Johann Georg IV. (Saxony)
Johann Georg was the older of the two sons of Elector Johann Georg III. von Sachsen (1647–1691) from his marriage to Anna Sophie (1647–1717), daughter of the Danish King Friedrich III. The electoral prince had been carefully trained, was considered gifted and was involved in government business at an early stage. His cavalier tour took him to England, France and the Netherlands, and later to Italy. Unlike his younger brother, he is said to have been sickly due to stomach and bladder problems. In the field, Johann Georg proved himself on the emperor's side in the campaign against France .
Hans Adam von Schöning , who tried to bring Brandenburg closer to politics , acted as Johann Georg's political advisor . The elector's unhappy marriage to Eleonore , the widow of the Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach , also served this purpose . Domestically, attempts were made to push back the power of the nobility and the influence of the estates. Johann Georg continued his father's policy of economic consolidation and established a cadet school in Leipzig in 1692.
Schöning also came out against the Austro-friendly policies of Electoral Saxony, and when the Emperor ignored the Saxon subsidy demands of 400,000 thalers, Johann Georg IV withdrew his troops from the Rhine. For this reason Schöning was imprisoned by the emperor in 1692 during a spa stay in Teplitz .
Johann Georg's anger over this was moderated with the elevation of his mistress to Imperial Countess of Rochlitz combined with a gift of money from the emperor of 40,000 thalers, and the elector renewed his alliance with Austria on February 2, 1693, albeit the negotiations on the release of Schöning continued persisted. After the devastation of Heidelberg , the elector personally moved to the Rhine at the head of 12,000 men .
The Emperor's efforts were supported by England. The envoy of King Wilhelm III. von England presented the Order of the Garter to the Elector on January 26, 1693 in Dresden (see coin), one of the most prestigious orders in Europe, with the expectation of a contribution to the fall of France. A rifle shooting took place on this occasion.
Johann Georg began a relationship with Magdalena Sibylla von Neitschütz (1675–1694) as early as his electoral prince's days, which he continued not only after he became elector of Saxony after the death of his father in 1691, but also after he became elector of Saxony on April 17, 1692 had married Eleonore von Sachsen-Eisenach in Leipzig . The Neitschütz family managed to gain influence in the electorate, even if Magdalene Sibylle herself stayed away from politics.
In 1693 he made his mistress Countess of Rochlitz. In the summer of that year she gave birth to a daughter, but died a year later; the peeling was given as the cause of death . The elector died shortly afterwards. Peeling was also diagnosed. However, there are now doubts about this cause of death and poisoning is being considered for both people.
He was succeeded as Elector of Saxony by his brother Friedrich August I , who, in view of the negative mood in the population and with a view to his finances, put the Neitschütz family (around 100 people) on trial. Under torture, Magdalena Sibylla's mother was accused of having "bewitched" the electoral prince and also having brought about the early end of his father.
The love affair between the Elector and Magdalena Sibylla von Neitschütz was incorporated by the writer Christian Friedrich Hunold in his novel The European Courts of Love and Heroes , published in 1705 .
From his connection with Magdalena Sibylla von Neitschütz, Johann Georg had a daughter born out of wedlock:
- Wilhelmine Marie Friederike (* 1693, † after 1729), Countess of Rochlitz
- ⚭ 1720 Count Peter von Dunin († 1736)
|Funeral thaler Johann Georg IV.|
|Commemorative coin for his death|
|Reichsspeziesstaler in the Reichsmünzfuß from May 30, 1566|
|Silver 14 Lot 4 Grän = 888.89 ‰ Fine weight: 25.984 g|
|Weight: 29.232 g Diameter: 46.31-47.14 mm Thickness: 1.98 mm|
|Minted in 1694 Mint Dresden, mint master Johann Koch|
Obv . : Half-length portrait of the elector in the curatorial robe with an allonge wig with a long ruler title as a transcription in a triple writing circle, beginning at the top after the imperial orb , in Latin capital letters : IOHANNES GEORGIUS IV., DUX SAXONIAE, JULIACI, CLIVIAE, ROMTIUM, ANGARIÆ ET WESTACRIIÆ ARCHIMARSCHALLUS ET ELECTOR / LANDGRAVIUS THURINGIÆ, MARCHIO MISNENSIS ET UTRIUSQUE LUSATIÆ, BURGGRAVIUS MAGDEBURGENSIS / COMES PRINCIPALIS, HENNEBERGENSIS COMES MARCÆ, RAVENSBERGI ETEINBY, Bergsberg, JüveBY
, Saxony, DYNSTASTA, Eng . of the Holy Roman Empire Archmarschall and Elector / Landgrave of Thuringia, Margrave of Meißen and both Lusatia, Burgrave of Magdeburg / Fürsteter Graf von Henneberg, Graf von Mark, Ravensberg and Barby, Lord in Ravenstein)
|Rev .: After the Georgskreuz inscription: PRINCEPS INCOMPARABILIS ET AD MAGNA NATUS DRESDÆ MDCLXVIII XVIII.OCTOBR., HEROS TOGA ARMISQUE CLARISSIMUS, IN GLORIOSIS MAGNI PATRIS VESTIGIIS PRO ASSERENDA CONTRA HOSTES PATRIÆ LIBERTISV ET MENSIBUS VI, DIBUS IX, CURRENTE IMPERII TRIENNIO, PRÆMATURE PLACIDA MORTE SUBDITUS, REIPUBLICA OPTIMÆ SPEI MDCXCIV XXVII. APRILIS EREPTUS.
(an incomparable prince and born to greatness in Dresden on October 18, 1668, a hero highly famous in advice and arms, in the glorious footsteps of his great father for the defense of freedom against the enemies of the fatherland and in his rule succumbed to a gentle death and wrested from the best hope of the state on April 27, 1694.)
|Pedigree of Johann Georg IV of Saxony|
Johann Georg IV of Saxony
During his time as elector, Johann Georg IV had an animal garden built in 1693 not far from the Moritzburg hunting lodge to ensure that there was sufficient game population for the stately hunts . The Moritzburg game reserve developed from this facility .
- Karlheinz Blaschke: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , p. 527 f. ( ). In:
- Heinrich Theodor Flathe : Johann Georg IV. In: General German Biography (ADB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, pp. 384-386.
- Jürgen Helfricht : The Wettiners - Saxony's kings, dukes, electors and margraves , Sachsenbuch Leipzig 4th updated edition 2007 ISBN 3-89664-044-5
- Frank-Lothar Kroll: The rulers of Saxony: Margraves, Electors, Kings 1089–1918 , Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2007, p. 160 ff. ( Digitized version )
- Wolfgang Sommer: The Lutheran court preachers in Dresden , Frank Steiner Verlag Stuttgart 2006, p. 236 ( digitized version )
- Franz Otto Stichart: The Kingdom of Saxony and its Princes , Leipzig 1854, p. 221 ff. ( Digitized version )
- Hans-Joachim Böttcher : Johann Georg IV. Von Sachsen & Magdalena Sibylla von Neitschütz - A fatal liaison , Dresden 2014, ISBN 978-3-941757-43-1
- Johannes Jühling (Ed.): The love magic of the Countess of Rochlitz. Maitresse Elector Johann Georg IV of Saxony. Based on the handwriting of Johann Friedrich Klotzsch. ( Rara. A library of the peculiar , Volume 3. Ed. By Hanns Heinz Ewers and Heinrich Conrad ) Verlag Robert Lutz, Stuttgart 1914
- Helmut Böttiger : History of the Kurstaates und Kingdom of Saxony , 2nd volume, 2nd edition 1870, p. 264ff.
- Literature by and about Johann Georg IV. In the catalog of the German National Library
- Publications by and about Johann Georg IV. In VD 17 .
|Johann Georg III.||
Elector of Saxony
|Friedrich August I.|
|SURNAME||Johann Georg IV.|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Elector of Saxony|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 18, 1668|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dresden|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 27, 1694|
|Place of death||Dresden|