Location and catchment area of the river Po
|source||Pian del Re on Monte Viso
Adria bei Adria (Veneto)
|Height difference||2022 m|
|Bottom slope||3.1 ‰|
|Catchment area||75,000 km²|
||1540 m³ / s
|Left tributaries||Dora Baltea , Ticino , Adda , Oglio , Mincio|
|Big cities||Turin , Piacenza , Ferrara|
|Medium-sized cities||Moncalieri , Chivasso , Casale Monferrato , Valenza , Cremona|
|Ports||Cremona , Ferrara|
|Navigable||From the estuary to the Ticino (389 km);
commercially driven to Cremona (292 km)
The Po south of Mantua to the east
Historical map of the Po delta from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888
The river Po [pɔ] (Latin Padus , German also outdated: path , from mhd. Phât or Pfât) rises in the Cottian Alps in the Valle Po , located on the Italian- French border, and flows into the Adriatic near the Adriatic Sea (Veneto) . With a length of 652 km it is the longest river in Italy . The catchment area covers an area of around 75,000 km².
For a long time the river flows through the Po Valley ( Pianura Padana in Italian ), the most important agricultural and industrial region in Italy. In 1852, the Po shipping was taken over by Österreichischer Lloyd and reorganized.
The Po has an extensive delta of around 380 km², the area of which is constantly increasing. Five of the most important arms are Po di Maestra, Po della Pila, Po delle Tolle, Po della Donzella and Po di Goro . In the delta, a natural park has been set up, the Regional Park del Delta del Po .
Although the river is navigable from the confluence of the Ticino near Pavia to the Adriatic Sea, the lock above Cremona will be replaced by a new one (status: 2018). In antiquity, Polybios (2. 16. 6–12) and Pliny the Elder ( nat. Hist. 3. 123) - the latter indicates Augusta Taurinorum - indicate different places from which the Po was used by ships. Sidonius in turn reports that in Brescello the navicularii from Cremona were replaced by carriers from Emilia. Milan was linked to the Po via the Lambro . The Ostigoth king Theodoric had a pier set up in Ostiglia , as Cassius Dio (Var. 2, 31) reports.
In February 2010, the river was polluted by an oil spill when more than 2500 cubic meters of crude oil were deliberately discharged into the tributary Lambro from a disused refinery.
In Roman times the river was named Padus and gave its name to the division of Gallia cisalpina into the regions Gallia cispadana ("Gaul this side of the Po", roughly equivalent to today's Emilia ) and Gallia transpadana ("Gaul beyond the Po"). Up to the confluence of the Tanarus (today the Tanaro), the upper course bore the name Bodincus , the "groundless" , until the beginning of the imperial era .
In the 10th century, the river bore the Latin name Eridanus (Greek Ηρίδανος Eridanos ). The Cremonese bishop Liutprand (962–970 / 972) answered in his legation report Liutprandi Legatio the question of the Byzantine emperor Nikephorus II Phocas , where is the city in which he is bishop: “ Cremona , I say, (is) Eridanus , the king of the rivers of Italy. "(Lat. original text: " Cremona, inquam, Eridano fluviorum Italiae regi satis vicina. " )
Tributaries, cities and regions
The Po has a total of 141 tributaries.
This illustration shows the regions through which the Po flows, the most important tributaries and the most important cities (highlighted in dark).
|Stura di Lanzo|
|Po di Goro|
|V||Po di Levante|
|Po della Donzella||n|
|z||Po di Maistra|
|Po delle Tolle||a||Po della Pila|
- Giovanna Cera: Roman-era berths and ports for inland navigation in northern Italy , in: Gianni Ciurletti, Nicoletta Pisu (ed.): I territori della Via Claudia Augusta. Incontri di archeologia , Trient 2005, pp. 425-442.
- Paolo Rumiz : The soul of the river. On the Po through an unknown Italy. From the Ital. by Karin Fleischanderl. Vienna / Bozen: Folio Verlag 2018.
- Christina Wawrzinek: In portum navigare. Roman ports on rivers and lakes , Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 446.
- Christina Wawrzinek: In portum navigare. Roman ports on rivers and lakes , Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 409.
- Christina Wawrzinek: In portum navigare. Roman ports on rivers and lakes , Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 427.
- Liutprand of Cremona: The embassy to Emperor Nikephoros Phokas in Constantinople , in: Albert Bauer (edit.): Sources for the history of the Saxon imperial period. 5th edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2002, ISBN 3-534-01416-2