Geographically, northern Italy extends from the coast of the Adriatic in the east over the plains of the Po , in the north and west up the Alps mostly to the main Alpine ridge and in the south into the Apennines . It borders France in the west, Switzerland and Austria in the north, Slovenia in the east , and San Marino in the south-east with northern Italy.
Northern Italy comprises three landscape areas
- the Italian Alps , that is Italy's parts of the Western Alps and the Southern Alps , including the Ligurian coast (Riviera)
- the northern Italian lowlands , which largely includes the Po plain (Pianura padana), and in the east the coastal plains of the Veneto , Friuli and Romagna on the Upper Adriatic (southern Alpine foothills and northern Apennine foothills)
- the Apennine north capping , which includes parts of the Ligurian Apennines (Appennino ligure) and Tuscan-Emilian Apennines (Appennino tosco-emiliano)
The expression Upper Italy can also refer to the Alpine region, to which Mont Blanc on the French border belongs, but the lowlands, as the largest lowlands in Italy and southern Europe, take up half the area of northern Italy. As with the expression “Upper Adriatic” , this primarily means “north”.
Official statistics divide northern Italy into the two macro-regions of Northwest Italy and Northeast Italy .
Northwest Italy (Nord-Ovest) , NUTS code
NO: Aosta Valley , Piedmont , Lombardy , Liguria
Northeast Italy (Nord-Est) , NUTS code
NE: Friuli-Venezia Giulia , Veneto , Trentino-South Tyrol , Emilia-Romagna
History and economy
In ancient times there was hardly any Greek colonization in northern Italy, unlike in southern Italy . For the Roman Empire , Northern Italy was initially Gallia cisalpina . Since the Middle Ages , northern Italy has been shaped by remarkable trading cities, which, based on the Veronese League , united in the Lombard League against Emperor Barbarossa . At that time, some fundamentals of business administration and banking, such as double-entry bookkeeping, were created in northern Italy .
The Greater Region is considered to be the heart of the Italian economy . Around 2010, however, there was no borderline between northern Italy and central Italy in terms of gross domestic product per capita , but greater differences between regions in northern Italy than in central and southern Italy.
In particular, the disputes about the autonomy of South Tyrol , the terrorist attacks of the Liberation Committee South Tyrol , as well as separatist efforts up to the present day, in addition in the cultural area neo-Nazi bands like Kaiserjäger and band foundations with former Kaiserjäger members like Frei.Wild and Inviolable ensure regular reporting in German-language media.