Friuli Venezia Giulia

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Friuli Venezia Giulia
Flag of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region

Coat of arms of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region
Sardinien Autonome Region Sizilien Kalabrien Kampanien Basilikata Molise Apulien Abruzzen Latium Marken Umbrien Toskana Ligurien Aostatal Piemont Lombardei Venetien Emilia-Romagna Trentino-Südtirol Friaul-Julisch Venetien San Marino Vatikanstadt Algerien Tunesien Malta Montenegro Bosnien und Herzegowina Kroatien Slowenien Ungarn Schweiz Österreich Schweiz Monaco Frankreich Frankreich FrankreichMap of Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia highlighted
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Basic data
Capital Trieste
Official languages Italian; German , Furlan and Slovenian are recognized minority languages.
Provinces no
surface 7,856.48 km² ( 17. )
Residents 1,211,357 (Dec 31, 2019)
Population density 154 inhabitants / km²
ISO 3166-2 IT-36
president Massimiliano Fedriga ( LN )

Relief map of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region

Friuli-Venezia Giulia , Italian officially Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia , Furlanisch Friûl Vignesie Julie , Slovenian Furlanija Julijska krajina , is an autonomous region in the extreme northeast of Italy . Friuli-Venezia Giulia has an area of ​​7856 km² and 1,211,357 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). The capital of the region is Trieste .


The Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia is made up of the regions of Friuli (over 90% of the total area of ​​the region) and the part of Venezia Giulia that remained with Italy .

The area called Julian Venetia in the period between the First and Second World War also extended to the entire peninsula of Istria and parts of Dalmatia , which were added to Yugoslavia after the Second World War.

While Friuli is characterized by the Furlanic language and culture, Venetian influences are predominant in Julisch Veneto in the interwar period. The ethnic Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli , an Austrian citizen from Gorizia , named the region of Venezia Giulia because of these influences, which can be traced back to the centuries-long affiliation, especially of the coastal strip to the Republic of Venice . However, Friuli belonged to the Republic of Venice for a long time (as Ducato di Friuli), but never the former province of Trieste , because the imperial city of Trieste and its land belonged to the Habsburgs in 1382 in order to prevent an annexation by Venice. Tarvisio was also never Venetian, it was owned by the diocese of Bamberg and culturally belonged to the German- Slovenian mixed area of Carinthia until the early 20th century .

The autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia lies on the Adriatic Sea and borders Carinthia (Austria) in the north, Slovenia in the east and Veneto in the west . The area is characterized by mountain landscapes - Friulian Dolomites , Carnic Alps , Julian Alps - (42.5%), another 19.3% of the area is hilly ( Collio area), the Po Valley extends over the remaining 38.1% . The most important rivers are the Tagliamento and the Isonzo , on whose course twelve Isonzo battles were fought during the First World War .

Administrative division

Current administrative structure in Unioni territoriale intercommunali; City names red
The provinces only survive as statistical units

The regional area is divided into 18 municipal associations, called Unioni Territoriali Intercomunali (UTI for short) and 215 municipalities .

The provinces of Gorizia (GO), Pordenone (PN), Trieste (TS) and Udine (UD) were abolished as independent local authorities as part of a reform (2016). They continue to exist as a district of decentralized state administrations (e.g. prefecture - district office of the government ) or as statistical units. The areas of the statistical provinces of Pordenone and Udine as well as a small part of the province of Gorizia form Friuli , the majority of the province of Gorizia and the province of Trieste form the part of Venezia Giulia , which is still Italian today .

Community association Capital Communities Population
(December 31, 2019)
Area (km²) Population
density (inh / km²)
Giuliana Trieste 6th 232.601 212.5 1095
Carso Isonzo Adriatico Monfalcone 10 72,499 264.8 274
Collio - Alto Isonzo Gorizia 15th 67,644 202.3 334
Canal del Ferro - Val Canale Tarvisio 8th 11,164 885.0 13
Del Gemonese Gemona del Friuli 6th
Della Carnia Tolmezzo 28
Del Friuli Centrale Udine 11 170.123 274.1 621
Del Torre Tarcento 9
Mediofriuli Codroipo 11
Collinare San Daniele del Friuli 15th
Del Natisone Cividale del Friuli 17th 51,281 552.6 93
Riviera - Bassa Friulana Latisana 12 56,332 438.4 128
Agro Aquileiese Cervignano del Friuli 17th
Del Tagliamento San Vito al Tagliamento 9
Delle Valli e delle Dolomiti Friulane Maniago 22nd 36,033 1,148.1 31
Livenza - Cansiglio - Cavallo Sacile 6th
Sile e Meduna Azzano Decimo 6th
Del Noncello Pordenone 7th 114.046 283.6 402
Friuli Venezia Giulia Trieste 215 1,211,357 7,856.5 154

The largest municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants are listed below (source Istat, December 31, 2013).

local community Residents former province
Trieste 204,849 TS
Udine 99,528 UD
Pordenone 51,758 PN
Gorizia 35,349 GO
Monfalcone 27,843 GO
Sacile 20,140 PN
Cordenons 18.304 PN
Codroipo 15,995 UD
Azzano Decimo 15,698 PN
Porcia 15,370 PN
San Vito al Tagliamento 15,132 PN
Tavagnacco 14,762 UD
Latisana 13,854 UD
Cervignano del Friuli 13,853 UD
Muggia 13,363 TS
Spilimbergo 12,048 PN
Ronchi dei Legionari 11,980 GO
Fontanafredda 11,930 PN
Maniago 11,885 PN
Fiume Veneto 11,701 PN
Cividale del Friuli 11,413 UD
Gemona del Friuli 11,135 UD
Tolmezzo 10,580 UD


Friuli was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy as part of Veneto after the Third War of Independence in 1866 . Because Prussia, allied with Italy , had defeated Austria in the Battle of Königgrätz , Austria had to cede Veneto with Friuli to France. France, which played a mediating role - albeit not necessarily neutral, but rather sympathizing with the emerging unified state - then passed it on to Italy.

The Austrian coastal country renamed Julisch Venetien (in particular the port city of Trieste with the Istrian peninsula ) as well as Zara and some islands of Dalmatia , Austria had to cede to Italy as a result of the First World War in accordance with the Treaty of Saint-Germain . In 1924 Fiume (Croatian Rijeka ) also became Italian.

The agreement concluded on October 21, 1939 between Hitler and Mussolini for the resettlement of the German minorities in northern Italy affected the inhabitants of the Canal Valley , Sauris and Timau as well as the South Tyroleans . However, the course of the war hampered resettlement and many emigrated Optanten returned to their home villages afterwards.

After the defeat of Italy in the Second World War, the Italian affiliation of Friuli was not questioned, but that of Venezia Giulia was. Much of Istria was immediately assigned to Yugoslavia, as a result of which up to 350,000 Italians were expelled. Many fell victim to the Foibe massacres during and after the war .

The fate of Trieste turned out to be more complicated. On February 10, 1947, the peace treaty with the Allies was signed in Paris , which provided for the establishment of the Free Territory of Trieste under the protection of the United Nations . The territory should be divided into two zones:

  • Zone A in the north with an area of ​​222.5 km² and 262,000 inhabitants mainly comprised Trieste and was occupied by British and US soldiers.
  • Zone B with an area of ​​515.5 km² and 71,000 inhabitants comprised the north-west of Istria and was occupied by the Yugoslav People's Army.

The Free Territory of Trieste was formally created on September 15, 1947, the day the peace treaty entered into force. After the Allies were unable to agree on the nomination of a governor in the UN Security Council, even seven years after the establishment of the territory , and the internal zoning of the territory increasingly solidified against the backdrop of the Cold War , the attempt to establish a neutral, multiethnic one became apparent To create the Free State of Trieste. Without a common governor, a uniform administration that was independent of the occupying powers could not be established. The Allies finally recognized this too - they ended the Trieste experiment.

On October 5, 1954, the governments of Italy , Great Britain, the USA and Yugoslavia signed the London Memorandum , with which the civil administration in Zone A was "provisionally" transferred to Italy and in Zone B to Yugoslavia (with only minor border changes). Italy assured the continued existence of Trieste as a free port in accordance with the provisions of the peace treaty. The memorandum was also adopted by the UN Security Council. With the handover of the administration in Zone A to Italy by the Allied Military Government on October 26, 1954, the Free Territory of Trieste ceased to exist. The area of ​​the former Free Territory of Trieste was not finally divided between Italy and Yugoslavia until November 10, 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo .

The Friuli-Venezia Giulia region was finally created in 1963 and, like Trentino-South Tyrol, was given a special statute in order to guarantee the protection of the Slovenian minority in particular and to promote the economic development of an area which at that time was on the border of the Iron Curtain found. Trieste was chosen as the regional capital, which was received with displeasure by the Furlan population. The government in Rome wanted to restore the city, which had been in crisis since the end of the First World War, to its old splendor. In fact, Trieste is now one of the Italian cities with the highest quality of life.

Friuli was shaken in 1976 by a severe earthquake that was felt across northern Italy and neighboring Yugoslavia. The disaster occurred on the evening of May 6th and mainly hit the area north of Udine. 965 people lost their lives and more than 45,000 became homeless.

Population and language

Italian is the official language in the region and is spoken by the entire population as a mother tongue or as a second language.

The four regional languages ​​at the seat of the regional council in Trieste

According to State Law 482/99, German , Furlan and Slovene are recognized as protected minority languages.


Traffic signs in Italian, Furlan, German and Slovenian

In addition to Italian, a large part of the population also speaks Friulian (or Furlanic), which is a recognized and promoted language that has been included as a regular subject in the curricula of the schools in Friuli. The students can, however, forego the lessons when registering. 61% of the students in the former province of Udine, 46% in the former province of Gorizia and 30% in the former province of Pordenone have chosen to take classes. In many places the place names are also signposted in two languages. This takes into account the fact that there are over 600,000 Friulian native speakers, the majority of whom are located in the former province of Udine.


An East Tyrolean dialect is spoken in Sauris / Zahre, while Carinthian dialects can be found in the Canal Valley , in the Timau / Tischelwang district of the municipality of Paluzza , in Tarvisio / Tarvis, in Malborghetto Valbruna / Malborgeth-Wolfsbach and in Pontebba / Pontafel . There are an estimated 2500 German speakers in the entire region. They thus form the smallest minority and enjoy very modest rights compared to the other language groups.


Slovenian is spoken in the Channel Valley, in the Beneška Slovenija (it. Slavia veneta), in the Collio area , in the Görzer Karst , in some municipalities of the Bisiacaria and in the Résia Valley . 61,000 inhabitants, which corresponds to around 5% of the regional population, are Slovenian native speakers.

In the former provinces of Trieste and Gorizia in particular, but also in the former province of Udine, teaching in the mother tongue is guaranteed: As in South Tyrol, the Abitur examination is taken in one's own mother tongue and is equivalent to the Italian qualification. Around 4,000 students are enrolled in schools where the language of instruction is Slovene. The language group also has access to the RAI station Trieste, the daily Primorski dnevnik and several weekly magazines. In dealing with the public administration, the protection of minorities has also been implemented, above all in Trieste and Gorizia, and in part also in Udine.

Bilingual identity card
Bilingual traffic signs
Bilingual office in Trieste

The Slovenes are recognized as a minority in the following communities:

local community former province
Attimis UD
Cividale del Friuli UD
Cormons GO
Doberdò del Lago GO
Drenchia UD
Duino-Aurisina TS
Faedis * UD
Gorizia GO
Grimacco UD
Lusevera UD
Malborghetto Valbruna UD
Monfalcone GO
Monrupino TS
Muggia TS
Nimis ** UD
Prepotto UD
Pulfero UD
Resia UD
Ronchi dei Legionari GO
San Floriano del Collio GO
Sagrado GO
San Dorligo della Valle TS
San Leonardo UD
San Pietro al Natisone UD
Savogna di Cividale UD
Savogna d'Isonzo GO
Sgonico TS
Stregna UD
Taipana UD
Tarvisio UD
Torreano UD
Trieste TS
* Only in the following districts: Canebola, Valle, Clap, Costalunga,
Costapiana, Pedrosa, Stremiz and Gradischiutta

** Only in the Cergneu district


On the border with Veneto, especially in the former province of Pordenone, along the coast (including in Grado , Marano Lagunare and Muggia ) and in the capital Trieste, Venetian dialects are spoken. The region has recently tried to preserve these dialects.

Autonomy and politics

Because of the then isolated position on the border to socialist Yugoslavia, but also because of the linguistic diversity, the region was granted a certain autonomy. Friuli Venezia Giulia is entitled to 60% of the taxes collected in the regional area.

The center-left government under the entrepreneur Riccardo Illy endeavored to underpin the role of Furlan and to anchor official recognition of the three national languages ​​Furlan, Slovenian and German in the regional constitution. After the regional elections on April 13 and 14, 2008, the center-right coalition led by Renzo Tondo was able to recapture the regional government. In the elections on April 21 and 22, 2013, Tondo was defeated by the Partito Democratico candidate Debora Serracchiani . In the election on April 29, 2018, the center-right coalition led by the candidate of the Lega Massimiliano Fedriga prevailed again.

President of Friuli Venezia Giulia
Term of office president Political party
1964-1973 Alfredo Berzanti DC
1973-1984 Antonio Comelli DC
1984-1991 Adriano Biasutti DC
1992-1993 Vinicio Turello DC
1993-1994 Pietro Fontanini LN
1994 Renzo Travanut PDS
1994-1995 Alessandra Guerra LN
1995-1996 Sergio Cecotti LN
1996-1998 Giancarlo Cruder UDC
1998-2001 Roberto Antonione FI
2001-2003 Renzo Tondo FI
2003-2008 Riccardo Illy ID
2008-2013 Renzo Tondo PDL
2013-2018 Debora Serracchiani PD
since 2018 Massimiliano Fedriga LN


Agriculture now only plays a relatively minor role, but some products such as the raw ham from San Daniele del Friuli enjoy an excellent reputation. Viticulture has been practiced in the region since ancient times, today on an area of ​​around 25,000 hectares. The wines have a good reputation among wine connoisseurs.

As is common in the Italian northeast, the industry in Friuli is characterized by micro and small businesses that are particularly active in the textile and furniture sectors.

The insurance giant Assicurazioni Generali is also based in Trieste and the coffee maker Illy (espresso) is also based in the port city.

Tourism also plays an important role: the seaside resorts of Grado and Lignano Sabbiadoro are among the most popular on the Adriatic.

In comparison with the GDP of the EU expressed in purchasing power standards, the region achieved an index of 104 (EU-28: 100) (2015). The nominal per capita income is € 29,100.

In 2017 the unemployment rate was 6.7%.

Personalities from the region

The writer Italo Svevo was born in Trieste and spent most of his life there. The painter and essayist Giuseppe Zigaina comes from Cervignano del Friuli , where he still lives today. The poet and director Pier Paolo Pasolini (* 1922, † 1975) is closely associated with the region. His mother Susanna Colussi came from Casarsa della Delizia , where Pasolini spent his youth. He is buried in the Casarsa cemetery. The screenwriter and film director Damiano Damiani (* 1922; † 2013) was born here in the municipality of Pasiano di Pordenone . The important Slovenian writer Boris Pahor (* 1913) comes from Trieste.

The Italian soccer players and coaches Enzo Bearzot , Dino Zoff and Fabio Capello were born in Friuli.


  • Klaus Zimmermann, Andrea C. Theil, Christoph Ulmer: Friuli and Trieste DUMONT art travel guide; DuMont Reise Verlag, Ostfildern (3rd, updated edition 2006), ISBN 3-7701-6613-2 .
  • Daniela Schetar, Friedrich Köthe: Friuli, Venetia with Gardasee Verlag REISE KNOW-HOW Peter Rump, Bielefeld (2nd, updated edition 2007), ISBN 3-8317-1235-2 .
  • Helmut Lang: "Wanderführer Friaul-Julisch Venetien" Bergverlag Rother, Munich (3rd, updated edition, 2017), ISBN 978-3-7633-4364-5

Web links

Commons : Friuli-Venezia Giulia  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Friuli Venezia Giulia  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
  2. List: Vademecum Friuli Venezia Giulia - Le UTI ; Map: Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giula (PDF)
  3. ^ Regional Committee of Friuli Venezia Giulia, press release of November 1, 2016 AUT. LOCALI: PANONTIN, APPROVATO DDL SOPPRESSIONE PROVINCE = Local autonomies: Pantonin, proposed law on the abolition of the provinces
  4. ^ Messaggero Veneto - Giornale del Friuli, Friulian becomes a regular subject
  5. Abitur in Slovenian: First written examination (PDF file; 206 kB)
  6. Decree of the President of the Republic of September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009 ; accessed on March 8, 2018 .
  7. Eurostat. Retrieved April 15, 2018 .
  8. Unemployment rate, by NUTS 2 regions. Retrieved November 5, 2018 .

Coordinates: 46 ° 6 '  N , 13 ° 7'  E