Friuli Venezia Giulia
|Friuli Venezia Giulia|
|Official languages||Italian; German , Furlan and Slovenian are recognized minority languages.|
|surface||7,856.48 km² ( 17. )|
|Residents||1,211,357 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density||154 inhabitants / km²|
|president||Massimiliano Fedriga ( LN )|
Relief map of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region
Friuli-Venezia Giulia , Italian officially Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia , Furlanisch Friûl Vignesie Julie , Slovenian Furlanija Julijska krajina , is an autonomous region in the extreme northeast of Italy . Friuli-Venezia Giulia has an area of 7856 km² and 1,211,357 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). The capital of the region is Trieste .
The area called Julian Venetia in the period between the First and Second World War also extended to the entire peninsula of Istria and parts of Dalmatia , which were added to Yugoslavia after the Second World War.
While Friuli is characterized by the Furlanic language and culture, Venetian influences are predominant in Julisch Veneto in the interwar period. The ethnic Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli , an Austrian citizen from Gorizia , named the region of Venezia Giulia because of these influences, which can be traced back to the centuries-long affiliation, especially of the coastal strip to the Republic of Venice . However, Friuli belonged to the Republic of Venice for a long time (as Ducato di Friuli), but never the former province of Trieste , because the imperial city of Trieste and its land belonged to the Habsburgs in 1382 in order to prevent an annexation by Venice. Tarvisio was also never Venetian, it was owned by the diocese of Bamberg and culturally belonged to the German- Slovenian mixed area of Carinthia until the early 20th century .
The autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia lies on the Adriatic Sea and borders Carinthia (Austria) in the north, Slovenia in the east and Veneto in the west . The area is characterized by mountain landscapes - Friulian Dolomites , Carnic Alps , Julian Alps - (42.5%), another 19.3% of the area is hilly ( Collio area), the Po Valley extends over the remaining 38.1% . The most important rivers are the Tagliamento and the Isonzo , on whose course twelve Isonzo battles were fought during the First World War .
The regional area is divided into 18 municipal associations, called Unioni Territoriali Intercomunali (UTI for short) and 215 municipalities .
The provinces of Gorizia (GO), Pordenone (PN), Trieste (TS) and Udine (UD) were abolished as independent local authorities as part of a reform (2016). They continue to exist as a district of decentralized state administrations (e.g. prefecture - district office of the government ) or as statistical units. The areas of the statistical provinces of Pordenone and Udine as well as a small part of the province of Gorizia form Friuli , the majority of the province of Gorizia and the province of Trieste form the part of Venezia Giulia , which is still Italian today .
(December 31, 2019)
density (inh / km²)
|Carso Isonzo Adriatico||Monfalcone||10||72,499||264.8||274|
|Collio - Alto Isonzo||Gorizia||15th||67,644||202.3||334|
|Canal del Ferro - Val Canale||Tarvisio||8th||11,164||885.0||13|
|Del Gemonese||Gemona del Friuli||6th|
|Del Friuli Centrale||Udine||11||170.123||274.1||621|
|Collinare||San Daniele del Friuli||15th|
|Del Natisone||Cividale del Friuli||17th||51,281||552.6||93|
|Riviera - Bassa Friulana||Latisana||12||56,332||438.4||128|
|Agro Aquileiese||Cervignano del Friuli||17th|
|Del Tagliamento||San Vito al Tagliamento||9|
|Delle Valli e delle Dolomiti Friulane||Maniago||22nd||36,033||1,148.1||31|
|Livenza - Cansiglio - Cavallo||Sacile||6th|
|Sile e Meduna||Azzano Decimo||6th|
|Friuli Venezia Giulia||Trieste||215||1,211,357||7,856.5||154|
The largest municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants are listed below (source Istat, December 31, 2013).
|local community||Residents||former province|
|San Vito al Tagliamento||15,132||PN|
|Cervignano del Friuli||13,853||UD|
|Ronchi dei Legionari||11,980||GO|
|Cividale del Friuli||11,413||UD|
|Gemona del Friuli||11,135||UD|
Friuli was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy as part of Veneto after the Third War of Independence in 1866 . Because Prussia, allied with Italy , had defeated Austria in the Battle of Königgrätz , Austria had to cede Veneto with Friuli to France. France, which played a mediating role - albeit not necessarily neutral, but rather sympathizing with the emerging unified state - then passed it on to Italy.
The Austrian coastal country renamed Julisch Venetien (in particular the port city of Trieste with the Istrian peninsula ) as well as Zara and some islands of Dalmatia , Austria had to cede to Italy as a result of the First World War in accordance with the Treaty of Saint-Germain . In 1924 Fiume (Croatian Rijeka ) also became Italian.
The agreement concluded on October 21, 1939 between Hitler and Mussolini for the resettlement of the German minorities in northern Italy affected the inhabitants of the Canal Valley , Sauris and Timau as well as the South Tyroleans . However, the course of the war hampered resettlement and many emigrated Optanten returned to their home villages afterwards.
After the defeat of Italy in the Second World War, the Italian affiliation of Friuli was not questioned, but that of Venezia Giulia was. Much of Istria was immediately assigned to Yugoslavia, as a result of which up to 350,000 Italians were expelled. Many fell victim to the Foibe massacres during and after the war .
The fate of Trieste turned out to be more complicated. On February 10, 1947, the peace treaty with the Allies was signed in Paris , which provided for the establishment of the Free Territory of Trieste under the protection of the United Nations . The territory should be divided into two zones:
- Zone A in the north with an area of 222.5 km² and 262,000 inhabitants mainly comprised Trieste and was occupied by British and US soldiers.
- Zone B with an area of 515.5 km² and 71,000 inhabitants comprised the north-west of Istria and was occupied by the Yugoslav People's Army.
The Free Territory of Trieste was formally created on September 15, 1947, the day the peace treaty entered into force. After the Allies were unable to agree on the nomination of a governor in the UN Security Council, even seven years after the establishment of the territory , and the internal zoning of the territory increasingly solidified against the backdrop of the Cold War , the attempt to establish a neutral, multiethnic one became apparent To create the Free State of Trieste. Without a common governor, a uniform administration that was independent of the occupying powers could not be established. The Allies finally recognized this too - they ended the Trieste experiment.
On October 5, 1954, the governments of Italy , Great Britain, the USA and Yugoslavia signed the London Memorandum , with which the civil administration in Zone A was "provisionally" transferred to Italy and in Zone B to Yugoslavia (with only minor border changes). Italy assured the continued existence of Trieste as a free port in accordance with the provisions of the peace treaty. The memorandum was also adopted by the UN Security Council. With the handover of the administration in Zone A to Italy by the Allied Military Government on October 26, 1954, the Free Territory of Trieste ceased to exist. The area of the former Free Territory of Trieste was not finally divided between Italy and Yugoslavia until November 10, 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo .
The Friuli-Venezia Giulia region was finally created in 1963 and, like Trentino-South Tyrol, was given a special statute in order to guarantee the protection of the Slovenian minority in particular and to promote the economic development of an area which at that time was on the border of the Iron Curtain found. Trieste was chosen as the regional capital, which was received with displeasure by the Furlan population. The government in Rome wanted to restore the city, which had been in crisis since the end of the First World War, to its old splendor. In fact, Trieste is now one of the Italian cities with the highest quality of life.
Friuli was shaken in 1976 by a severe earthquake that was felt across northern Italy and neighboring Yugoslavia. The disaster occurred on the evening of May 6th and mainly hit the area north of Udine. 965 people lost their lives and more than 45,000 became homeless.
Population and language
Italian is the official language in the region and is spoken by the entire population as a mother tongue or as a second language.
In addition to Italian, a large part of the population also speaks Friulian (or Furlanic), which is a recognized and promoted language that has been included as a regular subject in the curricula of the schools in Friuli. The students can, however, forego the lessons when registering. 61% of the students in the former province of Udine, 46% in the former province of Gorizia and 30% in the former province of Pordenone have chosen to take classes. In many places the place names are also signposted in two languages. This takes into account the fact that there are over 600,000 Friulian native speakers, the majority of whom are located in the former province of Udine.
An East Tyrolean dialect is spoken in Sauris / Zahre, while Carinthian dialects can be found in the Canal Valley , in the Timau / Tischelwang district of the municipality of Paluzza , in Tarvisio / Tarvis, in Malborghetto Valbruna / Malborgeth-Wolfsbach and in Pontebba / Pontafel . There are an estimated 2500 German speakers in the entire region. They thus form the smallest minority and enjoy very modest rights compared to the other language groups.
Slovenian is spoken in the Channel Valley, in the Beneška Slovenija (it. Slavia veneta), in the Collio area , in the Görzer Karst , in some municipalities of the Bisiacaria and in the Résia Valley . 61,000 inhabitants, which corresponds to around 5% of the regional population, are Slovenian native speakers.
In the former provinces of Trieste and Gorizia in particular, but also in the former province of Udine, teaching in the mother tongue is guaranteed: As in South Tyrol, the Abitur examination is taken in one's own mother tongue and is equivalent to the Italian qualification. Around 4,000 students are enrolled in schools where the language of instruction is Slovene. The language group also has access to the RAI station Trieste, the daily Primorski dnevnik and several weekly magazines. In dealing with the public administration, the protection of minorities has also been implemented, above all in Trieste and Gorizia, and in part also in Udine.
The Slovenes are recognized as a minority in the following communities:
|local community||former province|
|Cividale del Friuli||UD|
|Doberdò del Lago||GO|
|Ronchi dei Legionari||GO|
|San Floriano del Collio||GO|
|San Dorligo della Valle||TS|
|San Pietro al Natisone||UD|
|Savogna di Cividale||UD|
* Only in the following districts: Canebola, Valle, Clap, Costalunga,
Costapiana, Pedrosa, Stremiz and Gradischiutta
** Only in the Cergneu district
On the border with Veneto, especially in the former province of Pordenone, along the coast (including in Grado , Marano Lagunare and Muggia ) and in the capital Trieste, Venetian dialects are spoken. The region has recently tried to preserve these dialects.
Autonomy and politics
Because of the then isolated position on the border to socialist Yugoslavia, but also because of the linguistic diversity, the region was granted a certain autonomy. Friuli Venezia Giulia is entitled to 60% of the taxes collected in the regional area.
The center-left government under the entrepreneur Riccardo Illy endeavored to underpin the role of Furlan and to anchor official recognition of the three national languages Furlan, Slovenian and German in the regional constitution. After the regional elections on April 13 and 14, 2008, the center-right coalition led by Renzo Tondo was able to recapture the regional government. In the elections on April 21 and 22, 2013, Tondo was defeated by the Partito Democratico candidate Debora Serracchiani . In the election on April 29, 2018, the center-right coalition led by the candidate of the Lega Massimiliano Fedriga prevailed again.
|Term of office||president||Political party|
|since 2018||Massimiliano Fedriga||LN|
Agriculture now only plays a relatively minor role, but some products such as the raw ham from San Daniele del Friuli enjoy an excellent reputation. Viticulture has been practiced in the region since ancient times, today on an area of around 25,000 hectares. The wines have a good reputation among wine connoisseurs.
As is common in the Italian northeast, the industry in Friuli is characterized by micro and small businesses that are particularly active in the textile and furniture sectors.
In 2017 the unemployment rate was 6.7%.
Personalities from the region
The writer Italo Svevo was born in Trieste and spent most of his life there. The painter and essayist Giuseppe Zigaina comes from Cervignano del Friuli , where he still lives today. The poet and director Pier Paolo Pasolini (* 1922, † 1975) is closely associated with the region. His mother Susanna Colussi came from Casarsa della Delizia , where Pasolini spent his youth. He is buried in the Casarsa cemetery. The screenwriter and film director Damiano Damiani (* 1922; † 2013) was born here in the municipality of Pasiano di Pordenone . The important Slovenian writer Boris Pahor (* 1913) comes from Trieste.
- Klaus Zimmermann, Andrea C. Theil, Christoph Ulmer: Friuli and Trieste DUMONT art travel guide; DuMont Reise Verlag, Ostfildern (3rd, updated edition 2006), ISBN 3-7701-6613-2 .
- Daniela Schetar, Friedrich Köthe: Friuli, Venetia with Gardasee Verlag REISE KNOW-HOW Peter Rump, Bielefeld (2nd, updated edition 2007), ISBN 3-8317-1235-2 .
- Helmut Lang: "Wanderführer Friaul-Julisch Venetien" Bergverlag Rother, Munich (3rd, updated edition, 2017), ISBN 978-3-7633-4364-5
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- List: Vademecum Friuli Venezia Giulia - Le UTI ; Map: Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giula (PDF)
- Regional Committee of Friuli Venezia Giulia, press release of November 1, 2016 AUT. LOCALI: PANONTIN, APPROVATO DDL SOPPRESSIONE PROVINCE = Local autonomies: Pantonin, proposed law on the abolition of the provinces
- Messaggero Veneto - Giornale del Friuli, Friulian becomes a regular subject
- Abitur in Slovenian: First written examination (PDF file; 206 kB)
- Decree of the President of the Republic of September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009 ; accessed on March 8, 2018 .
- Eurostat. Retrieved April 15, 2018 .
- Unemployment rate, by NUTS 2 regions. Retrieved November 5, 2018 .