Calendar overview 1668
Peace of Aachen between France and Spain
ends Louis XIV's war of devolution .
|John Milton's Paradise Lost appears.||
loots several cities
in South America and the Caribbean.
|1668 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1116/17 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1660/61 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1073/74 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2211/12 (southern Buddhism); 2210/11 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1030/31 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4001/02 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1078/79 (June 10-11)|
|Jewish calendar||5428/29 (September 5-6)|
|Coptic calendar||1384/85 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1978/79 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1979/80 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1724/25 (April)|
Politics and world events
War of devolution of Louis XIV.
- January 23rd : England , the Netherlands and Sweden form a triple alliance in order to put France under Louis XIV in its place in the war of devolution that has begun . His soldiers invaded the Spanish Netherlands .
- May 2 : The Peace of Aachen between France and Spain ends the war of devolution and includes the return of Franche-Comté to Spain.
War of Restoration between Spain and Portugal
- February 13 : The Treaty of Lisbon ends the Restoration War between Spain and Portugal . Spain renounces its claims to the Portuguese throne and recognizes the Portuguese independence, but receives Ceuta .
Asia and America
- March 26th : England takes control of Bombay .
- July: Golden Age of Piracy : Henry Morgan and 500 privateers plunder the Spanish city of Portobelo on the Isthmus of Panama . This enterprise is apparently legalized by a letter of captivity issued by the English governor of Jamaica, Sir Thomas Modyford , the provisions of which Morgan, however, generously interprets in his favor. In the same year Morgan raids the city of Santa María del Puerto Príncipe in Cuba.
- September 17 : The Riksbank is founded when the Swedish Parliament in bankruptcy previous Stockholms Banco takes to restore confidence in the monetary economy recover.
- German monetary history before 1871 : The Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg joins the Zinna Mint Agreement concluded the previous year between Kurbrandenburg and Electoral Saxony .
- Johann Maurenbrecher from the family of the Maurenbrecher founds the Bergische Fahrpost in Düsseldorf .
- Friedrich Jacob Merck acquires the Engel pharmacy in Darmstadt , which will become the nucleus of the chemical company Merck KGaA .
- The English Company of Royal Adventurers trading to Africa transfers the trading monopoly in the area on the Gambia River to the Gambia Adventurers trading company .
science and technology
- Isaac Newton developed the Newton telescope , an early form of the mirror telescope .
- Robert Hooke finds the constancy of the melting and boiling points of substances.
- Samuel Morland develops a calculating machine that does not add decimal , but is tailored to the English monetary system.
- The first edition of the picaresque novel Der adventurous Simplicissimus by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen appears under the pseudonym German Schleifheim von Sulsfort , an anagram of the author's real name, but predated to 1669 .
Music and theater
- January 13 : The first performance of the comedy Amphitryon by Molière place with great success in the Palais Royal in Paris.
- September 9 : Molière's comedy L'Avare ou l'École du mensonge ( The Miser ) premieres at the Théâtre du Palais Royal in Paris.
- The by Christopher Wren built Sheldonian Theater of the University of Oxford will be opened.
- Johannes Scheffler publishes the hymn Auf, Christenmensch, auf, auf zum Streit .
- The Bohemian theologian and philosopher Johann Amos Comenius wrote Unum necessarium as a kind of testament two years before his death .
- May 5 : Around 930 people died when the Portuguese galleon Santissimo Sacramento fell on a reef near the Brazilian city of Salvador da Bahia . It is the worst shipping disaster in the history of Brazil .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- February 25 : Gottlieb Wernsdorf the Elder , German Lutheran theologian and historian († 1729 )
- François-Louis de Pesmes de Saint-Saphorin , Swiss diplomat and military man († 1737 ) February:
- June 11 : Georg Serpilius , Protestant theologian and song writer († 1723 )
- June 13 : Johann Christoph Meurer , General Superintendent († 1740 )
- June 23 : Giovanni Battista Vico , Italian philosopher of history and law († 1744 )
Second half of the year
- July 21 : Adrian Bernhard von Borcke , Prussian Field Marshal General († 1741 )
- July 21 : Friedrich Heinrich , Duke of Saxony-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt († 1713 )
- August 5 : Johann Peter von Ludewig , German lawyer and historian († 1743 )
- August 12 : Johann Rudolf Victor von Pretlack , General of the Cavalry and General Field Marshal Lieutenant († 1737 )
- August 18 : Kaspar von Fels , Swiss Mayor and Envoy to the Diet († 1752 )
- October 11th : Louis III. de Bourbon , Prince of Condé, Governor of Burgundy and Bresse († 1710 )
- October 18 : Johann Georg IV. , Elector of Saxony († 1694 )
- October 27 : Antonius Jacobus Henckel , German theologian († 1728 )
- October 30 : Sophie Charlotte of Hanover , Queen in Prussia († 1705 )
- November 10 : François Couperin , French organist and composer († 1733 )
- November 11th : Johann Albert Fabricius , German classical philologist († 1736 )
- November 14 : Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt , Italian baroque master builder († 1745 )
- November 27 : Henri François d'Aguesseau , French politician († 1751 )
- December 3 : Friedrich Opfergeldt , German Lutheran theologian and clergyman († 1740 )
- December 31 : Herman Boerhaave , Dutch medic († 1738 )
First half of the year
- January 6th : Magdalena Sibylle of Saxony , Duchess of Saxony-Altenburg (* 1617 )
- January 16 : Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy , French painter (* 1611 )
- February 21 : John Thurloe , English chief of the secret service under Oliver Cromwell (* 1616 )
- February 22nd : Johann Jakob Ulrich , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1602 )
- February 23 : Artus Quellinus I , Flemish sculptor (* 1609 )
- February 28 : Otto Praetorius , German poet and historian (* 1636 )
- April 1 : Johannes Agricola , German doctor, alchemist and saltwork specialist (* 1590 )
- April 7 : William Davenant , English writer and theater director (* 1606 )
- April 21 : Joachim von Böselager , German court official and diplomat (* 1608 )
- May 1st : Frans Luycx , Flemish portrait painter (* 1604 )
- May 21 : Josephus Adjutus , theologian (* 1602 )
- May 21 : Christoph Delphicus von Dohna , Lord Chamberlain of Queen Christina (* 1628 )
- May 23 : Miguel Gómez de Silva , Governor of Chile (* 1594 )
- May 23 : Thomas Teddeman , English admiral
- May 31 : Johann Wilhelm Libštejnský von Kolowrat , Archbishop of Prague (* 1627 )
- June 4th : Ernestine von Ligne , Countess of Nassau-Siegen (* 1594 )
- June 20 : Heinrich Roth , German Jesuit, missionary and Indologist (* 1620 )
Second half of the year
- August 9 : Jakob Balde , German Jesuit and poet (* 1604 )
- August 10 : Johann Erich Ostermann , German Graecist (* 1611 )
- December 11th : Marquise-Thérèse de Gorle , French actress (* 1633 )
- December 27 : Franz Romanus German legal scholar (* 1600 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann Daniel von Cronberg , German court official (* around 1616 )
- Annibal Gantez , French baroque composer (* 1600 )
- Thrinle Gyatsho , regent of the 5th Dalai Lama in Tibet
- around 1668: Justinian von Welz , Austrian Lutheran theologian and missionary (* 1621 )