The adventurous Simplicissimus

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Frontispiece of the first edition, 1669

The adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch , today also Simplicius Simplicissimus , is a picaresque novel and the main work by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen , published 1668, dates to 1669. It is considered the first adventure novel and the most important prose work of the Baroque in German . The work is assigned to the "lower" genre of the picaro novel, which works with the medium of satire . This genre comes from Spain; pícaro means "rogue".

The scheme of action is in three parts: initiation experience; episodic journey through contemporary society; the hero looks back in self-reflection on his rogue life. The leitmotif is disillusionment. However, the Simplicissimus also meets the requirements of a “high” novel: the hero is a nobleman, he is educated and thematizes literature; the apparently autobiographical narrative situation is denied.

Grimmelshausen published the novel under the pseudonym German Schleifheim von Sulsfort , an anagram of his real name Christoffel von Grimmelshausen . The work describes the life path of Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim (also an anagram by the author), who was abducted by soldiers as a child during the Thirty Years' War , made it to the position of officer, changed sides several times and finally renounced the world and became a hermit. Although the Simplicissimus has strong autobiographical traits, it is not a key novel .

Original title

Title page of the first edition 1669

The complete title, transcribed from the title page of the first edition , printed in 1669 [recte 1668] by Wolff Eberhard Felßecker in Nuremberg . Place of publication and printer are not indicated correctly, the year is antiquated:

The adventurous || SIMPLICISSIMUS || Teutſch / || The iſt: || The description of the life of a || ſeltzamen Vaganten / called Melchior || Star rock of Foxshaim / where and which || Heſs coming into the world / what || he go in / learned / experienced and out = || found / also why he ſolche again || voluntarily acknowledged. || Overly funny / and masculine || useful to read. || Give to day || From German Schleifheim || from Sulsfort. || Monpelgart / || Printed by Johann Fillion / || Jm year MDCLXIX.

The work was linguistically revised by the Frankfurt publisher Georg Müller, but reprinted without authorization. Distinguishing features of the pirated print: Mompelgart on the title page and the typographical errors “neden” and “Betel” on page 6, last line. The dialect expression was partly replaced by standard language elements; Felßecker used this revision as a basis for the next expanded and revised edition.

At the end of the 17th century the novel was used in the Simplician annual calendars by five different publishers: Felsecker, Hoffmann and Endter (all in Nuremberg), Rüber (Altenburg) and Straubhaar (Molsheim). It is controversial whether Grimmelshausen wrote the calendar stories or only authorized them. It is possible that they were published without his consent.


Simplicius grew up as a simple-minded cattle herder on a farm in the Spessart - far from any education and even ignorant of his own name. While shepherding sheep, the ten-year-old lures a troop of soldiers who have lost their way in the forest with his "bagpipes" game . They plunder the farm, torture the farmhand , desecrate the women, murder and pillage. On the advice of the battered maid, the boy flees and escapes into the forest. So he is separated from his supposed parents, whom he calls "Knan" ("because the Vaetter in Spessert") and "Meuder". He wasn't supposed to meet his father until much later. After the boy has wandered through the forest for a few days, he is taken in by an old hermit who calls him Simplicius , the “simple-minded”. He instructs him in Christian doctrine and teaches him to read and write.

After two years of living in the "forest loneliness", his teacher, whom he now regards as "father", explains to him that his time has come and that he will die, without realizing the deeper truth of this name. He asks Simplicius to bury him. He stays in the hermitage for another six months, then he wants to ask the pastor of the nearby village for advice on what to do next. But when he arrives he finds everything burned down. Frightened by the hopelessness of the world, he decides to become a hermit himself. But even his modest home was attacked by soldiers after the battle of Nördlingen and the subsequent looting in and around Gelnhausen, and his supplies for the winter were looted. In his hut he finds a last letter from the hermit, in which the hermit advises him on the one hand to leave the forest, but on the other hand also gives him three decisive guidelines and objectives for a successful lifestyle as a "legacy" on the way: self-knowledge, knowledge of the world and persistence (constantia) .

Simplicius arrives at Hanau via the devastated Gelnhausen . There he is first suspected of being a spy , but is then released with the help of the city pastor. He learns that the hermit was an officer and the brother-in-law of Governor Ramsay before he retired to the forest . This alludes to Jakob von Ramsay (1589–1639), who was the Swedish commander in the Hanau fortress until 1638 . Simplicius becomes the governor's page, and it soon becomes apparent that the alleged orphan is the governor's nephew, the son of his missing sister and brother-in-law. But life at court is too different from that in the hermitage. Simplicius finds it hypocritical and godless, but in turn experiences less and less understanding for its simplicity and lack of knowledge of courtly customs.

Simplicius therefore soon loses the governor's favor and is to be made a fool of by an elaborate ritual : he is locked in a cellar with masked devils for several days and forced to drink large amounts of alcohol. With the support of the pastor, however, he managed to withstand the intended transformation. From now on he wears a costume made of calfskin and donkey ears as ordered, but he remains "funny" (that is, intelligent) and only pretends to be a fool. Soon after, he was captured by Croatian soldiers, but managed to escape. On his further journey he threatens to be taken prisoner several times, but can outsmart the " snap-cock " every time. After a short witch's dance scene, Simplicius comes to the gates of Magdeburg , which is besieged in 1636 by imperial and electoral Saxon troops. There he is taken over as a fool by the colonel of the imperial family and soon becomes a good friend of the court master Ulrich Hertzbruder assigned to him and his son of the same name.

He escapes in the battle of Wittstock . Here the young Ulrich helps him, who has meanwhile changed sides and is fighting for Sweden. Ulrich himself is captured, driven by excessive ambition and arrogance. Simplicius rescues himself as a servant of a dragoon in the "Paradeiß" monastery near Soest. When his master dies, he becomes a "Gefreyte" himself and initially lives as a protection officer in the aforementioned women's monastery. As a Soester Jägerken he came to fame and money. He commits countless misdeeds, but always gets away with it and makes rich booty.

Its popularity leads to a hunter from Werl adopting the scheme in the neighboring town of Werl . However, the hunter from Soest quickly puts a stop to this by lying in wait for him at night and threatening him with death if he goes on a hunt in a hunter's clothing again. With his cocky demeanor, he challenges two soldiers to a duel , from which he emerges victorious. However, since duels in the army are forbidden under the penalty of death , he is arrested, but soon negotiates his release again because he proposes a ruse to the general as to how a besieged city can be taken without bloodshed.

After his release, he wasted all his money and fell in love with the colonel's daughter. Then he travels to Paris via Cologne . There he makes a career as an opera singer and gigolo and earns a lot of money. He is robbed during a serious illness. After his recovery he gets money again as a quack , but is soon forced into military service by musketeers .

During a spying maneuver in the Rhine, the ship on which he is located capsizes. Simplicius is saved from drowning at the last moment and flees to Rheinhausen . There he is drafted again as a soldier, then taken prisoner by opposing troops and finally attacked by a robber , who then turns out to be his former enemy Olivier, who was also the "Hunter of Werl". With this he plundered for a while until soldiers put them in the inn. Olivier dies in the fight, but Simplicius escapes and gets back to Ulrich Herzbruder in a roundabout way.

They decide to go on a pilgrimage to Einsiedeln to atone for their sins. But Simplicius doesn't really want to do it and is reluctant to go along. Then he reports back for military service.

There he hears about a nearby lake, the Mummelsee . He wanders there and throws stones into them, whereupon the king of the water spirits appears to him. He gives him a stone, which lets a healing spring gush out when you put it on the ground. He wants to start a new spa , but accidentally lays it on the floor when he goes to sleep. Completely annoyed at having lost such a large fortune again, he retires to a farm and studies various arts.

When troops billet at his farm in autumn, they take him prisoner. Through this he came to Moscow and made a career there as a researcher. He shows the tsar how powder is made . He was released for this purpose, but shortly afterwards he was captured again by the Tatars and brought to Korea . On the return trip, which he can take since he instructed the Korean king in the art of shooting, he experienced many adventures in Japan , Macau , Egypt , Constantinople and Rome . He is captured by pirates and sold as a galley slave . Finally he returns home.

While walking in the forest he finds a stone image. When he touches it, it turns into different things and animals, until it finally flies away as a bird (see Baldanders ). He interprets this as a sign of God and wants to make a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Spain . However, the ship capsizes and he and the ship's carpenter save himself on land. There you will find fruit, poultry, fruits and water. After the carpenter has drunk himself to death on the palm wine , Simplicius becomes a hermit and writes his life down. Years later, when a Dutch ship happened to pass by, he gave the captain his life story. The decision of the Dutch captain forms the final chapter of the book. How he came from the island remains unexplained. This is basically the first Robinsonad in German literature, long before Daniel Defoe's novel.

In Grimmelshausen's story Springinsfeld , which takes place after the adventures of the adventurous Simplicissimus , Simplicissimus surprisingly returns.


Christoffel von Grimmelshausen called the hero Simplicius the hunter of Soest . Simplicius is understood as a speaking name :

"Although the name of the Simplicissimus clearly contains a reference to the nature of its bearer and was probably coined as such by Grimmelshausen, it can be assumed for several reasons that he also had a model for the shape of the Simplex."

- Werner Welzig : Exemplary figures. Gate, adventurer and hermit near Grimmelshausen. Graz / Cologne 1963.

In the course of the novel, the name loses its "speaking ability". Role names take its place, Jäger von Soest in the happy phase of the adventurous life and Beau Alman in the private and erotic side of the plot with his singing skills, his beauty and his acting skills. Beau Alman is exclusively related to the Paris episode and is later lost again. The name Simplicius returns and remains until the end. In contrast, James Ramsey is a historical figure, as is Daniel Rollin of Saint-André . When John of Werd it is to concern General Johann (Jan) Freiherr von Werth. The minor character Ulrich Herzbruder belongs again to the category of speaking names.

The picaresque novel may have autobiographical features. Against this assumption, the fact that accounts that seem to be eyewitness accounts are actually - like the battle at Wittstock described in Chapter 27 of the second book - are montages of other texts, such as the Theatrum Europaeum . Recent research gives a fairly reliable picture of Grimmelshausen's biography. In his novel, he describes the life of a daredevil living in high spirits at the time of the Thirty Years' War . In Count Götz's regiment, he took part in the siege and submission of Soest , and plundered peasants and other residents if necessary.

Classification of the genre

The assignment of the work to the literary genre " picaresque novel " is controversial. It is believed that the novel is clearly in the tradition of the Spanish picaresque novel, such as Lazarillo von Tormes . It is also classified as a development novel or social satire. The structure of the novel as well as its function, which was indicated in various writings by Grimmelshausen himself, reveal parallels to the Christian edification novel. In this, he distinguishes himself in part from picaresque literature, such as the Schwank stories about Till Eulenspiegel . It is also almost generally recognized that at least the sixth book, the “Continuatio”, can only be “deciphered” if one takes into account the doctrine of the multiple sense of writing . According to this interpretation, between the allegories and symbols of Grimmelshausen are messages that are not mischievous, but rather socially, war or socially critical and / or Christian edifying. Such interpretations like to refer to Grimmelshausen's parable, according to which one has to saccharify many a bitter pill before it can be swallowed. Or you can look at the work from the perspective of “know yourself”.


“One of the most excellent books is the Simplicius Simplicissimus. Wollin lent it to me. Lord this is divine! It's rare, so I'll have an inquiry about it in the Reichsanzeiger in the next few days and I will give the commission to get an answer to you in Marburg because then maybe I'll no longer be here, and they'll buy it for me as they offer it and since there are many books related to it, you will buy each one that goes with it; in the cook there are many things about it. "

“His Simplicissimus ... is a poetic, loyal fellow drawn directly from the people ... and it is a pleasure to watch how he knows how to humourously cope with this bestial world. Even with the heartbreaking misery and the sheer desert, the poet knows how to reconcile us ... "

- Joseph von Eichendorff : The German novel of the 18th century in its relationship to Christianity, 1851

"It is a literary and life monument of the rarest kind, which has survived in its full freshness for almost three centuries and will survive many more, a narrative of the most involuntary greatness, colorful, wild, raw, amusing, in love and ragged ..."

- Thomas Mann : Foreword to the Swedish translation of Simplicissimus (1944)


The Simplicissimus had a tremendous history of impact, especially since the early modern period, an important history of illustration. This is maintained in the Simplicissimus house in Renchen. The novel was last included in the ZEIT library of 100 books and also in the ZEIT school library .

In the setting in the Viennese operetta Simplicius , the title hero is perceived as a “fool in Christ”, as an “artificial court jester” and as a “wise-knowing fool”. The narrative stages of the novel correspond to this: First of all, the naive Simplex. This is followed by the protagonist's flight into a forest, where he is brought up in a Christian way by his biological father. However, he still lacks general education, so that he tries to understand the essence of the world solely through the filter of his newly acquired Christian faith. After his father's death, he experienced the war. He ends up at the court of the governor of Hanau. There he saw through the anatomy of war and survived by successfully fooling court society into the role of the natural fool. After successfully escaping from Hanau, he assumes the identity of the hunter from Soest and thus changes sides. He decides to take part in the war. He takes on unscrupulous traits and takes advantage of the war and begins to suffer from the loss of his morale. He becomes a world fool and decides to return to his identity as a Christ fool and to adopt an ascetic way of life. The characterization of the work as a development novel with satirical episodes arises from these narrative stages. For the operetta, therefore, a slide is suitable that, due to its density, abundance and complexity, allows many different readings.

Karl Amadeus Hartmann set the material to music in his opera Des Simplizius Simplizissimus Jugend . He developed his musical work in the resistance against the Nazi rule for a new and humane social order. He rewrote the opera created during the Nazi era. In 1955 he wrote:

"If you hold the mirror up to the world so that it recognizes its hideous face, it will perhaps change its mind one day."

- Karl Amadeus Hartmann : independence and commitment. On the political dimensions of music. essay

Music plays an important role in the novel. It enables the social advancement of the protagonist until it suddenly and unexpectedly falls silent. Simplicissimus begins to hate music and destroys its sounds. This marks a turning point in the plot of the novel. He turns to theology and poetry. He leads a contemplative existence on the lonely island. In order to repent, he writes down his entire life. It is believed that Simplicissimus is portrayed as a divinely inspired poet. He is compared to the biblical "poet-theologian" King David. It had become clear to him that poetry is the more suitable form of praising and recognizing God.


radio play

Audio book

Opera / operetta

Issues (in selection)

  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicius Simplicissimus; the newly established and much improved adventurous Simplicissimi continuation and conclusion . Foreword by Hanns Martin Elster ("Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen - His life and work"), lists, appendix (various prefaces). With numerous black and white illustrations by Joseph Sattler. G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Berlin 1913.
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: Simplicissimus teutsch . Works in three volumes. Vol. I / 1. Edited by Dieter Breuer. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag 1989 (= Library of German Classics, 4/1). ISBN 3-618-66460-5 .
    • As paperback: As above, Deutscher Klassiker Verlag paperback 2: 2005. ISBN 3-618-68002-3 .
  • Hans Jacob Christoph von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch and Continuatio. Edited by Dirk Niefanger. Reclam, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-15-010817-8 .
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: Grimmelshausen's Simplicissimus Teutsch. Reprint of the editio princeps (1669) with the author's original language, which has a strong dialect color and has not been revised by a professional proofreader, ed. by JH Scholte - series "New prints of German literary works" Vols. 302–309. Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen 1954
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus . Unabridged text with notes. Husum: Hamburger Reading Books Verlag o. J. [after 1989, takes into account the edition of Klassiker Verlag] (= Hamburger Reading Books, 207), ISBN 3-87291-206-2 .
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus . Complete edition with illustrations, explanations of words and notes. Edited by Alfred Kelletat. Parkland Verlag, Stuttgart 1967, ISBN 3-88059-052-4 .
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus . Complete edition (Scholte's edition from 1938/39 was used as the basis for the text) with illustrations (169 hand etchings by Max Hunziker), explanations of words and notes. Edited by Emil Ermatinger. Gutenberg Book Guild, Zurich, December 15, 1945.
  • Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus German . From the German of the 17th century by Reinhard Kaiser . The other library at Eichborn Verlag , Frankfurt am Main 2009. ISBN 978-3-8218-4769-6 .
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus . Book 1-6, edited by Reinhard Buchwald, Insel-Verlag, Leipzig.
  • Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch . Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin / Weimar 1984 (library of world literature). This edition is based on the first print. With explanations of words (40 pages) and an afterword by Günther Deicke. Without illustrations.
  • [because of the unusual illustrations:] Johann Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: THE ADVENTURES OF SIMPLICISSIMUS in a new translation by John P. Spielman. Printed for the members of “The Limited Editions Club” New York 1981. 18 full-page woodcuts in the format 21.5 × 25 cm by Fritz Eichenberg


  • RPT Aylett: The nature of realism in Grimmelshausen's Simplicissimus, cycle of novels . Bern 1982.
  • Matthias Bauer : The picaresque novel. Series: Realia on Literature. Metzler Collection, 282. Metzler, Stuttgart 1994 ISSN  0558-3667 ISBN 3-476-10282-3 , chap. 5: Grimmelshausen's Simplician Writings, pp. 92–118.
  • Dieter Breuer: Grimmelshausen manual . Fink / UTB , Munich 1999, ISBN 3-8252-8182-5 .
  • Friedrich Gaede: "The madness cheats." Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen , Marbacher Magazin 99 (special issue), German Schiller Society , 2002, ISBN 3-933679-76-1 .
  • Maria-Felicitas Herforth: Hans Jacob Christoph von Grimmelshausen: The adventurous Simplicissimus. König's Explanations , 149. C. Bange, Hollfeld 2009
  • Jakob Koeman: The Grimmelshausen Reception in the Fictional Literature of German Romanticism . Amsterdam 1993.
  • Volker Meid : Grimmelshausen: Epoch - Work - Effect . Beck, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-406-09667-0 .
  • Andreas Merzhäuser: Satyrical self-assertion. Innovation and tradition in Grimmelshausen's "Adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch". Wallstein , Göttingen 2002, ISBN 978-3-89244-619-4 .
  • Edith Parzefall: The continued effect of the Simplicissimus von Grimmelshausen in German literature . Logos, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89722-638-3 .
  • Tamara Rüegger: "I have proven all of these things with my own example ...": On the transformation and representation of encyclopedic texts in Grimmelshausen's "Simplicissimus Teutsch". 2007, 67 pp., PDF .
  • Annemarie u. Wolfgang van Rinsum: interpretations. Novels and short stories. Bayerischer Schulbuchverlag, 3rd edition Munich 1991, ISBN 3-7627-2144-0 ; therein the chapter: The adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch, pp. 24–30.
  • Günther Weydt: Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen . Metzler, Stuttgart 1971, ISBN 3-476-10099-5 .

See also

Web links

Commons : The adventurous Simplicissimus  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

References and comments

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  3. Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: Simplicius Simplicissimus. Project Gutenberg, accessed November 17, 2015 .
  4. The literature of the 17th century. (PDF) Retrieved November 17, 2015 .
  5. Anagrams of Grimmelshausen. Grimmelshausenfreunde Renchen, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
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  7. German Schleifheim von Sulsfort (ie Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von): The adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch. Monpelgart (ie Nuremberg), 1669. German Text Archive, January 26, 2011, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  8. The adventurous Simplicissimus Teutsch / That is: The description of the life of a strange vagante / called Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim ... Accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  9. Klaus-Dieter Herbst: Simplicissimus, Simplicius (pseud.). Institute for German Press Research, July 17, 2015, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  10. Werner Welzig: Exemplary Figures. Gate, adventurer and hermit near Grimmelshausen. Hermann Böhlaus, Graz / Cologne 1963, DNB  455457638 .
  11. Ludwig M. Eichinger : The personal names in Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen's "Simplicius Simplicissimus" . In: Neophilologus: an international journal of modern and mediaeval language and literature . Springer, 1988, ISSN  0028-2677 , pp. 66–81 , urn : nbn: de: bsz: mh39-3376 .
  12. Sebastian Rosenberger: Grimmelshausen's Works - Introduction. Wolfenbüttel Digital Library, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  13. Thomas Schmid: Now you can understand Grimmelshausen again. Die Welt, August 8, 2009, accessed November 17, 2015 .
  14. Johannes Groschupf: O scornful, bad world. Berliner Zeitung, September 3, 2009, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  15. Peter Strohschneider: Culture and Text - Three chapters on the continuation of the adventurous Simplicissimi, with systematic interludes. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 18, 2015 ; accessed on November 17, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen: Abentheuerlicher Simplicissimus Theutsch. (PDF) Retrieved November 17, 2015 .
  17. Markus Gasser: The Simplicissimus: Baroque monument for war without borders. Swiss radio and television, October 28, 2014, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  18. The adventurous Simplicissimus. ZEITmagazin, June 6, 1980, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  19. Jakob Koeman: The Grimmelshausen Reception in the Fictional Literature of German Romanticism / Jakob Koeman . Rodopi, Amsterdam, Atlanta 1993, ISBN 90-5183-513-2 (Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit, Diss., 1993 UdT: J. Koeman: Grimmelshausen Reception in Romanticism ).
  20. Analysis of the German Baroque literary epoch. (PDF) In: Bachelor thesis. 2013, pp. 26–27 , accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  21. ^ Mathias Schreiber: Dice game before the battle . In: Der Spiegel . No. 32 , 2009 ( online - Aug. 3, 2009 ).
  22. Jasmine Rudolph: The fool in the opera. (PDF) In: Dissertation University of Bayreuth. February 4, 2015, p. 188 f , accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  23. ^ Hanns-Werner Heister: Independence and commitment. On the political dimensions of music. Federal Agency for Civic Education, May 14, 2013, accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  24. Reimar Belschner: The failed musicus, the godly poet - Why the music falls silent in the Simplicissimus. (PDF) Archived from the original on November 18, 2015 ; accessed on November 17, 2015 .
  25. Des Christoffel von Grimmelshausen Adventurous Simplicissimus: the complete series. Worldcat, accessed November 17, 2015 .
  26. ^ Jost Hermand : Hermann Scherchen, Wolfgang Petzet and Karl Amadeus Hartmann: Simplicius Simplicissimus (1934/35). In: ders .: Splendor and misery of German opera. Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2008, p. 244 (Google Books).
  27. There are several previous versions of this booklet by other authors.
  28. A compilation of short interpretations of other origins: Friedrich Gundolf : Grimmelshausen und der Simplicissimus, (first 1923) in Günther Weydt: Der Simlicissimusdichter WBG , Darmstadt 1969, pp. 111, 126; Paul Böckmann: Turning away from the Elegantia ideal, ibid. Pp. 229–231; Günter Rohrbach: Figure and Character , ibid. Pp. 256 f., 260 f.