Susa ( Persian شوش Schūsch , DMG Šūš ; Hebrew שושן Shushan ; ancient greek. Σοῦσα, Latin Susa ) was an ancient city. Their remains are in the southwest of today's Iran near the Iraqi border in the province of Khuzestan on the outskirts of today's city of Shush . Susa is one of the oldest continuously populated cities in the world. The etymology of the city name is uncertain.
From the third to the first millennium BC With short interruptions, Susa was the capital of the kingdom of Elam and remained an important urban center even after the fall of this kingdom. Various archaeological excavations have produced rich finds. The Codex Hammurapi , which had been abducted as booty to Susa in ancient times, attracted particular attention .
Susa is located in an alluvial plain that is rich in agriculture, but was also convenient as a hub in long-distance trade between Iran and Mesopotamia , since high mountains begin especially further north and are not easy to cross. In the south the Persian Gulf was not far away. Most of the city proper lay east of the small river Schaur . Their remains are now meter-high mounds of rubble. It extended over an area of over a square kilometer. The field of ruins is dominated by two hills.
The districts named by the excavators Apadana (in the north) and Acropolis (Acropole, south of it) are located close to the river . The Acropolis designates the highest city hill and is referred to in Akkadian texts as alimelu , the high city . There was the ziggurat, which in texts appears as the temple of Inschuschinak of kizzum . The ziggurat consisted of different levels and contained a high temple ( kukunnum / ulhi ) and a low temple haschtu . It lay in the middle of a sacred grove, which in turn was surrounded by a wall richly decorated with gates. The zikkrurat was clearly funeral in character. Inschuschinak is referred to in texts as the lord of death in the high temple .
The royal palace of the Elamite period could not yet be located with certainty, but it was probably under the palace of Darius I. In the Elamite palace there was also a temple, which was called kumpum kiduya , which means outer chapel . The name alludes to the fact that the temple was not in the sacred precinct on the Acropolis.
Around the palace, but especially in the south and east, are the Ville Royale , the royal city . Here stood the residential buildings of the court officials, some of which had the dimensions of their own small palaces. Some of these houses were equipped with bathrooms and latrines. The development here began around 1700 BC. A.
The artist's fourth valley followed in the far east. which has so far only been insufficiently investigated. Here were the houses and workshops of the working population.
The British William Kennett Loftus was able to identify the place in 1851 as the Susa known from written sources. From 1850 to 1853 he also carried out excavations there. Further investigations were carried out by Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy from 1884 to 1885 , numerous finds from this excavation, including numerous colorful tiles and a bull chapter, ended up in the Louvre. Since 1897 Jacques de Morgan and his assistant Roland de Mecquenem were digging . De Morgan was a trained miner and drove tunnels through the main hills of the ruined city. He thought it pointless to trace brick structures. De Morgan's excavations were extremely successful and yielded numerous finds from all epochs, including many Mesopotamian works of art that were displayed in Susa. Much of the architecture was lost due to the lack of excavation methods. Roland de Mecquenem followed his teacher in Susa and dug here from 1908 to 1946. His methods were similarly problematic, above all he continued to neglect adobe structures, although recording and preservation had now become the norm in other parts of the Middle East. His find yield, however, was enormous.
Large-scale excavations then took place under Roman Ghirshman , who now also systematically documented adobe buildings and was able to present numerous plans. From 1946 to 1967 he excavated an area of about 1 hectare in the Ville Royale . The results provided valuable information on urban planning. In 1966 it reached the lowest layer and thus virgin soil in this excavation area 15 m below the depth.
Due to the size of the debris deposits, the excavations that were carried out too early and the poor documentation that goes with it, it is difficult to reconstruct the individual buildings and the urban development. The area of the Inšušinak sanctuary on the Acropolis was excavated and the richest finds were made there, which can certainly be attributed to the temple, but the architectural remains were often completely ignored during the early excavations by de Morgan.
The oldest layers in particular are sometimes up to 20 meters below today's ground and have only been exposed in a few places. In places over 25 archaeological layers could be distinguished. The younger, upper classes from the Seleucid, Parthian, Sassanid and Islamic periods were often simply cleared away without conscientious documentation, because they were of little interest for earlier and later research.
The prehistoric city
Period Susa I
From approx. 4000 BC A permanent settlement is expected. Corresponding remains of settlements, called Susa IA (or Susa A), were found on the Acropolis and the Apadana. No such early finds have been made in other urban areas. The city on the Acropolis took up an area of about 7 hectares, that in the Apadana of about 6.3 hectares. In the Apadana a massive building could be excavated that might have belonged to a prince.
A massive 1.7 meter high and 7 × 12 meter platform was erected on the Acropolis at about the same time. Around 2000 graves richly decorated with artfully decorated ceramics are said to have been found in and around this platform. The burials were close to you and partly on top of each other. The bodies found themselves stretched out. Several ceramic vessels as gifts were the rule. A total of 55 copper axes and 11 copper disks were also found as additions. Four were pierced and may have been hanging on a chain. The painting of the ceramics, often in geometric shapes, represents the first high point of artistic creation in this area. Various animal figures made of light clay, often decorated with brown spots, also date from this period. In the Susa IB period, another platform, possibly with temples, was built above it. It was about 70 × 65 meters in size, a little over 10 meters high and decorated with ceramic cones.
Ceramic from the Susa I period
Period Susa II
This period lasted from about 3800 to 3100 BC. The city grew to around 25 hectares. In addition to the still built-up districts of the Acropolis and Apadana , a lower town also developed, which served purely for residential purposes. The size of the bricks used has changed and a new style of ceramic appears. This seems to indicate a new cultural phase. During this time, the first unrolling of the seal and clay tablets appear on which numbers are noted. The unwinding of the seal partly show figurative scenes. Strong Mesopotamian influence can be observed, which goes so far that some researchers assume that people immigrated from there to Susa and Elam.
Two archaeological finds from the Acropolis date from this period. The first depot contained 17 statuettes made of different materials and numerous pearls. The second depot contained mainly alabaster vessels, many of them in zoomorphic shapes. The function of these depots is uncertain. However, it has been suggested that they were foundation pits for a past building.
Gallery: Objects from the depots
Susa as the capital of Elam
Period Susa III
This period is around 3000 BC. BC. The city seems to have been partly abandoned. Settlement remains have so far only been found on the Acropolis . The most important finds represent around 1,550 tablets with Proto-Elamite script.
Susa in the first half of the third millennium BC Chr.
At that time there was a temple on the Acropolis . Although no building has survived, statues and decorated stone slabs were found, which may have belonged to the decoration and furnishings of a temple. A hoard of seal impressions dates from this time and a cemetery with hundreds of burials has been excavated in the royal city . The tombs were badly disturbed, but once contained rich additions such as ceramics and weapons. In one grave there were even the remains of a four-wheeled cart. In Susa a particularly large number of chlorite vessels were excavated, which were produced in eastern Iran and exported to Mesopotamia and the entire region of the Persian Gulf. They prove the prosperity of that time.
The Akkadian City and Puzur-Inšušinak
The Susa IV settlement period is divided into two phases: Susa IVA from around 2600 to 2400 BC. And Susa IVB from about 2400 to 2100 BC. Chr. Susa was first under the rule of Elam. From Susa comes a cuneiform tablet naming 12 kings of Awan and 12 kings of Simashki. The eighth king of Awan has a name formed with Susa: Šušun-tarana. His successors Napil-ḫuš and Hišep-Ratep fought against the Akkadians, Sargon and Rimusch. The city became part of the Akkadian Empire at this time . Susa continued to be of great importance, but only a few remains are archaeologically preserved. In the Apadana , only ceramic remains and bronze objects in graves that can be dated to this time were found. On top of the Acropolis was a vaulted building that might have been a granary. Residential buildings and graves have been excavated in the royal city. At that time, the city covered an area of around 46 hectares. The finds, for example the ceramics, but also the representations on the cylinder seals prove Akkadian and Mesopotamian influence. About 60 female clay figures from this period show Mesopotamian influence, but are also Elamite in style. Trade with the Indus culture can be evidenced by an Indus seal and an Indus weight.
After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, Elam and Susa became independent. During this time Puzur-Inšušinak ruled , who is the first better known Elamite ruler. He came from Awan and conquered and freed Susa from Akkadian rule. Various texts have been preserved from him, some of them in Elamite linear script, from which 17 text examples come from Susa, only two more from other places.
Puzur-Inšušinak referred to himself as Ensi von Susa and reported on temple construction work in the city, which, however, has not yet been recorded archaeologically. So he reported on the erection of a statue at the gate of the Inšušinak temple, a staircase and other foundations for this temple and organized a memorial service for a temple of Sugu .
The following period is also difficult to prove archaeologically in the city, as it differs little materially from the previous periods. After all, the excavations revealed numerous cylinder and stamp seals, which obviously can be dated to this period. During the time of the New Sumerian Empire , Susa was part of this Mesopotamian state. King Shulgi built or expanded a temple of Ninhursag . He also built the Inšušinak temple . Again, this is mainly attested by inscriptions. During the reign of Ibbi-Sin , Susa was freed again. In the royal city a house was excavated that belonged to the scribe Igibuni and in which parts of his documents were found.
Objects with the name of Puzur-Inšušinak from Susa, Indus seal
First half of the second millennium
Little is known of this period. The rulers bore the title of Sukkalmah, which means grand vizier , and were in close contact with Mesopotamia. There are some significant architectural remains from the royal city . There was a large house there with several yards. Inscriptions tell of temples that the rulers built, but nothing has survived.
Evidence that Susa traded particularly with Dilmun comes from this period in particular . Four typical Dilmun seals and six other seals, which were obviously copies of Dilmun seals, were found in the city. Finally, there is a clay tablet with a contract stamped with a Dilmun seal. Another text deals with the delivery of silver by people from Dilmun.
Middle Elamite period
The period from around 1500 to 1000 BC Elam is the heyday. With a brief interruption, Susa continued to be the capital of the empire, but again little has been preserved from this period due to the later overbuilding. In the royal city , archaeologists uncovered a large, almost square building, in which around 50 naked female figures were found, which are probably fertility idols.
In turn, temple buildings are known of inscriptions that have so far not been archaeologically comprehensible. Tepti-Ahar , who lived between 1500 and 1400 BC. Ruled, built a building called E.DU.A in Susa, which was dedicated to Inšušinak. Untasch-Napirischa was probably the largest builder in the city, but the evidence of his building activities comes from a later context. An outstanding find and one of the main works of Elamite art is the almost life-size bronze statue of Napirasu, wife of Untash-Napirischa. It was once located in the temple of Ninhursag on the Acropolis. In general, there are various fragments, such as those of statues of Untash-Napirischa, which underline his lively building activity, although he was building a new capital with Tschoga Zanbil . There are also fragments of a reconstructed stele of the king, once about 2.62 meters high, which is divided into 4 registers. It shows the king in the upper part of Inšušinak, who sits on a throne. In the second register you can see three figures, the king, his wife Napirasu and the priestess U-tik, who was perhaps the mother of the ruler. The third register shows two deities and the fourth and final register shows two men with cattle feet and antlers. The four registers are framed by two snakes. The representations are strongly influenced by Mesopotamian models.
Šutruk-Nahhunte II (around 1185–1155 BC) is considered one of the most important rulers of Elam and he seems to have adorned the city with several buildings, for example a columned hall dedicated to Inšušinak. But Šutruk-Nahhunte is mainly known for his campaigns in Mesopotamia, during which he stole numerous monuments and brought them to Susa. These include statues and steles. The Codex Hammurapi , which was found in modern excavations in the city, should be mentioned here. Other important monuments are a statue of Manishtushu , the Narām Sîn stele and various kudurrus (boundary stones).
From Šilhak-Inšušinak (about 1150–1120 BC) comes an inscription on the building that lists all those predecessors of his family who had built the temple of Inšušinak. The actual temple from that time has not been preserved. This ruler first used glazed tiles, which were first used under his father Šutruk-Naḫḫunte II. Two depots with numerous objects, such as jewelry and figurines, are dated to this period. A bronze plate on which sacrificial figures are reproduced also comes from this ruler. It comes from the area of the Ninhursag temple on the Acropolis. Next to the figures you can see two structures that are reminiscent of ziggurats, perhaps depicting the temples of Ninhursag and Inšušinak and could prove that these buildings were ziggurats.
There are shaped bricks from a building of this ruler, the fronts of which have a relief depicting large standing figures. It is a mythical creature with the body of a bull and the head of a human. The figure stands in front of a palm tree. The actual building, to which these reliefs once belonged, can no longer be reconstructed, but probably stood on the Apadana , where the bricks were found in a severely disturbed context. There are inscriptions on the bricks describing the renovation and building of a sanctuary. Accordingly, the bricks come from the kumpum kiduya , the outer chapel , which probably stood on the Apadana .
Two hoard finds from the area of the Inšušinak temple date back to this time and were found by de Mecquenem in 1904. The first hoard was found in a small brick box (1.5 × 1.2 m) and contained pearls, undecorated cylinder seals, metal waste, but also several dozen copper statues. The second find was found on February 22, 1904 on a small (96 × 64 cm) platform and contained two small statues, one made of gold, the other made of silver, and various animal figures made of various materials. Bones of lame or goats were found with the objects. The hoard was located below the floor level just in front of the ziggurat. The excavator initially suspected that it was a founding addition of a building, but later changed his mind and saw the remains of grave goods from an otherwise robbed royal raven. More recent considerations indicate that there is no reliable evidence of tombs from this time in this part of the city and rather suspect that they are objects from a royal shrine.
Gallery: Objects from the second hoard
Numerous tombs also date from the Middle Elamite period. These are often chambers with a vault in which several corpses were usually found. A special custom of this time is the addition of unfired, life-size clay heads. They were once painted and may have been made at the time of the dead. Their function is unknown. Not all burials were equipped with such heads. The exits are mostly made of terracotta and bitumen and are often the only remaining part.
Gallery: clay heads from burials
There is also hardly any archaeological evidence of the New Elamite period. Most of the time, layers with mud brick walls that could hardly be reconstructed into floor plans were found. In any case, the ceramics indicate a cultural continuity to the previous Middle Elamite period. Significant buildings are often only known from brick inscriptions. From Šutruk-Nahhunte III. After all, there is a small, square temple decorated with glazed bricks. This decoration shows griffins, lions, horses and other real or fantasy animals.
Around 647 BC The city was captured, looted and destroyed by Assurbanipal . The sack of the city is described in his annals. Accordingly, he penetrated the palaces of the city and took the treasures there to Assyria . The ziggurat of Susa, which has not yet been proven archaeologically, was destroyed. It is explicitly mentioned that their decoration was stolen from bronze horns. The tombs of the Elamite rulers were opened, looted and their bones brought to Assyria. The looting of the city is said to have lasted a month and 25 days.
After the conquest by the Assyrians, the city was quickly repopulated and continued to be an important center. Written sources on the history of the city are missing, however, so that practically nothing can be said about its exact meaning. During excavations, an archive with 298 documents of an economic nature was found.
After the victory over the Assyrian army, the first Neo-Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar (626–605 BC) is said to have returned the statues of gods that the Assyrians had brought to Uruk back to Susa. Inscribed bricks from Nabu-kudurri-usur II have been preserved, which perhaps indicate construction, or at least renovation, work on temples. In Susa itself, texts have been found that may suggest that Elam was independent again for a period of time. A ruler named Hallutaš-Inšušinak is known of the bricks that tell of the rebuilding of the Inšušinak temple.
Achaemenid Empire: capital of a great empire
The Susa of the Achaemenid Empire is better known than the city of the other epochs. The city was expanded to become one of the imperial royal cities. Some of the royal palaces have been well researched. The residential quarters of the common population, however, have not yet been found. In many places in the city there are no Achaemenid remains or they have not yet been recognized. Compared to other Persian royal cities, there are only a few cuneiform texts. The biblical book of Esther takes place for the most part in the Susa of the time of Xerxes I (reigned 486–465 BC). In the case of the Greek historian Herodotus , it is even the only Persian residence that is mentioned. The palace in Susa is also the setting of Aeschylus The Persians , the oldest surviving tragedy of all. 36 Achaemenid, royal inscriptions are known from Susa so far. 24 of them belong to Darius I (ruled 522–486 BC), five inscriptions each come from Xerxes I and Artaxerxes II (ruled 404–359 / 58 BC) and two from Darius II ( ruled 424–404 BC).
During this time, a large palace for Darius I was built on the Apadana . It was primarily this ruler who significantly rebuilt and expanded the city. Parts of the population may have been relocated to the east and north, to the so-called artists' quarter. A fortress now stood on the Acropolis . The royal city was surrounded at that time by a wall that was at the base nearly 20 feet wide and 10 to 12 meters high.
The palace of Dareios I is certainly the most important building that can still be seen in the city. The building of the palace is described in inscriptions. For the construction came cedar from Lebanon , other types of wood from India , gold from Sardis and Bactria . The stones for the pillars of the palace were broken near the city. The craftsmen for this construction came from many parts of the empire. The building itself consisted of a series of courtyards. In the east there was a large gateway and in the north there was the Apadana , the portico that gave the whole quarter its name. The building was richly decorated with tiles in relief. Many inscriptions by Darius I, mostly in Old Persian , but also in Elamite or Babylonian , were found in the palace but also in the city.
Besides this palace there were other such structures. In the west of the city, beyond the Schaur, an Achaemenid palace building has been partially excavated. In this area, during modern construction work in 1969, the remains of another columned hall were discovered, which is assigned to Artaxerxes II. Several inscriptions found there name him. However, the building is poorly preserved. There was a large portico to the west. To the east of this there was a large courtyard, on the north side of which the foundations of another part of the building were excavated. Other buildings are grouped around the courtyard, but have so far only been little investigated. The large pillared hall (37.5 × 34.6 m) in the west of the palace once had 64 columns made of gray limestone, the bases of which are still partially preserved. The palace was partially decorated with stone reliefs and several thousand faience tiles and remains of wall paintings were found. The latter are the best examples of Achaemenid painting so far. Other buildings in the city come from Xerxes I and Darius II, but are only known from inscriptions. The buildings may have fallen victim to later constructions.
Finally, in the very south of the city, a large, palatial building was excavated. Its dating is controversial, but Achaemenid ivory work, which was probably inlays in furniture, was found there. Even if the excavated building should perhaps be dated to a later time, these inlays point to important buildings as early as the Achaemenid period. The Acropolis tomb dates from the end of the Achaemenid period and contained numerous golden ornaments.
Gallery: Susa at the time of the Achaemenid Empire
Greeks, Parthians and Sassanids
The Seleucid city
Alexander the Great conquered the city during his campaign in the Orient. Here he met Nearchus , who had explored the Persian Gulf by sea. Alexander the Great celebrated the mass wedding between Greeks and Persians in Susa . Under the Seleucids , Susa became a Greek colony as "Seleukia am Eulaios" and thus had the status of a polis . Seleucus I began minting coins there, although it appears that the number of coins issued in the city was not very large. Susa is rich in Greek inscriptions, which perhaps indicates a significant number of Greeks living in the city. In the royal city in particular , large, richly furnished peristyle houses were excavated. There are numerous terracottas and seal impressions in a completely Hellenistic style among small finds . The inscriptions attest to Greek institutions such as a gymnasium and a stadium .
The Greek inscriptions also shed light on the city's religious life. The main goddess of the city was now Nanaya , who is equated with Artemis in a different context . The goddess had an important temple, which has not survived, but inscribed blocks of which have been reused in Sassanid buildings. It is not known whether the old temple of Inšušinak was still standing and in use at that time. After all, there is a text from Uruk that can be dated to the Seleucid period and that reports that ancient writings were copied in Elam and brought to Uruk. Although Susa is not named, it can be assumed that these writings were stored in Susa and that Elamite cults continued there.
The Parthian city
Around 147 BC BC Susa and the adjacent Elymais fell from the Seleucid Empire. The city was ruled at least temporarily by the rulers of the Elymais. Kamnaskires II. Nikephorus minted coins there. The city came under Seleucid rule again for a short time, but starting with Phraates II. (Approx. 138–127 BC) to Gotarzes II. (Approx. 40–51 AD), almost all Parthian rulers minted coins in the City that was firmly in the hands of the Arsacids , at least during this period . The city was administered at this time by a stratíarchos (στρατίαρχος general), a general. A certain Zamaspes is known by name thanks to an inscription, as is a Tiridates; they are mostly thought to be the representatives of the Parthian king in Susa. Under Phraates IV. The city was around 30 BC. Chr. Most probably even renamed Phraata (or Phraata in Susa) . From the middle of the first century it was probably ruled temporarily again by rulers of the Elymais. In 116 the Roman Emperor Trajan conquered the city during his Parthian campaign. But it only remained under Roman administration for a very short time.
The Greek inscriptions show that the city continued to exist as a Greek polis with Greek institutions and administration until at least the first half of the first century AD. The inscribed copy of a letter from King Artabanos II should be mentioned here (IGIAC 3), which is dated to the year 21 AD and which attests to Phraata-Susa archons, i.e. Greek officials.
During the Parthian period, Susa gradually lost its function as an important international trading city, which has now been taken over by the Charakene communities . Even so, Susa remained the center of an agriculturally important region and a prosperous city. A stele dated to the year 215 AD dates from the end of Parthian rule and shows the governor of Susa, Chwasak , standing before Artabanos IV and receiving the ring of power from him .
The Parthian layers in particular are particularly extensive and also provide archaeological evidence that the city flourished. In the royal city , spacious city villas could be excavated. Among other things, the burial vaults of the inhabitants were found on buildings. Numerous terracottas in both Greek and Parthian styles as well as bone figures of women are to be mentioned. There are also examples of Parthian sculpture. Outstanding is a woman's head dated to the second century AD, which is strongly influenced by the Greek sculpture of Hellenism . A sculptor with the Macedonian name Antiochus , son of Dryas, signed the work.
The Sassanid city
Susa was conquered and destroyed by the Sassanid Ardaschir I in 224 , but was immediately rebuilt and perhaps even a royal residence for a time. According to a later tradition, Shapur I is said to have spent his old age in the city, although this tradition is uncertain and perhaps relates more to Shapur II . Susa became a trading center especially in the gold trade. Coins continued to be minted in the city.
In Sassanid times the area around Susa was called Chusistan and was still very important economically. In 339, the city of Susa was destroyed again by Shapur II with 300 elephants and rebuilt. This renewed destruction is perhaps linked to a revolt by Christians and their pro-Roman tendencies. The city had a Christian community in a separate district. Susa had a Nestorian bishop early on , whose last representative is attested in 1265. There is also archaeological evidence of Christianity in the city. Among other things, a plasterboard with the image of a Christian saint was found. It is reported that weavers for silk brocade were settled there.
Under the Sassanids, the newly founded Gundischapur Susa slowly overtook the rank of capital of Chusistan. Archaeologically it can be established that the strata of the Sassanid city are less high compared to the Parthian period, but there were still important buildings and Susa certainly continued to be a regional center. With over 400 hectares, Susa reached its greatest extent. The smaller layers and the greater extent may indicate an overall loose development. There are two substantial coin hoards from this period, one of them with 1,171 coins. Excavations resulted in partly richly furnished houses, one of them decorated with figural wall paintings, which among other things show a rider. The palace on the Apadana has obviously been overbuilt. Many terracottas also come from the Sassanid city.
The Islamic city
In 639, Susa was destroyed during the Arab conquest of Iran, but recovered from this blow. The Islamic city was also a regional center, which with over 400 hectares still had considerable dimensions. The first mosque was built, but Nestorian bishops are still attested, and there was also a Jewish community with its own synagogue . The grave of Daniel (cf. Dan 8,1 EU ) was located in the city, which became a pilgrimage center and is still today. However, several other places also claim to be Daniel's tomb.
The city continued to be a luxury fabric manufacturing center during this period. Susa was destroyed by the Mongols around 1259 and could never regain its old meaning afterwards. Archaeologically, the Islamic period is primarily characterized by its rich pottery . Today the place is a small local center with the name Schusch and about 60,000 inhabitants.
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- François Fallon: The "Trouvaille des statuette d'or" from the Inshushinak Temple Precint , in: Harper, Aruz, Tallon (ed.), THe Royal City of Susa , pp. 145-146.
- Agnès Spycket: Funerary Heads , Harper, Aruz, Tallon (ed.), THe Royal City of Susa , pp 135-136.
- M. Streck: Assurbanipal and the last Assyrian kings until the fall of Nineveh, Volume 1, Leipzig 1916, p. 57
- Potts: Elam, pp. 297-302.
- F.-W. König: The castle building at Susa according to the building report of King Dareios I, Leipzig 1930
- Albert Hesse: Electrical resistivity survey of the Shaur Palace , in: Jean Perrot (ed.): The Palace of Darius at Susa , New Yoek 2013, ISBN 978-1-84885-621-9 , pp. 374-403
- Potts: Elam, pp. 325-337.
- Martinez-Sève: Les figurines de Suse, p. 798, pl. III.
- JB Pritchard: Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton 1969, p. 345; see. also in general Potts: Elam, pp. 358–371 (translation of all Greek inscriptions from the city).
- Potts: Elam, p. 396.
- Potts: Elam, p. 397
- Martinez-Sève: Les figurines de Suse, pp. 799-800, pls. IV-V.
- Potts: Elam, pp. 391-401.
- It remains uncertain whether the city received the new name Eran-Xwarrah-Schapur-Scharestan: Potts: Elam, p. 425 brings arguments against it, while G. Gropp in the Encyclopædia Iranica speaks out in favor of it, see web links.
- Shown in: Potts: Elam, p. 429, pl. 11.2.
- Amiet: Suse. 6000 ans d'histoire.
- Potts: Elam, pp. 93-97; Plan of part of the residential buildings in: Martinez-Sève: Les figurines de Suse, p. 801, pls. VI; R. Boucharlat: Suse à l'époque sasanide. Une capitale prestigieuse devenue ville de province. In: Mesopotamia 22, 1987, pp. 357-366.
- Martinez-Sève: Les figurines de Suse.
- Amiet: Suse. 6000 ans d'histoire
- Pierre Amiet: Suse. 6000 ans d'histoire. Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 1988.
- Prudence O. Harper, Joan Aruz, Françoise Tallon (eds.): Musée du Louvre. The royal city of Susa. Ancient Near Eastern treasures in the Louvre. New York 1993.
- Prudence O. Harper, Joan Aruz, Françoise Tallon (eds.): La Cité royale de Suse. Trésors du Proche-Orient ancien au Louvre. Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 1994 (exhibition catalog).
- Prudence O. Harper, Joan Aruz, Françoise Tallon (eds.), THe Royal City of Susa , New York 1992, ISBN 0870996517 (exhibition catalog).
- Daniel T. Potts: The Archeology of Elam. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999, ISBN 0-521-56358-5 .
- François Vallat: Suse et l'Elam, Paris 1980
Although numerous excavation reports have appeared so far, many excavations have not yet been published or only partially published. In particular, the architecture found was often only presented in brief preliminary reports and plans.
- Pierre Amiet: Glyptique susienne des origines à l'époque des Perses achéménides: cachets, sceaux-cylindres et empreintes antiques découverts à Suse de 1913 à 1967, Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique en Iran, Paris 1972
- Roman Ghirshman: Cinq campagnes de fouilles a Suse (1946-1951). In: Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie Orientale 46, 1952, pp. 1-18.
- Florence Malbran-Labat: Les inscriptions royales de Suse: briques de l'époque paleo-élamite à l'empire neo-élamite, Paris 1995
- Laurianne Martinez-Sève: Les figurines de Suse. Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-7118-4324-6 .
- Jacques de Morgan, G. Jéquier, G. Lampre: Fouilles à Suse en 1897–1898 et 1898–1899. Paris 1900.
- Georges Le Rider : Suse sous les Séleucides et les Parthes: les trouvailles monétaires et l'histoire de la ville, Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran, Paris 1965
- Vincent Scheil: Inscriptions des Achéménides à Suse. Actes juridiques susiens , Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique de Perse, Vols. 21–24, Paris 1929–1933
- Agnès Spycket: Les figurines de Suse, Paris 1992
- Marie-Joseph Steve, Hermann Gasche: L'Acropole de Suse. Nouvelles fouilles (rapport préliminaire), Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique de Perse vol. 46, Leiden 1971
- Martinez-Seve: La ville de Suse à l'époque hellénistique PDF-file
- Photos of Susa (English)
- Information about Susa (English)
- Archaeological Discoveries at Susa
- Susa (Persia) . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica (English, including references) [Susa - excavations]
- Susa (Persia) . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica (English, including references) [Susa in the kingdom of Elam]
- Susa (Persia) . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica (English, incl. Literature references) [Susa in the Persian Empire]
- Susa (Persia) . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica (English, including references) [Susa in the Sassanid Empire]