Bagpipe (musical instrument)

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Bagpipe, simple design
Pieter Bruegel the Elder Ä. , Peasant Dance (around 1568), detail
Bagpiper in the Cistercian Abbey of Santes Creus , Catalonia

The bagpipe or the bagpipes (rarely the Bockpfeife ) is a woodwind instrument . For playing, air is passed from an airbag by arm pressure into game and drone pipes , where single or double reeds produce the tones. Finger holes on the play tube are used to play melodies, while drone whistles produce a constant, continuous tone. The harmony creates the polyphony characteristic of bagpipes . The sound of the drone tones is usually a deeper, deep hum, the melody pipes sound higher, and depending on the type of instrument, more penetrating.

In the German-speaking countries the instrument fell out of use in the course of the 19th century, but experienced a revival or revival towards the end of the 20th century. Bagpipes were and are widespread inside and outside Europe. There is an abundance of different shapes, materials and uses.

Who plays the instrument is as bagpipers called (bagpipers / piper).

Names bagpipes and bagpipes

The word "bagpipe" was used as a collective term for various bagpipes as early as the 16th century. We find the word “bagpipe” in Sebastian Virdung (1511) and Martin Agricola (1529). The word "bagpipes" was first documented in 1642. The word part Dudel- can be derived from Duten / Tuten , which means “ to blow on the shepherd's horn, cow's horn, the trombone or a similar instrument ”. The onomatopoeic root word is with the Russian Duda ( дуда ) "pipe, reed pipe , reed pipe " and the Czech, Slovak and Polish dudy used for "bagpipe". The suffix " -eln " gives the verb dudeln an iterative meaning ("to blow again and again / without ceasing"), from which the connotation of "monotonous / bad music" results. Because of this overtone, the more neutral term “bagpipe” is often used in the instrumental context instead of “bagpipes”.

Structure and style of play

Bagpipes have the following basic components, which are designed and combined differently in the various regional forms.

Air bag and air supply

Bellows for bagpipes with low to moderate air flow

The airbag is usually made from sealed leather, possibly from a whole animal hide. Goat skin is often used, hence the term buck whistle. If fur is processed, it can be turned inwards or outwards. Today synthetic material is also used for the airbag. Cloth covers are common.

The player inflates the sack with his mouth through a blow pipe or with the help of a bellows . As a rule, the bellows is operated with the arm. The Spanish bagpipe maker Seivane also offers bellows that can be operated with the foot. In almost all bagpipes, a check valve ensures that the air blown in cannot flow back when the player takes a breath or opens the bellows. The sack is pressed against the body with one or both arms in order to generate as constant an air pressure as possible in the sack, which is released to the playing and drone whistles.


Table for setting up the intervals of bagpipes at Marin Mersenne
Cornemuses du Center with interchangeable playing and decorated drone whistles

Most bagpipes have a chanter. Chanter can have a cylindrical or conical bore. They sound louder with a conical bore than with a cylindrical one. Chimes and drone whistles are mostly made from the same tone wood that is also used for woodwind instruments . In the 19th century brass instruments were also made for use in the tropics. Contemporary instruments are also offered made of Polypenco .

The chanter of most bagpipes is tuned diatonic in pure tuning . Perfect fifths and thirds are unproblematic in handling chanterelles. The question of the design of the whole tones is more difficult. On the website , a large whole tone in the ratio 9: 8 (204 cents ) is displayed for the whole tone above the root tone . This disharmonises with the fifth built on it. In his Harmonie Universelle from 1637, Marin Mersenne recommends the small whole tone 10: 9 (182 cents) for the second above the fundamental tone , which does not form a pure ninth to the fundamental tone, but forms a perfect fifth to the sixth above the fundamental tone, which is what the game of Allows minor scales on the second level. Non-key notes can only be played to a limited extent using auxiliary grips. Flaps are rare. Only a few chanter are overblown (e.g. Uillean Pipes , Cornemuse du Center , modern shepherd's pipe or Gaita gallega ), so that the range of the octave is only slightly exceeded.

Wax , deer tallow or putty used to be used to fine-tune the tone holes on woodwind instruments . In bagpipes today it is common to use insulating tape ( tape ) to reduce the size of the tone holes.

Special features: The Sicilian Zampogna has two chanter that are suitable for two-part melodies (with a small range, as only the fingers of one hand are available).

The “bordunless” bagpipes common in the Mediterranean and the Middle East have two parallel play tubes with partly parallel, partly different bores. These can either be gripped with flat fingers at the same time and sound "in unison" (whereby the resulting beats amplify the sound), or one of the two pipes takes on the function of the drone or step drone (with changing drone tones). Examples of this type are Mezwed , Mih and Tulum .

Drone whistles

Northumbrian Smallpipe with four drone pipes on a stick

Bagpipe shapes with one or two drones are common, more drones are also possible. The keynote of the key used sounds , with several drones in different octaves. The fifth can also be used.

To use the instrument in different keys, the drone whistles can be tuned to several drone tones or individually muted.

With some bagpipe types, in particular those with over-inflatable chanter or tunable drones, the drones are less sensitive to pressure fluctuations. In this way, the pitch and sound of the chanter can be varied while the drone remains the same.

A special feature the gedackten drones ( regulators ) of the Uilleann pipes is to be sounded during the opening of valves at different pitches. The Musette de Cour has several "folded" drones in the manner of the Rankett , which can also be tuned to different tones using sliders.

Chime and drone whistles are usually connected to the airbag with a sleeve, the so-called "stick".


Double reeds for play (left), single reeds for drone pipes (right)

The reeds for chimes and drone whistles are usually made of reed (often Arundo donax ), more recently also from plastic or metal.

The chanter can have a single reed or a double reed . Double reeds have a louder, more intense sound similar to that of shawms . In Western and Central European forms double reeds predominate for the chanter , in other regions traditional idioglotte single reeds .

Bordun tubes often have single reeds. In traditional production, a tongue is cut into the side wall of a pipe (idioglott). Today, appropriate sleeves made of plastic with tied leaves are often used. The dimensions of the drone reeds are precisely tailored to the respective tone or the length of the reed used.


Bagpipe at Agricola

Bagpipes are played partly in closed, partly in open fingering. Closed fingering means that in the basic position all finger holes are covered by the fingers. To create other tones, the corresponding finger holes are opened individually. The open fingering corresponds in principle to the fingering of other wind instruments, such as. B. the recorder . That is, it will cover as many holes as the pitch requires, from top to bottom. The half-open (also: half-closed) fingering combines these two principles.

Historical evidence for the open fingering:

  • Martin Agricola mentions in his Musica instrumentalis deudsch from 1529 that recorders and bagpipes have “eynerley need” in the handles. His table for the recorder in C is an open fingering with a fork grip on the fourth above the root note.
  • Marin Mersenne gives in the edition of Harmonie universelle from 1637 hints on the fingering of the "Cornemuse rurale ou pastorale des Bergers". One tone hole after the other has to be opened up to the last tone at which everything is open ("tout ouvert").
  • Pierre Borjon de Scellery (1633-1691) mentions in his treatise on the Musette de Cour also a Musette de bergers (Musette of the shepherds), on which the open fingering would be practiced.

Closed fingerings are dealt with in textbooks for the Musette de Cour . Worth mentioning are the textbook Traité de la musette by Pierre Borjon de Scellery (1672) and the method pour la musette Opus 10 by Jacques-Martin Hotteterre (1773).

The semi-closed fingering for the Great Highland Bagpipe was described by Joseph Mac Donald in his treatise A Compleat Theory of the Scots Highland Bagpipe as early as 1760 .


Since a bagpipe chanter constantly produces a tone, at least one other tone is played briefly in between to separate two tones of the same pitch (English grace note , French détaché ). Out of this necessity, bagpipe-specific decorations have developed, in which several short intermediate tones are often inserted to separate two identical tones.



The historical origin of the instrument cannot be determined with certainty, as the oldest evidence is isolated and its interpretation is not always clear. A Hittite relief from Alaca Höyük (before 1200 BC) is discussed as possibly the oldest representation of a bagpipe .

Group of musicians, right figure with bagpipe, Persian Empire (6th century BC)

A Persian relief from Susa from the 6th century BC shows a group of musicians, with an instrument strikingly similar in outline and posture to the ney Anban , which is still played in southern Iran today.

In the Aramaic part of Daniel (7/3/3/10/15), along with a number of other musical instruments, there is the expression “ mpony” . This goes back to the Greek symphonia , which also provided the root for the later Italian form of the name Zampogna . In ancient times, however, this use was isolated, so the place cannot be interpreted with certainty.

Without mentioning a name of the instrument, the plays of the Greek comedy poet Aristophanes (before 444 to around 380 BC) could be referred to as bagpipes.

In the Ptolemaic period (1st century BC) there are several terracotta figurines in Alexandria with an instrument clearly recognizable as a bagpipe. A seated figure with a Phrygian cap holds a panpipe in front of his chin and has an air bag with a play pipe or drone pipe in front of his stomach. A blow pipe is not shown. A dwarf hugs the figure's knee. The bagpipe is apparently perceived as an exotic (“barbaric”) instrument.

The Roman historian Suetonius reports that Emperor Nero presented himself as utricularius ( Nero , 54). This term is related to the Latin utriculus "wineskin". The translation as "bag piper" results from a reference point in Dion Chrysostom , who reports of Nero that he was able to play the aulos both with his mouth and with a sack clamped under his armpit.

Martial used gräzisierend the term ascaules "bag-piper".

From the remark that Nero played his instrument with or without an airbag, one can assume that it had no drones. It is possible, however, that there were already forms with separate drone tubes in ancient times: An undated gem shows a satyr with a panpipe and a bagpipe. This has two playing pipes, a drone and a blowing pipe. A figure from Rome, depicted by Francesco Bianchini with a chanter and two drones, is similarly complex .

middle Ages

A gaita from the Cantigas de Santa Maria (2nd half of the 13th century)
Bagpiper from the Codex Manesse (between 1305 and 1340)

The earliest evidence in the Middle Ages is literary. In the so-called Dardanus letter from Pseudo-Hieronymus (9th century) a “simple sack with two air tubes” is described, “through the first it is inflated, from the second the sound comes out”. In Middle High German are suegelbalch "Pfeifenbalg" and balchsuegelen "Balgpfeife" needed.

Pictorial representations in manuscripts, wall paintings and wood or stone sculptures exist in large numbers from the 13th century. In the figure program of Gothic churches, angels or demons can be represented with bagpipes.

At that time, there are apparently many different forms. The Cantigas de Santa Maria, for example, show a bordunless type (with horn bells), a shape with two parallel tubes of equal length, a play tube and a drone tube, which are connected to one another at the top and bottom and are richly decorated. Furthermore, a third type is shown with a doubled play tube and two doubled pairs of drones attached to the airbag. Possibly. this doubling serves to switch the basic tones. In addition, two platter games with a shawl-like play tube and a shorter, cylindrical drone are shown.

The Manessian song manuscript shows that the bagpipes also belonged to court culture in the Middle Ages. One illustration shows an instrument with a single drone with a conical drone that is slightly longer than the conical chanter. The other has a strongly conical drone that is about twice as long as the melody tube.

Only one medieval bagpipe has been preserved in its original form to the present day, the “Rostock chanter” from the 15th century. In addition, the medieval bagpipes can be explored through many examples in art. Until the 15th century, single-border, hand-blown bagpipes predominate.

Renaissance and Baroque

Bagpipe after Sebastian Virdung (1511)

In his work Musica tutscht und pulled out (1511), Sebastian Virdung depicts a “bagpipe” that has been widespread in Central Europe since the 16th century: a two-drone instrument, the longer (cylindrical) drone tube being about twice as long as the conical one Chanter. This means that the bass bordun sounded two octaves below the keynote of the play tube (cylindrical tubes sound an octave lower than conical tubes with the same length). The second drone is about one and a half times as long as the play tube and sounded a fifth above the bass. 7 finger holes can be seen on the front of the chanter. Martin Agricola offers a similar illustration in his Musica Instrumentalis deudsch (1529). Instruments of this type are faithfully reproduced in the painting, e.g. B. by Hieronymus Bosch , Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Ä. , Albrecht Dürer or Hendrick Terbrugghen . Other forms also persist.

Bagpipes from Syntagma musicum , Vol. 2 XI by Michael Praetorius , inscription: 6. Großer Bock, 7. Schaper Pfeiff, 8. Hümmelchen, 9. Dudey
Illustration of the musette in the encyclopedia of Diderot and d'Alembert , on the left a simpler cornemuse .

In the second volume of his work Syntagma musicum (1619), Michael Praetorius presents a total of six different types to scale and indicates the moods for each. However, he does not provide any information about the type of reeds. The shepherd's pipe with two cylindrical drones on a stick and a conical chanter, whose often poor intonation is criticized by Praetorius, corresponds to the two-drone type of the 16th century . The bass instrument is a trestle with a long cylindrical drone and a cylindrical chanter, both of which lead to horns . Small and correspondingly higher-sounding instruments are called Hümmelchen (two cylindrical drones) and Dudey (three cylindrical drones), both have cylindrical chimes. He describes an instrument with two playing tubes that he once saw in the ore monastery of Magdeburg and an instrument in the style of the French musette as more exotic forms .

In his text Harmonie universelle (1636), Marin Mersenne gives detailed descriptions of various bagpipes with detailed and true-to-scale illustrations, e.g. T. with indication of the moods. The simplest instrument he describes has a simple cylindrical drone with a double reed and a playing reed called a chalumeau in the style of the shawm with a flap that is protected by a fontanel . He describes in more detail a sack pipe with two drones, of which a short cylindrical drone is on a stick with the chanter, while a long one is freely attached to the sack. Both drones have single reeds while the play reed has a double reed. The musette he describes is fed by a bellows. The four drapes of the Rankett drone are studded with double reeds and can be tuned with sliders. The range of the Chalumeau is extended upwards by additional keys. Mersenne also describes (southern) Italian instruments with two V-shaped chanter and a drone in the middle. A smaller instrument corresponds to the Surdulina , which has survived to this day , but is called Sampogne ( Zampogna ) or Organine by Mersenne . He calls a large shape the Sourdeline . According to him, it has two chanter with finger holes and several keys. There is also a very long, folded bass pipe, the holes of which are closed by flaps. This pipe only sounds when a flap is opened. This corresponds to the principle of the regulators of the later uilleann pipes .

Athanasius Kircher describes the bagpipe ("Cornamusa") in his work Musurgia Universalis in 1650 as "the sole consolation of the shepherds and of course also of the farmers" ("Cornamusam multi pro utriculo sumunt; quid utriculus sit passim notum est, Pastorum scilicet Rusticorumq; solamen unicum" ).

In 18th century France, the bagpipes were valued in court culture as a pastoral instrument in the context of the pastoral idyll . For this purpose, the musette was further developed into the (today so-called) Musette de Cour . These instruments were richly decorated. Well-known composers also composed pieces for musette with orchestra. As with the earlier forms, bellows and trellis are used. The chanter can be played chromatically with the help of keys and is supplemented by a short whistle called petit chalumeau , which sounds when the keys are closed. These expand the range for melodies to two octaves (without overblowing). The Encyclopédie by Diderot (1754) provides a detailed description .

Various types of bagpipes can also be identified at the courts of Württemberg , Weimar and Saxony . Under August the Strong and his son August III. 16 Bockpfeifer were employed at the court, especially to accompany the hunt.

Georg Philipp Telemann describes the music making of contemporary bagpipers in his biography:

“When the court went to Plesse, an Upper Silesian, Promnitzian class lordship, for six months, I got to know Polish and Hanakian music in its true barbaric beauty there as well as in Krakow. It consisted of common taverns, of a violin strapped around the body, tuned a third higher than usual, and thus able to shout over half a dozen others; from a Polish buck; from a fifth trombone, and from a shelf. But the shelf remained away in more handsome places; but the first two were reinforced: as I once found 36 goats and 8th violins together. It is hard to believe what kind of whimsical ideas Bockpfeiffer and violinists have when they fantasize so often the dancers are resting. An attentive one could snatch thoughts of them for a lifetime in eight days. "

- Georg Philipp Telemann. Foundation of an honor gate , p. 360.

In the 19th and 20th centuries

Bagpipe in Cologne Cathedral

“But music is Cologne's favorite art. The peasant benches and the lesser citizens content themselves with the bagpipes, the dulcimer , the lavumm and the violin . "

- Ernst Weyden : Cologne on the Rhine 50 years ago, moral images along with historical references and linguistic explanations , Chapter XI, Cologne, 1862
Bagpiper and boy playing shawm, Carl Goebel (1864)

In the 19th century the importance of the bagpipe declined sharply in Central Europe and was mainly still in use by shepherds, shepherds and traveling musicians. In the middle of the 19th century there were still 5 bands with bagpipes among the traveling musicians from the Salzgitter area . These bands consisted of up to 6 bagpipers and 2 drummers. Her travels went beyond Germany to England, Norway, the Ottoman Empire and North America. In Belgium the shepherd Alphonse Gheux (1850–1936) played the Muchosa until 1912 this bagpipe broke. In its importance for dance music, the bagpipe was increasingly displaced due to its melodic and harmonic limitations. Violin and clarinet had a larger range and could be played chromatically . The brass instruments, which had been technically improved since the beginning of the 19th century, were louder and therefore better suited for outdoor music. Finally, the emerging accordion offered the opportunity for a single musician to make music for several voices. The bagpipe was still known in German-speaking countries and Northern Europe, but it had lost its importance.

Apart from Great Britain , where the Scottish Great Highland Pipes had a special place in the context of military music , the bagpipes were only preserved in peripheral locations or inaccessible areas until the 20th century (e.g. Ireland , Brittany , central France , Galicia , southern Italy , the Balkans ). In these areas, too, the number of active players fell sharply until the middle of the 20th century.

Since the 1970s there has been a renewed interest in bagpipes. On the one hand, the different types are being re-valued as signs of regional traditions and identity. They are used in folklore but also in folk . In Germany, traditional and newly developed bagpipes find great interest at medieval festivals and markets and are part of what is known as medieval rock . In addition, historical structures are reconstructed and played in the context of historical performance practice .

Today, instrument makers and musicians often deal with types of different historical or regional origins.

Spread and forms

The differentiation between the various forms is not always clear. On the one hand, the same names can stand for very different instruments ( Gaita / Gaida , Bock , Dudy ), on the other hand, closely related types of instruments have different names in different regions ( Mezwed , Tsambouna , Tulum, etc.). In addition, instrument makers vary the shapes according to their individual ideas and needs and borrow from instruments from other regions or epochs.

The different geographical forms can now also be found outside their region of origin. B. the Great Highland Bagpipes players and audiences worldwide.

Central Europe

Musician of the Austrian group Salamanda with a shepherd's pipe at a
medieval festival

In Germany today there are replicas of historical instruments as well as types newly created for the music of the medieval scene.

In Czech folk music, the Bohemian goat is an unbroken tradition. In southern Germany and Austria , too , the goat found its place in folk music, which it had lost in the course of the 19th century.

The bagpipes play an important role in Sorbian folklore.

North and Northeast Europe

In Scandinavia and north-eastern Europe, there are forms on or mehrbordunige, also variants of the bracket .

British Islands

Player with Great Highland Bagpipe

In Scotland the bagpipe has a special tradition as an instrument at court. In the British " Disarming Act " after the Battle of Culloden , the Scottish tradition was largely prohibited. This concerned the highland clothing, but not the bagpipe itself. Today the Great Highland Bagpipes are regarded on the one hand as the Scottish national instrument , on the other hand they have spread worldwide through the military music of the British.


In addition to the musette , which was popular at the French court in the Baroque era , there are numerous regional forms in France, some of which have an unbroken playing tradition (Brittany, central region).

Iberian Peninsula

Young gaiteros in Galicia

In north-western Spain tens of thousands of bagpipe students are registered in the local Escuelas de Gaitas , music schools with bagpipe lessons. But the bagpipe is also widespread in other parts of the country.


The Zampogna in southern Italy in particular has a lively gaming tradition up to the present day .

Southeast Europe

Bulgarian Kaba Gajda player

Many forms have been preserved in the regional musical traditions of Southeast Europe .

North Africa and the Middle East

In North Africa, Malta and the Middle East, borderless forms with double chanter arranged in parallel are common. There are similar forms north of the Mediterranean (cf. Diple , Tsambouna , Boha ).


There are several bagpipes on the Indian subcontinent, including the North Indian mashak (also masak, mashq ) with melody and drone whistle and the South Indian titti with only one drone whistle, which was imported into the British colonial rulers by the Great Highland pipe since the 18th century Background were pushed. The native bagpipes were called pungi by the British , today in India the name for the wind instrument of the snake charmers, which is a preform of the bagpipe because of the same sound generation. Indian bagpipes survived in some niches of folk music, the Scottish bagpipes, and are occasionally seen in processions as British heritage. The traditional mashak made from a whole goat skin is played in rural regions of northern India and in Pakistan especially at weddings; in the Garhwal region on the southern edge of the Himalayas, two bagpipe players who lead the wedding procession are practically indispensable. The Bhopa community in Rajasthan play them together with the string sarangi , flutes and the double reed instrument shehnai .


In August 2016, with reference to a report in the journal Thorax, there was a report on the death of a 61-year-old bagpiper in 2014, which is said to be traced back to mold spores in his instrument. Regular cleaning is therefore recommended.

Related instruments

The Welsh pibgorn is now played as a stand-alone instrument or as a bagpipe chanter (three examples from the 18th century)

A closely related instrument is the platter game , in which an animal bladder serves as an air reservoir. Other instruments whose sound is produced with the help of an air bellows are the organ and the accordion instruments .

Other wind capsule instruments include the Krummhorn , Rauschpfeife and the Practice Chanter used as a practice instrument for the Great Highland Bagpipe .

With some bagpipes, the chanter is occasionally blown directly with the mouth as an independent instrument (e.g. Pibgorn , Diple , Magrouna ).

The Egyptian arghul and the Sardinian launeddas , in which several pipes are fed by the air of the oral cavity, are noteworthy . Since these instruments are played in circular breathing, there are functional parallels. The same applies to the Indian pungi instrument . There a pumpkin serves as a wind capsule that takes a melody and a drone tube. The oral cavity also serves as an air reservoir.

Other drone instruments are the hurdy gurdy , drone and double flutes (like dwojanka in Bulgaria or fluier gemănat in Romania).

In the meantime, electric bagpipes that can be connected to an amplifier or a computer in a MIDI-controlled manner are also on the market. The inventor was the Asturian musician José Ángel Hevia together with the computer programmer Alberto Arias and the technician Miguel Dopico.

The bagpipe in the sheep farm

Title page of the Scheffer order from 1578

The bagpipe has been one of the common attributes of the shepherd's profession in the visual arts since the Middle Ages, along with the shepherd's shovel and crook .

“A shepherd must also be able to play a wind instrument, not because of the old madness that the sheep should get fat more from the music than from grazing and feeding, but because the sheep (as experience confirms ) before other animals, especially those who love music: they love it immensely, and are thereby very lively. In addition, it is very convenient for the shepherd to be able to command his flock with the flute: as do the foreign shepherds who hold them together with certain bits on their bagpipes, call them to themselves, and drive them away again. "

- Friedrich Wilhelm Hastfer: Extensive instruction given on the maintenance of the best kind of sheep, for the common good. Leipzig 1785

"He trusted me first of all his sows, secondly his goats, and finally his whole flock of sheep, that I would tend and pasture them, and through my bagpipe (which sound without that, as Strabo writes, makes the sheep and lambs in Arabia fat), should protect from the wolf . "

“To keep wolves away, making noise is a good way to do it. I play the bagpipes when it's foggy, because wolves attack a herd more often when it is foggy. "

- Pierre Pibre, French shepherd, CDPnews, 2017, issue 14, p. 15

The bagpipe in fairy tales and fables

The bagpipe in the seal

The final chorus of the “Bauernkantata” Mer hahn en neue Oberkeet , music by Johann Sebastian Bach , text by Christian Friedrich Henrici , begins with the mention of the bagpipe: “We'll go where the bagpipe is buzzing in our tavern”.

Archaeological finds

  • Rostock chanter . The instrument was discovered in a Rostock shrinkage pit in the mid-1980s. The instrument was dated to the early 15th century. The maple chanter measures 193 mm. There are seven tone holes on the front, the lowest is double. There is a thumb hole on the back. The inner bore is 6.5 mm at the top.
  • A chanter was found in 1996 in the Uelvesbüller Koog from a 17th century shipwreck. The length of the chanter is 198 mm, the lower diameter is 11 mm. The cylindrical inner bore is 3.6 mm. The instrument has seven finger holes in the front and one thumb hole. It is made of a hard dark wood. The metal reed sleeve is still there, as is the socket. The instrument ( Hümmelchen ) was in very good condition when it was found. It was equipped with a new reed, which made the fundamental note d 'sound in all closed tone holes.

Compositions for bagpipe

Compositions for Musette de Cour

  • Joseph Bodin de Boismortier : Op. 11: 6 suites with 2 muzettes (Paris, 1727)
  • Joseph Bodin de Boismortier: Op. 27: 6 Suites pour 2 Much, Musettes, Flutes-à-bec, Fluts. traversieres, & Hautbois. Suivies de 2 Sonates à Dessus et Basse
  • Joseph Bodin de Boismortier: Op. 52: 4 Balets de Village en Trio, Pour les Musettes, Vieles, Flutes à-bec, Violons, Haubois, ou Flutes traversieres (Paris, 1734)
  • Nicolas Chédeville : Amusements champêtres
  • Nicolas Chédeville: Les galanteries amusantes, Op.8
  • Philibert de Lavigne : Les Fleurs Opus 4, 1745

Compositions for musette de cour and basso continuo

Jean de Hotteterre : Piece pour la Muzette

Compositions for bagpipe and orchestra

Textbooks for bagpipes

Historical textbooks

Contemporary textbooks

  • Reinhold Ege: MacEges textbook for the Scottish bagpipes . Publishers of the Minstrels, 1999, 12th edition.
  • Thomas Zöller : The bagpipe primer: textbook for the medieval bagpipes . 2 volumes, Publishing House of the Minstrels, 2009.
  • Bernard Boulanger: Playing the bagpipes: textbook for bagpipes with half-closed French fingering . Publishers of the Minstrels, 2011.


  • Anthony Baines: Bagpipes. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1960.
  • Bernard Boulanger: Playing the bagpipes. Publishers of the Minstrels , ISBN 3-927240-59-1 .
  • The bagpipes in Europe - with special emphasis on Bavaria. Bayerischer Landesverein für Heimatpflege, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-931754-02-2 .
  • Javier Campos Calvo: Around the Origins of Bagpipes. Relevant Hypotheses and Evidences. In: Greek and Roman Musical Studies. Volume 3, 2015, Delivery 1, pp. 18–52.
  • Michael Hofmann: Sackpfeifer's manual. 5th edition. Publishing house of the miners , Reichelsheim 1994, ISBN 3-927240-02-8 .
  • Ralf Gehler: bagpipers, beer fiddlers, town musicians. Folk music and folk musicians in early modern Mecklenburg. Thomas Helms, Schwerin 2012, ISBN 978-3-940207-71-5 .


Web links

Wiktionary: bagpipes  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Bagpipe  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. bagpipes. Retrieved August 26, 2015 .
  2. Ernst Eugen Schmidt: His Polish Duday dises was…. In: The bagpipes in Europe. Munich 1996.
  3. duten duten. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 2 : Beer murderer – D - (II). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1860, Sp. 1767–1768 ( ).
  4. bagpipes. In: Digital dictionary of the German language .
  5. tood. In: Digital dictionary of the German language .
  6. Stephans SackpfeifenClub - The Sack. Retrieved August 28, 2015 .
  7. Der Selbitzer Bockpfeifer, # 1/1955, p. 2.
  8. ; accessed on December 12, 2018
  9. Stephans SackpfeifenClub - types of wood. Retrieved August 28, 2015 .
  10. Hugh Cheape: Bagpipes. Edinburgh 2008.
  11. ↑ The mood of bagpipes. Retrieved August 27, 2015 .
  12. Marin Mersenne: Harmonie universelle , edition 1637, p. 286
  13. ^ Hugo Alker: The recorder: Instrumentology, history, music practice , Vienna 1962
  15. ^ Corvus. Retrieved August 27, 2015 .
  16. Stephans SackpfeifenClub - Fingering. Retrieved August 28, 2015 .
  17. Martin Agricola: Musica instrumentalis deudsch , "The First Chapter"
  18. Marin Mersenne : Harmonie universelle , p. 286
  19. Pierre Borjon de Scellery , Traité de la musette , p. 23
  20. Joseph Mac Donald: A Compleat Theory of the Scots Highland Bagpipe. 1760. Online document:
  21. Gerald Abraham, “The Concise Oxford History of Music,” Oxford University Press, Oxford 1979.
  22. ^ The Mysterious History of Bagpipes. Retrieved September 1, 2015 .
  23. Illustration from the Encyclopædia Britannica . 1911 ( Bag-pipe , Wikisource).
  24. סוּמפניה śûmponyâ , derived from the Greek συμφωνία ( symphonia literally “harmony”). Compare: Wilhelm Gesenius : Hebrew-German concise dictionary on the writings of the Old Testament including the geographical names and the Chaldean words in Daniel and Esra, Vol. 2, Leipzig 1812 .
  25. ^ Mary Angela Wardle: Musical Instruments in the Roman World. (PDF) Retrieved September 1, 2015 . , Vol. 1, p. 168.
  26. Lysistrata 1245 and Die Acharner 862ff, possibly with reference to an instrument with a dog bellows, if not simply a crude language game, Wardle, Musical Instruments, vol. 1, p. 165.
  27. Hans Hickmann: Ancient Egyptian Music . In: Bertold Spuler (Ed.): Handbuch der Orientalistik , 1. Abt. The Nahe and the Middle East . Supplementary Volume IV: Oriental Music . EJ Brill, Leiden / Cologne 1970, p. 160.
  28. ^ Illustration in Wardle: Musical Instruments , Vol. 1, p. 167 and Caesar's Bagpipes. Retrieved September 1, 2015 . under "EARLY GREEK AND EGYPTIAN SOURCES" and on Some Notes on the History of the Bagpipe - Page 2. Accessed September 21, 2015 . below, (photo).
  29. from Greek * ἀσκ-άυληϛ, Wardle: Musical Instruments , Vol. 1, p. 166.
  30. from the Ionides Collection, Wardle, Musical Instruments, Vol. 1, p. 169.
  31. ^ Relief from the courtyard of a palace near Santa Croce, Francesco Bianchini De Tribus Generibus Instrumentorum Musicae Veterum Organicae. Retrieved September 1, 2015 . , the image can be found here at the bottom right.
  32. Migne, patr. Lat. XXX, cf. The bagpipe in Germany. Retrieved September 2, 2015 .
  33. ^ Edward Buhle: The musical instruments in the miniatures of the early Middle Ages , Vol. 1, p. 48; from: Eberhard Gottlieb Graff: German interlinear versions of the Psalms, from a Windberg manuscript in Munich (12th century); and a manuscript to Trier (XIIIth century) , 1839, p. 384 (Psalm 80.2) and p. 667 (Psalm 149.3).
  34. Figure Cantiga 260
  35. Figure Cantiga 280
  36. Figure Cantiga 340
  37. cf. Video of a replica Gaita de Cantiga 350.Retrieved September 2, 2015 . , correct is Cantiga 340
  38. Cantigas de Santa Maria, Cantiga 230
  39. Codex Manesse 399r
  40. Codex Manesse 13r.png
  41. Ralf Gehler: Two bagpipe fragments as archaeological evidence of northern German music culture . In: Studies in Music Archeology . Vol. V. Music archeology in context. Archaeological findings, historical connections, socio-cultural relationships. Lectures of the 4th symposium of the International Study Group Music Archeology in the Michaelstein Monastery , 19. – 26. September 2004, pp. 41-48.
  42. Compare: Merit Zloch : reed instruments with a rectangular to flat-round cross-section . In: Ellen Hickmann, Ricardo Eichmann (Hrsg.): Music archaeological source groups. Land deeds, oral records, records. Lectures of the 3rd symposium of the International Study Group Music Archeology in the Michaelstein Monastery , 9. – 16. June 2002. Leidorf, Rahden 2004, ISBN 3-89646-645-3 (= Studies on Music Archeology, 4), pp. 49–58.
  43. Bagpipes in Medieval Manuscripts - a collection of medieval illustrations of bagpipes. Retrieved September 20, 2015 .
  44. Figure S. Virdung, Musica tutscht und pulled out, bagpipe
  45. Musica instrumentalis Deudsch (Agricola, Martin). (PDF) Retrieved September 5, 2015 . Chapter 1.
  46. Hieronymus Bosch, Epiphany triptych, center panel: Adoration of the Magi, detail
  47. Pieter Bruegel the Elder Ä., Peasant dance, detail
  48. Albrecht Dürer, The Bagpiper
  49. Hendrik ter Brugghen, The Bagpiper
  50. "And are the Schaper / or Schäffer pipes in the upper holes mostly wrong" - Michael Praetorius: Syntagma Musicum , Vol. 2, p. 42.
  51. Michael Praetorius: Syntagma Musicum , Vol. 2, pp. 42-43.
  52. TRAITÉS FRANÇAIS SUR LA MUSIQUE. Retrieved September 11, 2015 .
  53. Mersenne, Instruments à vent 306
  54. Mersenne, Instruments à vent 283
  55. Mersenne, Instruments à vent 290b
  56. Barry O'Neill: The Sordellina, a Possible Origin of the Irish Regulators Barry O'Neill. (PDF) Retrieved September 19, 2015 .
  57. Mersenne claims to have extended such an instrument himself by lengthening the drone tube again and folding it a second time. Finally he added another drone tube so that he could play two octaves in the bass range chromatically. Mersenne, Instruments à vent 293
  58. ^ Athanasius Kircher: Musurgia Universalis . 1650, p. 505.
  59. Michael Cwach: The pukl and Chodsko: Aspects of linkage between a bagpipe and an ethnographic region . (PDF, 36.93Mb) A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Canterbury, June 2012, pp. 56-57 u. Pp. 146-154
  60. ^ Alfred Dieck: Die Wandermusikanten von Salzgitter , Göttingen 1959
  61. Musical Instrument Museum in Brussels ; accessed on June 12, 2020
  62. Andrew Alter: Garhwali Bagpipes: Syncretic Processes in a North Indian Regional Musical Tradition. In: Asian Music, Vol. 29, No. 1. 1997-1998, pp. 1-16.
  63. Bagpiper died of mold in instrument, August 24, 2016, accessed on August 24, 2016.
  64. Ralf Gehler : " The ock came with the doodle sack ". In: The bagpipes in Europe , Munich 1996.