In German law, abuse is defined as “any nasty and inappropriate treatment of another person” or animal that “ more than negligibly affects their physical integrity or well-being”. However, abuse can also manifest itself in psychologically traumatizing behavior and accordingly trigger psychological trauma in the abused person.
- Urte Finger-Trescher: Abuse, neglect and sexual violence in upbringing. Psychoanalytic Pedagogy. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2000, ISBN 3-89806-008-X
- Wolfgang Meurer: Problems of the maltreatment of those under protection (§ 223 b StGB). Dissertation, Cologne 1997
- Wiebke Jaenecke: Sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood. Influence of severity and common occurrence of both forms of abuse on later consequences. Dissertation at the University of Hamburg, Hamburg 2003, urn : nbn: de: gbv: 18-10036