as in paragraph 3 that forced labor is only permitted in the event of a court-ordered deprivation of liberty.
The GDR won in the 1980s in support of its ailing state budget to a considerable extent Western currencies with the forced labor of prisoners in the production of goods for Western ( "capitalist") companies and z. B. with forced blood donations from prisoners , which z. B. were bought by the Bavarian Red Cross through a Swiss middleman.
History of Austria
In the Ostmark, officially the Alpine and Danube Reichsgaue , almost one million forced laborers were employed in autumn 1944, while the number of domestic workers was 1.7 million. See the list of the Mauthausen concentration camp subcamps .
The Austrian Fund for Reconciliation, Peace and Cooperation (also known as the Reconciliation Fund for short) has existed since 2000 and made voluntary payments to forced laborers in Austria during the Nazi era until 2005 . So far, around 132,000 people worldwide have received benefits from this fund . A total of 439,254,087 euros was fed into the fund. At some companies such as Swarovski , Austrian Federal Railways and Steyr Daimler Puch , the role during the Nazi era is largely unexplored and the subject of current historical research.
History of other countries
In Japan too , civilians from the occupied territories were forced to work during World War II. Hundreds of thousands of Koreans were deported to Japan and had to work in Japanese mines and factories. Many men from the Japanese colonies of Korea and Taiwan at the time were forcibly recruited into the Japanese military, while many women in the occupied territories were forced into prostitution or sexual slavery and had to serve Japanese soldiers as so-called comfort women . Even after the Second World War, Korean forced laborers were used in the coal mines in Japan - with the tacit approval of the victorious USA. See also: Death Railway
During the construction of the Danube-Black Sea Canal in Romania between 1949 and 1954, tens of thousands of prisoners were used for forced labor. The canal was only completed without forced labor between 1976 and 1984.
Even before the founding of the Soviet Union, the katorga system existed in the Russian Empire between 1696 and 1917 , which can be seen as the forerunner of the gulag system: Here people were banished to Siberia to perform forced labor. However, the number of those affected was significantly lower than in the Soviet Union.
Millions of Soviet citizens were deported to the Soviet forced labor camps of the Gulag in the first half of the 20th century : political oppositionists, opponents of the communist system, members of groups that had fallen into disrepute (“ class enemies ”) and parts of defeated ethnic groups such as between 1939 and in 1941 the Poles during the Second world war and whole nations were to Kolyma , Vorkuta and the White sea-Baltic canal deported . Large cities and industrial centers have emerged from these places.
After the end of World War II, a good two and a half million German prisoners of war and civilians were deported to the Soviet Union for forced labor; many of them died in the labor camps; Thousands of East German scientists were brought to the Soviet Union for mental forced labor (“ Operation Ossawakim ”). Forced labor was also used in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) .
Forced Labor in the Present
In Eritrea, conscripts can be called upon to work in state-owned companies for an unlimited period after their actual military service.
In principle, prisoners are obliged to do work that is appropriate to their physical abilities, provided they are able to do so. The German Basic Law explicitly declares forced labor to be permissible in the event of deprivation of liberty.
The obligation to perform work in juvenile criminal law as a condition has a criminal character and remains constitutional within the framework of Paragraphs 2 and 3 of the Basic Law, as well as the work duties according to StGB do not violate the constitution and human dignity.
In the ILO Convention . No. 29 states: 2. This does not apply "forced or compulsory labor" within the meaning of this Convention [...] c) any work or service which is exacted from any person on the basis of a court conviction, but on the condition that this work or service is carried out under the supervision and supervision of the public authorities and that the convicted person is not hired out to, or otherwise made available to, individuals or private companies and associations.
In addition, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) limited the work to forms that could "usually" be required of an imprisoned person, e.g. routine detention work or work for the purpose of rehabilitation. In contrast to the ILO Convention, however, the ECHR and the Federal Constitutional Court ruled in a judgment of 1998 that it is permissible for the work to be performed for the benefit of private companies.
Forced labor in war
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- Ulrich Herbert: Foreign workers. Politics and practice of the "deployment of foreigners" in the war economy of the Third Reich. Dissertation. 2nd Edition. Dietz, Bonn 1999, ISBN 3-8012-5028-8 .
- Mark Spoerer: Forced labor under the swastika. Foreign civil workers, prisoners of war and prisoners in the Third Reich and in occupied Europe 1939–1945. DVA, Stuttgart / Munich 2001, ISBN 3-421-05464-9 .
- Wolf Gruner : Jewish Forced Labor Under the Nazis: Economic Needs and Racial Aims, 1938–1944 (original title: The closed labor deployment of German Jews translated by Kathleen M. Dell'Orto), Cambridge University Press, New York, NY 2006, ISBN 0- 521-74357-5 (Published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ).
- Christian Ruch, Myriam Rais-Liechti, Roland Peter: Business and Forced Labor: Swiss Industrial Companies in the “Third Reich” . Published by the Independent Expert Commission Switzerland - Second World War . Chronos, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-0340-0606-3 .
- Christine Glauning, Andreas Nachama: Everyday forced labor 1938-1945 . Published by the Documentation Center Nazi Forced Labor . Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-941772-31-1
- Witold Wojciech Mędykowski: Macht Arbeit Frei ?: German Economic Policy and Forced Labor of Jews in the General Government, 1939-1943 , Academic Studies Press, Brighton 2018, ISBN 978-1-618119-56-8
- Fred Dorn, Klaus Heuer (Ed.): “I was always good to my Russian woman.” Structure and practice of the Nazi forced labor system. (= Studies and materials on right-wing extremism. Volume 1). Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1991, ISBN 3-89085-596-2 .
- Hans Schafranek , Robert Streibel (ed.): Strategy of survival. Prisoner societies in KZ and GULAG . Picus, Vienna 1996, ISBN 3-85452-401-3 .
- Karl-Joseph Hummel , Christoph Kösters, "Commission for Contemporary History" (ed.): Forced Labor and the Catholic Church 1939–1945. History and memory, compensation and reconciliation. A documentation. (= Publications of the Commission for Contemporary History, Series B: Research. Volume 10). published on behalf of the German Bishops' Conference . Schöningh, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-506-75689-3 .
With a regional reference
- Ralf Dünhöft: Foreign worker in Delmenhorst during the Second World War . Isensee, Oldenburg 1995, ISBN 3-89598-306-3 .
- Johannes Grabler: The fate of a forced laborer in Aulzhausen ( Affing ) . Work on the advanced seminar "Twice ' Dealing with the Past ' - after 1945, after 1989" at the Catholic University of Eichstätt . Eichstätt 1993. ( Download version .doc )
- Gerhard Hausen: Forced labor in the Olpe district. (= Series of publications of the district of Olpe. Volume 32). Self-published, 2007, District administrator thanked the author for his commitment. on: derwesten.de , December 10, 2007. .
- Ulrich Herbert : History of the policy on foreigners in Germany. Seasonal workers, forced laborers, guest workers, refugees . Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47477-2 .
- Andreas Heusler: Forced Labor in the Munich War Economy 1939–1945. 2nd Edition. München-Verlag, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-927984-07-8 .
- Rolf Keller : Soviet prisoners of war in the German Reich 1941/42. Treatment and employment between the policy of extermination and the requirements of the war economy. Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8353-0989-0 . Reviews: H-Soz-u-Kult February 9, 2012, www.kulturthemen.de February 9, 2012
- Nils Köhler: Forced Labor in the Lüneburg Heath - Organization and Everyday Life of the “Foreign Employment” 1939–1945. 2nd Edition. Publishing house for regional history , Gütersloh 2004, ISBN 3-89534-537-7 .
- Arne Martius: forced laborer in Ilmenau . Escher, Ilmenau 2004, ISBN 3-00-016747-1 .
- Michael Matheus, Hedwig Brüchert (Ed.): Forced labor in Rhineland-Palatinate during the Second World War. (= Historical regional studies. 57). Steiner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-08279-4 .
- Stefan Karner, Peter Ruggenthaler: Forced labor in agriculture and forestry in Austria 1939-1945 . Oldenbourg, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-486-56800-0 .
- Stephan Jegielka: The Genshagen subcamp . Structure and perception of forced labor in an armaments factory 1944/45 . Tectum, Marburg 2005, ISBN 3-8288-8895-X .
- Thomas Irmer, Forced Labor Remember eV: ... why it is vital to keep memories alive. Forced labor for Siemens in Auschwitz and Berlin. Documentation of an encounter with former concentration camp inmates. Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-938690-47-X .
- Thomas Müller: Forced labor in the border zone. The Aachen district in World War II. Shaker, Aachen 2003, ISBN 3-8322-1301-5 .
- Cord Pagenstecher: Foreign resistance in Berlin. Scope of Resistance by Forced Laborers. In: Hans Coppi, Stefan Heinz (ed.): The forgotten resistance of the workers. Trade unionists, communists, social democrats, Trotskyists, anarchists and forced laborers. Dietz, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-320-02264-8 , pp. 229-247.
- Hermann Rafetseder: The fate of the Nazi forced labor. Findings on manifestations of the oppression and on the Nazi camp system from the work of the Austrian Reconciliation Fund . A documentation on behalf of the Future Fund of the Republic of Austria. - Bremen 2014, ISBN 978-3-944690-28-5 ; Corrected print version of a text that remained unpublished in 2007 for data protection reasons, can still be found online (PDF) in the OoeGeschichte.at forum.
- Peter Rugenthaler: A present for the Führer: Soviet forced laborers in Carinthia and Styria 1942–1945 . Association for the Promotion of Research on Consequences after Conflicts and Wars, Graz 2001, ISBN 3-901661-06-9 .
- Roman Smolorz : Forced Labor in the “Third Reich” using Regensburg as an example . Regensburg City Archives, Regensburg 2003, ISBN 3-935052-30-8 .
- Mark Spoerer: Forced Labor Regimes in Comparison: Germany and Japan in the First and Second World Wars. In: Klaus Tenfelde, Hans-Christoph Seidel (ed.): Forced labor in Europe in the 20th century. Comparative aspects and social debate. Klartext, Essen 2007, pp. 187–226.
- Claus Heinrich Gattermann: The deployment of foreigners in the district of Osterode 1939–1945 . Wernigerode / Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-936872-13-9 .
- Thorsten Wiederhold: Gerhard Fieseler - a career. A business leader in the service of National Socialism . (= National Socialism in Northern Hesse, writings on regional contemporary history. Volume 20). Kassel 2003, ISBN 3-934377-98-X . Inside: Forced laborers in the Fieseler factory. Pp. 169-219.
- Roland Maier: Main field of activity in the war: surveillance and repression of foreign forced laborers. In: Ingrid Bauz, Sigrid Brüggemann, Roland Maier (eds.): The Secret State Police in Württemberg and Hohenzollern . Butterfly Verlag Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 3-89657-145-1 , pp. 338-380.
Forced labor after 1945
Forced labor in Czechoslovakia
- Tomáš Staněk : Internment and forced labor: the camp system in the Bohemian countries 1945–1948 (original title: Tábory v českých zemích 1945–1948 , translated by Eliška and Ralph Melville, supplemented and updated by the author, with an introduction by Andreas R. Hofmann) ( = Publications of the Collegium Carolinum . Volume 92). Oldenbourg / Collegium Carolinum , Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-56519-5 .
Forced labor in the GDR
- Uwe Bastian, Hildigund Neubert : Shamelessly exploited. The system of forced labor for political prisoners of the SED state. published by the citizens' office . Berlin 2003, .
- Karin Schmidt: On the question of forced labor in the penal system in the GDR. Olms, Hildesheim et al. 2011, ISBN 978-3-487-14571-6 .
- Marcus Sonntag: The labor camps in the GDR. Klartext, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0477-4 . (Download PDF)
- Tobias Wunschik: prison goods for the class enemy. Prisoner work in the GDR, east-west trade and state security (1970–1989). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-525-35080-5
- Christian Sachse: The system of forced labor in the SED dictatorship. The economic and political dimension. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2014, ISBN 978-3-86583-884-1 .
- Jan Philipp Wölbern: Prison work in the GDR. An interim balance sheet , in: Zeithistorische Forschungen 13 (2016), pp. 86–107.
- Susanne Kill, Christopher Kopper , Jan-Henrik Peters: The Reichsbahn and the penal system in the GDR. Forced labor and transport of prisoners in the SED dictatorship, Klartext Verlag , 2016, ISBN 978-3-8375-1436-0
- Natascha Wodin : She came from Mariupol .
- Esclaves d'Hitler / Hitler's slaves: forced laborers and prisoners of war in Swiss factories. ( Frédéric Gonseth Switzerland 1997)
- Forced labor! Travail force! French forced laborers in Austria. (Siegfried Steinlechner and Wolfgang Peschl, Austria 2008)
- Case law database. KOK - Nationwide coordination group against human trafficking
- Wolfgang Schuller : Great chaos. In: faz.net . July 8, 2016 (Review by: Michael Kroner : Deportation of Germans to the Soviet Union. Forced laborers in the Soviet economy ).
- Forced labor European remember. History workshop Europe, archived from the original on February 25, 2013 .
- Association of former children in care e. V. on "Forced labor in German homes from 1945–1975"
- Contemporary witness app from the Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt e. V.
- Documentation Center Nazi Forced Labor. (Contemporary witness archive).
- Isabell Fannrich-Lautenschläger: GDR forced laborers - exploitation according to plan. In: Deutschlandfunk broadcast “ Background ”. 15th June 2014 .
- Isabell Fannrich-Lautenschläger: Forced Labor in the GDR - Main topic: Everything according to plan. In: Deutschlandfunk broadcast “From cultural and social sciences”. November 21, 2013 .
- EU study on human trafficking - prostitution and forced labor are skyrocketing in Europe , FOCUS April 14, 2013
- There is also human trafficking in Europe , from June 4, 2014
- Convention 105 of the ILO on the Abolition of Forced Labor 1957 ( Memento of December 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Municipal: § 10 legal status of the resident. In: dejure.org. Retrieved May 13, 2020 .
- Convention 29 of the ILO on Forced and Compulsory Labor 1930 ( Memento of June 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- badische-zeitung.de , May 21, 2014: badische-zeitung.de: There are 21 million forced laborers worldwide (May 24, 2014)
- Federal Archives: Historical overview of forced labor in the German Reich , accessed on September 15, 2014.
- "Forced Labor in the Nazi State: Directory of Detention Places - Types of Camp". In: Federal Archives. 2010, accessed September 17, 2014 .
- Wolfgang Benz , Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror . History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps. Volume 2: Early camp, Dachau, Emsland camp. CH Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52962-3 , p. 241.
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Millions of foreign currency for GDR forced labor and blood from prisoners (October 11, 2016)
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- Sebastian Bürger: The new regulation of human trafficking. Implementation of Union law requirements and creation of a coherent overall concept? ZIS 2017, pp. 169–181
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- Joel Kotek, Pierre Rigoulot: The century of the camp. Captivity, forced labor, extermination. Propylaea 2001, ISBN 3-549-07143-4 . (Le siècle des camps, Éditions Lattès 2000.)
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