# Bottom slope

Bottom slope is the slope of the river or valley floor along the entire course of the river or part of it. The calculation takes place by dividing the height difference between the source and the mouth or the beginning and the end of the section by the length of the river . Usually the value is then converted into per mille or percent .

${\ displaystyle {\ frac {{\ text {Source height}} - {\ text {mouth height}}} {\ text {river length}}} \ cdot 100 \%}$

In the case of aqueducts or the construction of sewage or irrigation canals, a sufficient bottom slope is necessary to ensure a sufficient volume flow .

## Individual evidence

1. ↑ Bottom slope . ( Spektrum.de [accessed on May 12, 2018]).
2. Hydraulic calculation of sewers for circular profiles and egg profiles. Berliner Wasserbetriebe, accessed on May 12, 2018 .
3. Hydraulic engineering. Retrieved May 12, 2018 .