House Wettin

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The House of Wettin with over 1,000 years of a family history of the oldest documented proven families of the German nobility , the historical significance for the country's history of the federal states of Saxony , Thuringia , Saxony-Anhalt and Bavaria due. The dynasty derives its name from the Wettin Castle , located near Halle .

Since the high Middle Ages , the family provided numerous margraves of Meissen , landgraves of Thuringia, and dukes and electors of Saxony . In 1485, with the division of Leipzig, two main lines emerged - the Ernestine line with the main rulership of today's Thuringia and the Albertine line with the main rulership of today's Free State of Saxony.

In 1806 the Albertines received the royal dignity of Saxony; the last king Friedrich August III. abdicated in 1918 after the events of the November Revolution . Until the same year, the Ernestines ruled in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and the Duchies of Saxe-Altenburg , Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen . Several monarchs of Saxony, Poland , Belgium , Portugal , Bulgaria and Great Britain emerged from the Wettins until modern times . The current ruling monarchs of Ernestine descent are the British Queen Elizabeth II and the Belgian King Philippe .

origin

The Wettin house can be traced back to the second half of the 10th century. It is, after the older Guelphs and Reginars (the House of Hesse ), the only remaining family in Germany that is documented before the turn of the first millennium. The other later great dynasties such as the Hohenzollern , Habsburg , Wittelsbach , Ascan , Oldenburg , Obotriten and Zähringer all appear in written records after the year 1000.

About the earliest known tribal elders of the Wettins, the chronicler Thietmar von Merseburg can read that Count Dedo I (in the original Daedi comes ) (* around 960; † November 13, 1009) was the son of a Dietrich (in the original Thiedrico ) . Both are said to have belonged to the tribe of the so-called "Buzici", whose genealogical connection to the noble families of the Sorbs in the area of ​​the Limes Sorabicus is unclear and who - defeated, subject to tribute and become submissive - would not have been considered worth mentioning. Dedo is said to have served as a vassal to an agnatic relative in the Limes Sorabicus, the count Rikdag († 985) .

Various considerations have been made in the historical literature about the origin of Dietrich and Dedo de Buzici. A view from Friedrich Kurze's dissertation from 1886, which Otto Posse took over in his genealogy of the House of Wettin in 1897, relates the tribal name Buzici to a "Buco" or "Buzo", which is said to be a short form of the name "Burchard", and identifies the Buzici therefore with the Burkards, followers of the Carolingians since Charlemagne . Two aristocrats who fell in the battle of Cape Colonna against the Saracens (July 13, 982), Burchard IV. In Hassegau and Dedi, are seen as brothers Dietrichs I and Hassegaugraf Dedi ( Téti ), who died in 957, as their father. An extension of this interpretation of the Latin-language text traces Dietrich's descent back to a Burchard von Thuringia , margrave in the Limes Sorabicus in the vicinity of the Bavarian Nordgau , who fell against the Hungarians in 908 .

A second view of the origins of the House of Wettin, represented by Reinhard Wenskus and Stefan Pätzold , also traces the Buzici back to the lead name Burchard and considers Dietrich to be a son of the Swabian Duke Burchard III. († 973) from the Burchardinger family , who spent some time in Saxony after 926 and is said to come from a first marriage with an Immedinger woman named Wieltrud, which is not documented . To support this theory of origin of the Buzici , it is stated that in the preface to the Sachsenspiegel, which was created in the 13th century, the House of Wettin is counted among the Franconian families.

A third theory of origin, represented in the lexicon of the Middle Ages , sees Dietrich as the son of the Harz Count Volkmar (Folcmar, around 945). This is supported by the fact that the agnatic relative Rikdag is considered a member of the Harz Gaugrafen, a clan that can be traced back to the 9th century.

Early history

The lordship of Wettin in the Gau Nudzici is first mentioned in writing in a document issued on July 29, 961 by King Otto I the Great . The later emperor determined that, among other things, the church tithe drawn up by Wettin was to be paid to the St. Moritz monastery in Magdeburg . The manor of Wettin belonged a short time later to the Meissen march of Count Rikdag , in whose service the agnatically related Dedo I was among others. Apparently this had received the manorial rule from the margrave as an allod , which from then on remained hereditary in the family. However, the ancestral seat of the early Wettins was initially Eilenburg Castle , which Dedo II inherited as the eldest son of Dietrich II . The Eilenburg branch of the clan later acquired the Margraviate of Meissen, but died out in the male line in 1123.

A younger son of Dietrich II was Thimo , who had inherited Wettin Castle from his father in addition to other family goods. Ultimately, all subsequent generations of the Wettins descended from him, and apparently the eponymous castle already served as his preferred ancestral seat. Because Thimo was the first of his family who was already known in contemporary chronicles as "Count von Wettin". Derived from the name of this ancestral castle, the descendants and retrospectively the ancestors of Thimos were called "Wettiner", a family name that was generally in use for this family in the 13th century at the latest, as was the genealogy of the early Wettins that emerged at this time Genealogica Wettinensis , begets.

Rise and division

Under the leading German dynasties, the Wettiner established from Konrad the Great , who after a victorious struggle for power with wiprecht of groitzsch with the support of the Saxon duke Lothar von Süpplingenburg the Margraviate of Meissen was able to bring in itself with which he Emperor 1125 Henry V was officially invested .

From then on, the Wettins did not give up the Mark Meißen, it became the starting point for their expansion into the Thuringian region. The Wettin castle , however, came after the extinction of the Wettin Count line 1217 in inheritance to the wettinischen Counts of Brehna . Otto IV von Brehna sold the County of Wettin to the Archbishop of Magdeburg on November 14, 1288 . It was converted into an archiepiscopal office .

Otto the Rich († 1190), the son of Conrad the Great, received the Margraviate of Meissen. His brother Dietrich II got the margraviate of Lausitz and named himself “Margrave of Landsberg” after his castle seat .

Heinrich the Illustrated, Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia, depicted in the Codex Manesse , 13th century

Emerging victorious from the Thuringian-Hessian War of Succession , Margrave Heinrich the Illustrious was also able to win the Landgraviate of Thuringia for his dynasty in the 13th century . Friedrich der Freidige (the bitten) and his brother Dietrich (Diezmann) were able to successfully defend the power of the Wettins against King Albrecht I of Habsburg in the victorious battle of Lucka on May 31, 1307.

In 1423 Frederick the Arguable received the Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg and the County of Brehna . With the transfer of the duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg to the Meissnian margrave, the Wettins were finally able to join the German electors because of the Saxon electoral dignity that came with it .

As is customary with other German houses, the Wettins regularly divided their possessions between sons and brothers, which often led to tensions. After the death of Friedrich IV. Disagreements between his nephews Friedrich II. And Wilhelm III. to the Altenburg division . In spite of Halle's ruling in 1445, the conflict later escalated to the Saxon fratricidal war .

Leipzig division

The so-called " Leipzig division " in 1485, in which Elector Ernst and his younger brother Albrecht the Courageous agreed to divide the Wettin lands, turned out to be particularly momentous . Ernst took over above all the Landgraviate of Thuringia and the Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg including the indivisible electoral dignity associated with it, Albrecht the Mark of Meißen including the title "Duke of Saxony". In contrast to the previous divisions, this one has permanently solidified dynastically. The division of Leipzig led to the emergence of the Ernestine line and the Albertine line , which exist to this day.

The medieval Wettins

Name
(life data)
relationship title
Dietrich I. (Thiedrico)
(† probably before 976/966)
Dedo I. (Daedi)
(* around 960 - † November 13, 1009)
Son of the predecessor Count of Merseburg
Dietrich II.
(* Around 990; † November 19, 1034)
Son of the predecessor Count in Hassegau and Margrave of Lusatia (Dietrich I.)
Dedo II
(* around 1010; † 1075)
Son of the predecessor Count of Eilenburg and the Gaue Siusili, Serimunt and Nizizi, Margrave of Lusatia (Dedo I.)
Dedo III
(† 1069)
first son Dedo II. Margrave of Lusatia (Dedo II.)
Heinrich I the Elder
(around 1070 - 1103)
second son Dedo II. Margrave of Lusatia and Meissen
Henry II the Younger
(* 1103; † 1123)
Son of the predecessor Margrave of Lusatia and Meissen
Thimo
(* before 1034; † 1091 or 1118)
Son Dietrich II. Count of Wettin, Brehna and Kistritz
Dedo IV.
(† December 16, 1124)
first son Thimos Count of Wettin and Groitzsch
Konrad the Great
(around 1098 - February 5, 1157)
second son Thimos Count of Wettin and Margrave of Meißen and Lausitz
Otto the Rich
(* 1125 - † February 18, 1190)
Son of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen
Albrecht I the Proud
(* 1158 - 24 June 1195)
Son of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen
Dietrich the oppressed
(* 1162; † February 18, 1221)
Brother of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen and of Lausitz (Dietrich III.)
Henry III. the illustrious
(* around 1215; † February 15, 1288)
Son of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen and Lusatia (Heinrich IV.), Landgrave of Thuringia and Count Palatine of Saxony
Albrecht II the Degenerate
(* 1240; † 1314/1315)
Son of the predecessor Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen
Frederick I the Bitten / the Bitten
(* 1257 - † November 16, 1323)
Son of the predecessor Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen
Friedrich II. The Serious
(born November 30, 1310 - † November 18, 1349)
Son of the predecessor Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen
Friedrich III. austerity
(14 December 1332 - 21 May 1381)
first son of Frederick the Serious Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen
Balthasar
(December 21, 1336 - May 18, 1406)
second son of Frederick the Serious Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen
Wilhelm I the One-Eyed
(* December 19, 1343 - † February 9, 1407)
third son of Frederick the Serious Margrave of Meissen
Frederick IV the Peaceful
(1384 - May 7, 1440)
Son of Balthasar Landgrave of Thuringia
Frederick IV / I the controversial
(April 11, 1370 - January 4, 1428)
first son of Frederick the Strict Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia. The Saxon duchy and the electoral dignity associated with it were transferred to him in 1423.
Wilhelm II the Rich
(23 April 1371 - 30 March 1425)
second son of Frederick the Strict Margrave of Meissen
Frederick II the Meek
(* August 22, 1412 - † September 7, 1464)
first son of Frederick the Arguable Duke and Elector of Saxony, Margrave of Meissen, Landgrave of Thuringia
William III. the brave
(April 30, 1425 - September 17, 1482)
second son of Frederick the Quarrelsome Landgrave of Thuringia
The "Leipzig division" established the division of the Wettins into the older Ernestine line and the younger Albertine line, which still exists today.

coat of arms

Ernestiner

The older “Ernestine line”, which descended from Elector Ernst, acquired a special historical significance , particularly through its protection for the Reformation in the 16th century. Elector Frederick the Wise offered the reformer Martin Luther safe asylum from the persecution of Emperor Charles V at the Wartburg . As a result, however, the Ernestines also came into conflict with their Albertine cousins, who initially remained loyal to the imperial-Catholic side in the confessional struggles that broke out . As a result, the Ernestines were withdrawn from the Electorate of Saxony in 1547, which was transferred to the Albertine Moritz . Nevertheless, this also later went over to the Protestant side .

However, like the Albertines, the Ernestines retained the title of Duke of Saxony , which was transferred to all male members of the family. As the original main title, it was carried in addition to the preceding line title (Prince of ...) , which referred to the relevant sub-territory.

Through the continued practice of dividing inheritance, several Saxon duchies emerged on Thuringian soil in the following centuries (see main article: Ernestine duchies ). Because of these divisions, however, the Ernestines lost their political importance. As in all of Germany, the monarchy in Thuringia was abolished after the end of the First World War in the course of the November Revolution in 1918 and the Free State of Thuringia was proclaimed.

Ernestine Elector of Saxony

image Name
(life data)
relationship title
1441 Ernst.jpg Ernst
(* March 24, 1441 - † August 26, 1486)
first son of Frederick the Meek Elector of Saxony, Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen
Lucas Cranach the Elder  Ä.  097.jpg Friedrich III. the wise
(January 17, 1463 - May 5, 1525)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia
Lucas Cranach the Elder  - Elector Johann the Constant of Saxony.jpg John the Steadfast
(born June 13, 1468 - † August 16, 1532)
Brother of the predecessor Elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia
Lucas Cranach dJ - Elector Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous of Saxony (1578) .jpg Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous
(June 30, 1503 - March 3, 1554)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia. In 1547 he lost the Saxon electoral dignity to the Albertine line and since then has had the title of "Duke of Saxony".

Ernestiner in Europe (Coburger)

The Ernestine line of the Wettins only regained European importance in the 19th century through a far-reaching marriage policy, in that not only their female members in ruling royal houses, but also their male representatives could marry the heiresses of royal thrones or who became independent on the thrones Monarchies were established. Only the members of the branch of the dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha stood out .

Belgium

The Belgian line was founded by Prince Leopold Georg von Sachsen-Coburg and Gotha, who in 1831 was elected as Leopold I to be king by the National Congress of the Belgians who had just become independent . His descendants are the kings of the Belgians to this day.

Portugal

Two of Leopold's nephews each won a European throne through their marriages, which he had largely mediated. Prince Ferdinand August von Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha married Queen Maria II of Portugal in 1836 and, as Ferdinand II, became her co-king. His descendants were the last kings of Portugal until the abolition of the monarchy and the proclamation of the republic in 1910. With King Manuel II , the Portuguese line died out in the male line, the pretender to the throne again passed to the representatives of the old royal house of Braganza .

Great Britain

Leopold's second successfully placed nephew was Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , who married Queen Victoria of Great Britain in 1840 . Although he himself assumed the position of Prince Consort, the accession of her son Edward VII to the throne established the “House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha” on the British throne, which during the First World War took the name “ Windsor ” due to anti-German sentiments . The current representative is Queen Elizabeth II , who will also be the last British Wettin in the Agnatic tribe on the throne, as her heirs via the Prince Consort Prince Philip belong to the Oldenburg family , which is also widespread in Europe and will bear the name Mountbatten-Windsor . The Wettins will in future be represented in Britain by the Dukes of Gloucester and Dukes of Kent .

Bulgaria

A great-nephew of Prince Albert was Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry. In 1887, as Ferdinand I, with Austrian support, he became Prince of Bulgaria , whose tsar he rose to be after the country gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. The monarchy was abolished after the end of the Second World War in 1946, the last tsar and current pretender Simeon Sakskoburggotski (Simeon II) was Prime Minister of Bulgaria between 2001 and 2005.

House bosses of the Ernestines

House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Michael-Benedikt von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach
Senior-Wettiner
(born November 15, 1946)
House of Saxony-Meiningen Konrad von Sachsen-Meiningen
(born April 14, 1952)
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Andreas of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(born March 21, 1943)
House of Windsor Richard, Duke of Gloucester
(born August 26, 1944)

Albertiner

The great coat of arms of the Kingdom of Saxony (until 1918)

In contrast to the Ernestines, the Albertine Wettins knew how to avoid the weakening of their household power through larger inheritance divisions. This gave them a position among the leading territorial princes of Germany. Through skilful political and military tactics, Moritz even achieved the transfer of the Saxon electoral dignity from the emperor in 1547, which from then on remained connected with the Albertine-Meissnian land. Baroque prince Friedrich August the Strong was the first Wettin to achieve royal dignity in 1697 when he bought himself his election as King of Poland. Under him, Electoral Saxony achieved a cultural and political bloom. As a result of the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in the Napoleonic Wars in 1806, Friedrich August the Just accepted the title of king and founded the Kingdom of Saxony . The defeat of Saxony in the Battle of Leipzig in 1813, connected with the end of Napoleon Bonaparte , cost the country a large part of its territory, and after Prussia's victory in the Battle of Königgrätz in 1866 it came under his influence.

In 1871, the Kingdom of Saxony joined the German Empire as a federal state . As in all of Germany, the monarchy in Saxony was abolished after the end of the First World War in the course of the November Revolution in 1918 and the Free State of Saxony was proclaimed. With the abdication in 1918, the Wettins were expropriated as part of the prince expropriation in Saxony. The family then founded the family association Haus Wettin Albertinischer Line eV in 1922, which served as the contact for the state in matters of property law. In June 1924, the division between state and private assets was finally regulated by a state treaty. The family association only got Moritzburg Castle ; the other royal castles became state property. In addition, the Wettins received various payments. The last king, Friedrich August III. , died in 1932 in his private castle Sibyllenort in Silesia; his son Friedrich Christian lived in Dresden's Wachwitz Castle , which was also private , while the Royal Villa in Strehlen was rented out.

At the moment the question of the head of the family of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin has not been resolved, as a succession dispute has arisen among the Albertines . Claims are made by Prince Alexander von Sachsen-Gessaphe (* 1954) and other family members. The German Nobility Law Committee and influential Wettins have commented on the question of succession. A consensus has not yet been achieved in the family.

Polish kings

Friedrich August the Strong became King of Poland in 1697 , with the Electorate of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania being led in personal union.

Albertine electors and kings of Saxony

image Name
(life data)
relationship title
Herzog-Albrecht-der-Beherzt.jpg Albrecht the Courageous
(* July 31, 1443; † September 12, 1500)
second son of Frederick the Meek Margrave of Meissen and Duke of Saxony
George the Bearded 2.jpg George the Bearded
(August 27, 1471 - April 17, 1539)
Son of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen and Duke of Saxony
Lucas Cranach the Elder  Ä.  042 small.jpg Henry the Pious
(March 16, 1473 - August 18, 1541)
Brother of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen and Duke of Saxony
Moritz-von-Sachsen-1578.jpg Moritz
(March 21, 1521 - July 11, 1553)
Son of the predecessor Margrave of Meissen and Duke of Saxony. In 1547 he was given the electoral dignity of Saxony.
Lucas Cranach the Elder  J. 004.jpg Father August
(born July 31, 1526 - † February 11, 1586)
Brother of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Christian I of Saxony.jpg Christian I
(October 29, 1560 - September 25, 1591)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Elector Christian II of Saxony (portrait) .jpg Christian II
(23 September 1583 - 23 June 1611)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Johann Georg I Saxony.jpg Johann Georg I
(March 5, 1585 - October 8, 1656)
Brother of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Johan Georg II Johann Fink, before 1675.jpg Johann Georg II
(June 10, 1613 - September 1, 1680)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
1647 Johann Georg.JPG Johann Georg III.
(June 30, 1647 - September 22, 1691)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Johann Georg IV. Elector of Saxony.jpg Johann Georg IV.
(* October 18, 1668; † April 27, 1694)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Friedrich August the Strong of Poland.jpg Friedrich August I the Strong
(May 12, 1670 - February 1, 1733)
Brother of the predecessor Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (August II.)
August III.jpg Friedrich August II
(October 17, 1696 - October 5, 1763)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (August III.)
Anton Raphael Mengs 006.jpg Friedrich Christian
(born September 5, 1722 - † December 17, 1763)
Son of the predecessor Elector of Saxony
Fryderyk August I.jpg Friedrich August III. / I. the righteous
(23 December 1750 - 5 May 1827)
Son of the predecessor Elector and King of Saxony. Raised King of Saxony after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
Anton-sachsen.jpg Anton
(December 27, 1755 - June 6, 1836)
Brother of the predecessor King of Saxony
Friedrich August II of Saxony.jpg Friedrich August II.
(May 18, 1797 - August 9, 1854)
Nephew of the predecessor King of Saxony
Louis Ferdinand von Rayski - King John of Saxony, 1870.jpg Johann
(December 12, 1801 - October 29, 1873)
Brother of the predecessor King of Saxony
King Albert of Saxony (portrait) .jpg Albert
(April 23, 1828 - June 19, 1902)
Son of the predecessor King of Saxony
George of Saxony 1895.jpg Georg
(August 8, 1832 - October 15, 1904)
Brother of the predecessor King of Saxony
Friedrich August III van Saksen.jpg Friedrich August III.
(May 25, 1865 - February 18, 1932)
Son of the predecessor King of Saxony
Panorama montage of the prince's procession , depicting the thousand-year history of the Wettin dynasty

More well-known Wettiner

Maurice de Saxe-Jean Etienne Liotard-f4193857.jpg Moritz Count of Saxony (French: Maurice de Saxe ; * October 28, 1696, † November 30, 1750)
Marshal of France , illegitimate son of Elector Friedrich August I of Saxony
Maria Amalia of Saxony, Queen consort of Naples and Sicily;  Queen consort of Spain.jpg Maria Amalia of Saxony (sp: María Amalia de Sajonia ; * November 24, 1724, † September 27, 1760)
Queen of Naples-Sicily and Queen of Spain, daughter of Elector Friedrich August II of Saxony.
Frédou Marie-Josèphe de Saxe.jpg Maria Josepha of Saxony (French: Marie Josèphe de Saxe ; * November 4, 1731, † March 13, 1767)
Dauphine de France, daughter of Elector Friedrich August II of Saxony
Anonymous Albert von Sachsen-Teschen.jpg Albert of Saxony (* July 11, 1738, † February 10, 1822)
Duke of Teschen, son of Elector Friedrich August II of Saxony
Prince Albert - Franz Xaver Winterhalter 1842.jpg Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born August 26, 1819, † December 14, 1861)
British Prince Consort, son of Duke Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Wettin lines and principalities 1485–1918 (graphic)

Overview of the individual lines and principalities of the Wettins that have arisen from inheritance divisions since the Ernestine and Albertine lines were formed in the Leipzig division in 1485, as well as their inheritance when they became extinct (please click on the picture to enlarge) .

Branches of the Ernestine and Albertine lines since 1485

Graves of the Wettins

This list shows the gravesites of the Albertines .

Surname Life dates Burial place
Margrave Conrad the Great 1098-1157 Petersberg Monastery
Luitgard of Swabia † 1146 Petersberg Monastery
Margrave Otto the Rich 1125-1190 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Hedwig von Ballenstedt 1140-1203 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Margrave Albrecht the Proud 1158-1195 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Sophie of Bohemia † 1195 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Margrave Dietrich the distressed 1162-1221 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Jutta from Thuringia 1184-1235 Veßra Monastery
Margrave Heinrich the Illustrious 1215-1288 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Constantia of Austria 1212-1243 ?
Agnes of Bohemia 1225 / 30-1268 ?
Elisabeth von Maltitz 1238 / 39-1333 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Margrave Albrecht II the Degenerate 1240-1315 Marienkirche Erfurt
Margaretha von Staufen 1237-1270 ?
Kunigunde von Eisenberg † 1286 Katharinenkloster in Eisenach
Elisabeth of Orlamünde † 1333 ?
Margrave Friedrich the Open 1257-1323 Katharinenkloster Eisenach
Agnes of Gorizia and Tyrol † 1293 ?
Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk 1286-1359 Eisenach Dominican monastery (tombstone today in the Georgenkirche)
Margrave Friedrich the Serious 1310-1349 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Mathilde of Bavaria 1313-1346 probably Altzella monastery
Margrave Friedrich the Strict 1332-1381 Prince's Chapel, Altzella Monastery
Katharina von Henneberg 1334-1397 ?
Elector Friedrich I the arguable 1370-1428 Princely chapel in Meissen Cathedral
Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1395-1442 ?
Elector Friedrich II. The Meek 1412-1464 Princely chapel in Meissen Cathedral
Margaretha II of Austria 1416-1486 Altenburg Castle Church
Elector Ernst 1441-1486 Princely chapel in Meissen Cathedral
Elisabeth of Bavaria 1443-1484 ?
Duke Albrecht the Courageous 1443-1500 Princely Chapel in Meißen Cathedral ; Heart: Emden
Sidonie of Bohemia 1449-1510 Princely chapel in Meissen Cathedral
Duke George the Bearded 1471-1539 Princely chapel in Meissen Cathedral
Barbara of Poland 1478-1534 ?
Duke Heinrich the Pious 1473-1541 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Catherine of Mecklenburg 1487-1561 ?
Elector Moritz 1521-1553 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Agnes of Hesse 1527-1555 Weimar, Church of St. Peter and Paul
Elector August 1526-1586 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Anna of Denmark and Norway 1532-1585 Freiberg Cathedral
Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt 1573-1616 Sonderburg
Elector Christian I. 1560-1591 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Sophie of Brandenburg 1568-1622 ?
Elector Christian II. 1583-1611 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Hedwig of Denmark 1581-1641 ?
Elector Johann Georg I. 1585-1656 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Sibylla Elisabeth of Württemberg 1584-1606 Freiberg Cathedral
Magdalena Sibylle of Brandenburg 1586-1659 Freiberg Cathedral
Elector Johann Georg II. 1613-1680 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Magdalena Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 1612-1687 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Elector Johann Georg III. 1647-1691 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Anna Sophie of Denmark and Norway 1647-1717 ?
Elector Johann Georg IV. 1668-1694 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Eleonore Erdmuthe Luise of Saxony-Eisenach 1662-1696 Burial place in the Cathedral of St. Marien Freiberg
Elector Friedrich August I the Strong 1670-1733 Wawel in Krakow; Heart: Founder's crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 1671-1727 Crypt in the town church of St. Nikolaus in Pretzsch
Elector Friedrich August II. 1696-1763 Founder's crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Josepha of Austria 1699-1757 Founder's crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Elector Friedrich Christian I. 1722-1763 Founding odor in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Antonia of Bavaria 1724-1780 Founder's crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King Friedrich August I. 1750-1827 Founder's crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Amalie von Zweibrücken 1752-1828 Founder's crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King Anton I. 1755-1836 Great crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Carolina of Savoy 1764-1782 Great crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Theresa of Austria 1767-1827 Great crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King Friedrich August II. 1797-1854 Royal Crypt in the Cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Karoline of Austria 1801-1832 Great crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Anna of Bavaria 1805-1877 Royal Crypt in the Cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King John I. 1801-1873 Royal Crypt in the Cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Amalie Auguste of Bavaria 1801-1877 Royal Crypt in the Cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King Albert I. 1828-1902 New crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Carola von Wasa-Holstein-Gottorp 1833-1907 New crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King George I. 1832-1904 New crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Maria Anna of Portugal 1843-1884 Great crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
King Friedrich August III. 1865-1932 New crypt in the cathedral Ss. Trinitatis (formerly the Catholic court church) in Dresden, Wettiner crypt
Luise of Austria-Tuscany 1870-1947 Hohenzollern crypt in Hedingen Monastery , Sigmaringen
Friedrich Christian of Saxony 1893-1968 Royal Chapel Imst - Brennbichl in Northern Tyrol
Elisabeth Helene von Thurn and Taxis 1903-1976 Royal Chapel Imst - Brennbichl in Northern Tyrol
Ernst Heinrich of Saxony 1896-1971 Hohenzollern crypt in Hedingen Monastery , Sigmaringen
Dedo of Saxony 1922-2009 Hohenzollern crypt in Hedingen Monastery , Sigmaringen (urn)
Timo of Saxony 1923-1982 Tholenswehr cemetery in Emden
Gero of Saxony 1925-2003 Hohenzollern crypt in Hedingen Monastery , Sigmaringen (urn)
Maria Emanuel of Saxony 1926-2012 Royal Chapel Imst - Brennbichl in Northern Tyrol
Albrecht Joseph (Albert) of Saxony 1934-2012 Old Catholic cemetery in Dresden

Castles of the Wettins

Albertine residences

The most important residences of the Albertines included:

Ernestine Residences

Some of the important castles of the Ernestine lines are:

See also

literature

  • Reiner Groß : The Wettins. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 3-17-018946-8 .
  • Jürgen Helfricht : The Wettins. Saxony's kings, dukes, electors and margraves. 5th edition. Sachsenbuch, Leipzig 2012. ISBN 3-89664-044-5 .
  • Hans Hoffmeister, Volker Wahl (ed.): The Wettiner in Thuringia. History and culture in the center of Germany (= writings of the Thuringian main state archive in Weimar. No. 2). Rhino, Arnstadt / Weimar 1999, ISBN 3-932081-33-1 .
  • Anne-Simone Knöfel: Dynasty and Prestige. The marriage policy of the Wettins (= Dresden historical studies. Vol. 9). Böhlau. Cologne et al. 2009, ISBN 3-412-20326-2 .
  • Frank-Lothar Kroll (Ed.): The rulers of Saxony. Margraves, electors, kings 1089–1918. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54773-7 .
  • Heinz Werner Lewerken (Ed.): The ancestral gallery of the Wettiner. Exhibition catalog of the armory, Dresden State Art Collections. Sandstein, Dresden 2006. ISBN 3-937602-70-4 .
  • Stefan Pätzold : The early Wettins. Noble family and house tradition until 1221 (= history and politics in Saxony. Vol. 6). Böhlau. Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-412-08697-5 .
  • Jörg Rogge : The Wettins. Rise of a dynasty in the Middle Ages. Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2005, ISBN 3-7995-0151-7 .
  • Harald Winkel: Dominion and Memoria. The Wettins and their monasteries in the Middle Ages (= writings on Saxon history and folklore. Vol. 32). Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2010, ISBN 3-86583-439-6 ( review ).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Daedi comes… unde is fuerit, de tribu, quae Buzici dicitur, et de patre Thiedrico originem duxisse accipies. Hic Rigdago marchioni, agnato suimet, ab infancia serviebat ”( see also Georg Heinrich Pertz (Ed.): Thietmari Chronicon, Liber VI . In: Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH) SS 3, 1839, p. 820, ab. 33 and 34 ).
  2. On the Burchardo et Dedi who fell at Cape Colonna see Georg Heinrich Pertz (ed.): Thietmari Chronicon, Liber III . In: MGH SS 3, 1839, p. 765, Ab. 12. The Hassegaugraf Dedi ( pago Hassagoi et in confinio Mersapurac in comitatu cuiusdam comitis qui Téti ) is mentioned in a document from Emperor Otto I of September 26, 949 in: MGH DD OI, No. 114, p. 197.
  3. Nudzici ubi inest Vitin civitas ” ( see MGH DD OI, no. 231, pp. 316-317 ).
  4. "Thiemoni Comiti witin" ( see Georg Heinrich Pertz: Annales Magdeburgenses . In: MGH SS 16, 1859, p 181 ).
  5. ^ Ernst Ehrenfeuchter (Ed.): Genealogica Wettinensis . In: MGH SS 23, 1874, pp. 226-230.
  6. ^ Frederick the Wise: Elector of Saxony; 1463 - 1525, p. 240 ( digitized version )