( Italy ), Vas County ( Hungary ), Carinthia , Styria ( Austria ), Croatia
|Official language in||
Slovenia Friuli-Venezia Giulia ( Italy ) Carinthia ( Austria ) European Union
|Recognized minority /
regional language in
Styria ( Austria ) Hungary Friuli-Venezia Giulia ( Italy )
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
The science that deals with Slovene is called Slovene Studies .
The speakers refer to themselves as Slovenci , their language as slovenščina , which should not be confused with Slovenčina , the Slovak language's own name . The Slovak name for Slovenian is Slovinčina , the Slovenian for Slovak Slovaščina .
Presumably, a closer connection with Slovak can be derived from Carantania and the Avars (6th – 8th centuries) (the Samos empire: today's area of Moravia, Lower Austria and south-western Slovakia). For example, similar elements of Old Slavonic can be found in Slovenian and Slovak. The words for “Slovenian” and “Slovak” are often confused: the Slovenes call their language Slovenščina , the Slovaks their Slovenčina . In Slovenian, Jaz govorim slovensko means 'I speak Slovenian' , whereas Slovensko means 'Slovakia' in Slovak. During and after the times of Carantania and the Avarmark ( Alpine Slavs), the Slavs called themselves Slovani or Slovanci , which could be the reason for these similarities.
Historically, Slovenian originated in the Principality of Carantania and in Carniola to the south of it . These areas were protected against the Avars under Charlemagne with the Avarsmark as a border mark .
In Carantania the later so called Alpine Slavs ruled and for a time probably also Avars, the rest of the population consisted of the immigrated Slavic tribes, Romanized Celts ( Norikers ) and Romans who had moved here. On the one hand, remnants of these linguistic influences can be found in various Slovenian dialects. On the other hand, due to the Avarmark bordering on Carantania - and later division of the southern western Slavs by the Hungarians (separation of the southern western Slavs into Czechs , Slovaks and Slovenes ) - a certain relationship with the western Slavic languages Czech and Slovak can be derived.
The Principality of Carantania is named as the origin of the Slovenes . However, the exact location of the Samo Empire and Carantania is still controversial today. Since no written sources are available for today's Czech Republic and Slovakia for a period of 150 years (633 / 658–791) and Slovenes have been referred to as winds or winds for centuries, much remains to be guessed at. The name Slovenci 'Slovenes' is first mentioned in the preface to the catechism of Primož Trubar in 1550. And then Trubar understood the Slovenci only as a language community and not in the sense of today's concept of nation.
In the year 811, Emperor Charlemagne decreed that the Drava should be considered the diocesan border between the dioceses of Salzburg and Aquilea . This decided who was responsible for the Christianization of the resident predominantly Slavic population. In the middle of the 10th century, the victory of the king and later emperor Otto I in the battle on the Lechfeld (near Augsburg) cleared the way for the eastern colonization of the Holy Roman Empire . The Hungarian invasions in the area around present-day Slovenia, eastern Austria, southern Germany and Italy came to an end with the conquest of the Pannonian lowlands around 896. This separated the tribes of the southern Western Slavs into Czechs, Slovaks on the one hand, and Slovenes. The Karantanien in the north of today's Slovenia and in the areas to the north of it was incorporated into the East Franconian Empire . From this the duchies of Carinthia and Styria gradually developed up to the 11th century . The margraviate of Carniola , the area of which can now be described as the Slovenian heartland, did not belong to the Principality of Carantania, but to Carniola . This area, too, came to the Holy Roman Empire together with parts of the Longobard Empire conquered by Charlemagne.
Slovenian was a secondary language until the 20th century, and very few manuscripts have survived, especially from the Middle Ages:
- The Brižinski spomeniki ' Freising monuments ' were created around 1000 AD . They are considered the earliest Slovenian text documents and were found in Freising, Bavaria. The three homiletic and liturgical scriptures were probably an episcopal manual.
- Between 1362 and 1390, the Klagenfurt manuscript with three prayers was created in Rateče (German: Ratschach) .
- The Sitticher manuscript with prayers and sample sermons was created between 1428 and 1440.
- Approx. In 1440 the Kranjski Rokopis was created with secular oaths.
- The Starogorski Rokopis is almost identical to the Klagenfurt manuscript, although it was created much later and at some distance from it in Görzerischen. The time windows given are 1450–1520 and 1492–1498.
- 1459–1508 the Černjejski Rokopis was created , a trilingual donation list in Latin, Italian and Slovenian.
Individual Slovenian sprinkles in German and Italian texts also bear witness to medieval Slovenian.
Origin of the written language
The translation of the New Testament by the reformer Primož Trubar (published in 1582) and of the entire Bible by Jurij Dalmatin in 1584 laid the foundation for the modern Slovene written language , which became canonical in the Slovenian core countries of Carniola, Carinthia and Lower Styria . Parallel to this, two other written languages developed outside of these countries based on the respective local dialect: Prekmuric in the Kingdom of Hungary, which was in use until the 20th century, and the small, but still in use, Resianic .
Language reforms of the 19th century
In the 19th century, a purist form of language ( removing Germanisms ) developed, with vocabulary borrowings from other Slavic languages. The philologist and main representative of Illyrism as a politician Ljudevit Gaj wanted to bring all South Slavic languages together under one political leadership in the first half of the 19th century , but the vast majority of Slovenian intellectuals rejected this Illyrism. During this time, Slovenian also experienced a literary heyday through France Prešeren .
Today's orthography with the letters č, š and ž borrowed from Czech was essentially established in the middle of the 19th century.
Already at the time of the Danube Monarchy , the linguists Franz Xaver Ritter von Miklosich (Slov. Fran (c) Miklošič ) and Jernej Kopitar (Eng. Bartholomäus Kopitar ) became the fathers of the Slovene language in the 19th century . After the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was founded, the University of Ljubljana was founded in 1919 . On the other hand, there was an attempt to create a common “Yugoslav” written language with the Serbs and Croats. Both the Veitstag constitution of 1921 and the decreed constitution of 1931 name the Serbo-Croatian-Slovene language (srpsko-hrvatsko-slovenski jezik) as the official national language of Yugoslavia. When the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was proclaimed in 1929 , Slovenian intellectuals feared for Slovenian and in 1938 founded their own Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts .
With the founding of socialist Yugoslavia in 1945, Slovenian - alongside Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian with its two script variants Croatian and Serbian - became a state language with equal rights for the first time. Since Slovenia's independence in 1991, it has been its sole official language.
Geographical distribution and official status
Around two million people in Slovenia speak Slovenian as their mother tongue , where it is also the official language . Since May 1, 2004, Slovenian has also been one of the official languages in the European Union . In addition, it is still spoken as a mother tongue in parts of Austria , especially in Carinthia ( Carinthian Slovenes ) and in Italy (area around Gorizia , Resia Valley, Canal Valley , Collio, Trieste ) as well as in parts of western Hungary ( Vas County ).
In the 2001 census in Austria, around 18,000 people gave Slovene as their mother tongue.
Dialects and sociolects
Since the Slovene language area seldom formed a political unit over the centuries and the various valleys or regions were isolated from each other by the mountainous topography, numerous very different dialects developed . These can be summarized in seven groups.
- Carinthian Slovenian
The Carinthian dialect branch of Slovene reaches beyond today's borders of Carinthia. It is spoken in the area of the Duchy of Carinthia , which existed until 1918 (which includes today's mixed-language part of Carinthia, the upper Canal Valley around Tarvisio , and the Miessal Valley ). In addition, the Carinthian-Slovenian language is widespread in the municipality of Rateče (Ratschach) , a place in the Upper Carniola (Gorenjska), and in the Lower Styrian Drau Valley .
It can be divided into
- Jauntaler Slovenian (Podjuna)
- Rose Valley Slovenian (Rož)
- Gailtaler Slovenian (Zilja)
- Styrian Slovenian
- Upper Carniolan
- Lower Carniolan
In the Prekmurje (Übermur region)
In the Prlekija region (in Slovenian Styria)
For the geographical extent of the different dialect areas see: Map of the Slovenian dialects
Phonetics and Phonology
According to the traditional description, vowel length in Slovenian was phonologically distinctive, i.e. H. distinctive. According to this description, Slovenian had the vowels / a /, / i /, / u /, / ɛ / and / ɔ / - each long and short, and / eː / and / oː / - only long and / ə / - only short .
According to recent analyzes, the vowel length is no longer phonologically distinctive for the majority of speakers, and according to the current analysis, stressed vowels are long and unstressed short. All vowels can be accented and unstressed, but unstressed / e / and / o / only appear in a few word forms (for example in bo "will", an auxiliary verb to form the future tense).
|central||almost in the
All voiced obstruents are completely desonorized at the end of a word and before voiceless obstruents, similar to the final hardening , i.e. that is, they become voiceless unless they are immediately followed by a word that begins with a vowel or a voiced consonant.
- slad [slaːt] "malt", sladkor [ˈslaːtkoɾ] "sugar" (de-sonorisation)
- grad gori [ɡɾaːd ɡɔˈɾiː] "the castle is on fire" (no desonization)
Voiceless obstruents also become voiced before voiced obstruents (regressive contact assimilation):
- les [leːs] "wood", les gori [leːz ɡɔˈɾiː] "the wood burns"
The consonants / s /, / z / and / ts / before / ʃ /, / ʒ /, / tʃ / and / dʒ / become [ʃ], [ʒ] and [tʃ], respectively.
The nasal / n / becomes the velar nasal [ŋ] before / k /, / ɡ / and / x /.
The consonants / m / and / n / before / f / and / ʋ / both become [ɱ].
- before vowels: [ ʋ ]
- at the end of the syllable or before consonants: [ u ]
- at the beginning of a syllable before a voiced consonant: [ w ]
- at the beginning of a syllable before a voiceless consonant: [ ʍ ]
The preposition v "in" is always connected to the next word and its phonetic realization follows the rules described above for / ʋ / .
Stress and tones
Presentation without sounds
According to most modern descriptions of Slovene, it is not a tonal language , only vowel length and accentuation are distinguished. This system is also taught in Slovenian schools and universities. Viewed historically, this variant is innovative and is based on the development tendencies of the marginal dialects.
Every long vowel is automatically stressed, and in words without long vowels the stress falls on the last syllable. The only exception is the Schwa, which is always short and can be stressed even if it does not appear in the last syllable. The stress can fall on any syllable of the word. Some compound words have multiple stressed syllables.
In general, stress and vowel length are not marked in the written language. In scientific presentations, dictionaries, etc. three diacritics are used to identify the accent: the acute (´) for long closed vowels, the circumflex ^ for long open vowels and the grave accent (`) for short open vowels:
|otròk||[ɔˈtɾɔk]||"Child" (nominative singular)||otrók||[ɔˈtɾoːk]||"Children" (genitive plural)|
Representation as tonal language
In older descriptions, Slovene is usually represented as a tonal language like Serbo-Croatian. This system is the more conservative and is based on the central dialects. a. Ljubljana belongs, but also the Carinthian Slovenian. Even educated people are mostly unaware of the tone differences. In contrast to Serbo-Croatian, Slovene also has tone differences in monosyllabic words.
Four diacritics are used to identify the tones: the acute (´) for long and high syllables, the inverted brevis (̑) or the circumflex (^) for long falling syllables, the grave accent (`) for short rising syllables and the double Gravis (̏) for short falling syllables. Closed / e / and / o / are also marked with a dot (̣) below to distinguish them from open / ɛ / and / ɔ /.
|lípo||"Linde" (accusative singular)||lîpo||"Linde" (instrumental singular)|
|múlo||"Maultier" (accusative singular)||mûlo||"Maultier" (Instrumental Singular)|
|vẹ́ro||"Belief" (accusative singular)||vệro||"Faith" (Instrumental Singular)|
|According to IPA||spelling, orthography||Example in IPA||Notation||meaning|
|/ i /||i||[ iˈmeti ]||iméti||"to have"|
|/ e /||e||[ ˈSedəm ]||sédem||"seven"|
|/ ɛ /||[ ˈɾɛtʃi ]||reči||"say"|
|/ ə /||[ səm ]||sem||"(I am"|
|/ a /||a||[ abɛˈtseda ]||abecéda||"Alphabet"|
|/ ɔ /||O||[ ˈƆkno ]||ôkno||"Window"|
|/ o /||[ ˈOpitsa ]||ópica||"Monkey"|
|/ u /||u||[ ˈUlitsa ]||ulica||"Street"|
|According to IPA||spelling, orthography||Example in IPA||Notation||meaning|
|/ m /||m||[ ˈMisliti ]||mísliti||"think"|
|/ b /||b||[ bɛˈseda ]||beséda||"Word"|
|/ p /||p||[ pɔˈmotʃ ]||pomóč||"Help"|
|/ f /||f||[ fant ]||fànt||"Boy"|
|/ ʋ /||v||[ ˈƲɔda ]||vôda||"Water"|
|/ ʍ /||v||[ ʍˈʃetʃ ]||všéč||"Compliant"|
|/ w /||v||[ wˈʒigálnik ]||vžigálnik||"Lighter"|
|/ u̯ /||v||[ ˈStau̯ba ]||stávba||"Building"|
|/ n /||n||[ nɔˈʋitsɛ ]||novíce||"News"|
|/ d /||d||[ ˈDanəs ]||dánes||"today"|
|/ t /||t||[ tip ]||tip||"Type"|
|/ ts /||c||[ tsʋet ]||cvét||"Flower"|
|/ dz /||dz *||[ ˈKodzbɛk ]||Kócbek||(Family name)|
|/ s /||s||[ sʋet ]||svét||"World"|
|/ z /||z||[ ˈZɾelo ]||zrélo||"ripe"|
|/ l /||l||[ ˈLipa ]||lípa||"Linden"|
|/ ʎ /||lj||[ ʎuˈbezɛn ]||cheer||"Love"|
|/ ɾ /||r||[ ɾɔkenˈɾɔl ]||rokenròl||"Rock'n'roll"|
|/ tʃ /||č||[ tʃasɔˈpis ]||časopís||"Newspaper"|
|/ dʒ /||dž||[ ˈDʒezʋa ]||džézva||" Device for making coffee "|
|/ ʃ /||š||[ ˈƩola ]||šóla||"School"|
|/ ʒ /||ž||[ ʒiuˈljɛnjɛ ]||življènje||"Life"|
|/ ɲ /||nj||[ ˈƝɛɡa ]||njèga||"him"|
|/ ŋ /||n (+ k / g) *||[ ˈZaŋka ]||zánka||"Loop"|
|/ j /||j||[ ˈJabɔlkɔ ]||jábolko||"Apple"|
|/ k /||k||[ kmɛt ]||kmèt||"Farmer"|
|/ ɡ /||G||[ ɡɾad ]||Degree||"Castle"|
|/ x /||H||[ ˈXiʃa ]||híša||"House"|
* Does not appear at the beginning of a word.
Slovenian is an inflectional language . The relation of the word to the sentence is mainly expressed through inflection . This results in a very free sentence order. However, as in German, the order subject-predicate-object is common .
In addition to the singular and plural, the dual (two-number, dvojina) for nouns and verbs is a special feature . This form was abandoned in almost all other Slavic (and Indo-European) languages in favor of the plural form. Examples: “grem” (I go), “greva” (we two go), “gremo” (we all go) or “klobuk” (one hat), “klobuka” (two hats) or “klobuki” (more than two hats). Colloquially and dialectically, the dual is sometimes neglected in favor of the plural.
Nouns are marked by declination according to case , number and gender . These three properties are expressed together by a corresponding ending, which is usually monosyllabic, but sometimes also two-syllable, a zero ending is also possible.
In Slovenian, six of the eight Urindo-European cases have been preserved:
- Nominative (Imenovalnik)
- Genitive (Rodilnik)
- Dative (Dajalnik)
- Accusative (Tožilnik)
- Locative (Mestnik)
- Instrumental (orodnik)
There are eleven declensions with notable exceptions:
- 1. male declension , e.g. B. korak step
- 2. masculine declension (masculine nouns ending in -a), e.g. B. vojvoda Duke
- 3. Male declension (male initial words ), e.g. B. OPEC
- 4. masculine declension (masculine noun adjectives), e.g. B. odgovorni responsible person
- 1. feminine declension (nouns ending in -a), e.g. B. lipa linden
- 2. female declination , e.g. B. perut wing
- 3. feminine declension (feminine initial words ), e.g. B. ZRJ Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
- 4. feminine declension (feminine noun adjectives), e.g. B. odgovorna responsible person
- 1st neuter declination , e.g. B. mesto city
- 3. neuter declension (neuter noun verbs), e.g. B. jesti food
- 4. neuter declension (neuter noun adjectives), e.g. B. belo white
There is no second neuter declension. The examples given are the sample words for that declension.
Example for the 1st declination: klobuk (hat)
The adjective comes immediately before the noun it refers to and matches it in case, number and gender. The adjective declination is slightly different from that of the nouns. In addition, Slovenian differentiates between certain and indefinite forms of certain adjectives in the masculine form of the nominative. This usage roughly corresponds to that of the indefinite and definite article in German: nov avto ('new car', indefinite) vs. novi avto ('(the) new car', definitely). In colloquial language, the definite and indefinite forms are replaced by the numeral en, ena, eno + indefinite form ('a, an') or the particles ta + indefinite form ('this'), which function like articles.
Like most Slavic languages, Slovenian is an articleless language. In the colloquial language, however, there is a kind of article in connection with the indefinite forms of the adjective: en nov kolega je prišel ('a new colleague has come'). Likewise, the particles ta are used with the indefinite form when it comes to certainty: ta nov kolega je simpatičen ('the new colleague is sympathetic'). In the written language, however , en and ta must be omitted.
In Slovenian there are the tenses:
- past Perfect
Because of the similarity in education, the subjunctive should also be mentioned in this context.
In order to express seclusion or permanence, Slovene, like Russian and other Slavic languages, uses the separation of aspects . This explains why Slovenian only needs three tenses , in contrast to German or even English , where the choice of tense is an important stylistic device.
Most of the Slovenian vocabulary is inherited from Old Slavonic . In addition, like most languages in Europe , Slovenian has borrowed numerous foreign words from other languages, partly from German or other intermediary languages:
- Literatura (next with a narrower meaning književnost)
- Cesar (from caesar ): Emperor
In everyday language, there are many German loan words, their use is avoided in the written language, such as lojtra (= lestev) for managers, topmast (= stop nice) for stairs ( stairs ), ravfank (= Dimnik) for flue , chimney and also newer, like šravfenciger (= izvijač) for screwdriver or avspuh (= izpušna cev) for exhaust .
The German has taken over from the Slovenian:
- Horseradish from her .
- Snack of južina ; This word can also have been taken from Serbian / Croatian / Bosnian into German.
- Sinkhole of dolina (the valley); This word can also have been taken from Serbian / Croatian / Bosnian into German.
- Polje (the field); This word can also have been taken from Serbian / Croatian / Bosnian into German.
- Ponor (swallow hole); This word can also have been taken from Serbian / Croatian / Bosnian into German.
In addition, some Slovene words have entered Carinthian .
- the introduction of a question with "a" (a vastehst mi? a kummst heit?): in Slovene, questions that require a "yes" or "no" answer are given the untranslatable question particle "ali" (colloquially shortened to "a ") Initiated.
- "Tscheafl" ("old shoe"), from "čevelj" ("shoe")
- "Tschreapm" ("porcelain vessel"), from "črpina" ("shard")
- "Zwüln" ("scream"), from "cviliti"
- "Strankalan" (" green beans "), from old Slovene. "Štrok"
A, B, C, Č, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, Š, T, U, V, Z, Ž
The letters Q, W, X, Y are only used in foreign language proper names and sometimes in foreign words. As a rule, however, foreign and loan words are adapted to the Slovenian spelling (e.g. menedžer, rizling, apartma, nivo).
One difficulty is that Slovenian has a free accent that is not reflected in the spelling. The same applies to the different ways of pronouncing stressed vowels, especially the e and o.
Some important differences to German in pronunciation:
- č like German Tsch in "Klatschen"
- š like German sch in "schade"
- ž like (French) g in "Garage"
- c as in German z in "show" (never k!)
- s as in German ß in "large"
- z , voiced s, as in Germany (but not in Austria) s in "say", as in English "zero" (never ts!)
- h as in German ch in "roof"
- v like German w in "Wohnen", at the end of the syllable, at the beginning of a sentence before consonant or between vowel and consonant like u
- l is often pronounced like u at the end of a syllable or between vowel and consonant . There is no fixed rule here, but in the masculine past tense (e.g. "bil", "stal") it is always spoken like u , in foreign words (e.g. "kabel" or "admiral") it is always spoken like l .
- e can be spoken openly (like ä ) or closed, also short or long, or as Schwa ( e in “flower”), and all types can be emphasized.
- o Can be open or closed, short or long spoken, and all types can be stressed.
- u and i are always closed, but, like a , can be short or long.
- The different pronunciation variants of the vowels are not reproduced orthographically.
The letter combinations lj and nj are pronounced in modern standard Slovenian as [l] and [n] if no vowel follows. If a vowel follows, a j is also pronounced. Example: nominative Kranj [kran] and genitive Kranja [kranja]. Unlike in Serbian and Croatian , l or n and j are counted as separate letters. Slovenian here differs from B / K / S , where lj and nj are digraphs for the palatal sounds ʎ and ɲ. The same applies to the letter combination dž, which serves as a digraph in B / K / S, which in Slovenian only occurs in loan words ( džezva "metal jug for making coffee", džungla "jungle") and compound words ( odžagati "saw off") or where it occurs through assimilation resulting sound dʒ is reproduced by č ( učbenik "textbook", Croatian udžbenik with digraph). In a large part of the Slovenian dialects , the South Slavic sounds ʎ and ɲ coincide with l (in full) or - partially - with n, which is why Ljubljana is spoken regionally like Lublana . Such a pronunciation can also be seen in the orthography of older Slovenian texts. The spelling with lj and nj, which is based on Serbian and Croatian, was introduced with the Gajica by Ljudevit Gaj .
As in other Slavic languages, there are words that seem to consist of consonants because of a syllable r, such as prt "cloth". However, unlike in Serbian or Croatian, such an r is preceded by a Schwa: prt is therefore pronounced [pərt] (see also the well-known Croatian island of Krk , Slovenian [kərk]; Croatian spoken [kṛk], i.e. without a vowel) .
The "l" and "lj" never have the syllable tone. Therefore the word čmrlj ("bumblebee") is monosyllabic and umrl ("died [he]") has two syllables.
The initial "v" is spoken in front of voiceless consonants as the voiceless labiovelar fricative [ ʍ ], e.g. B. in vprašanje ("question") or všeč ("compliant"), also in the word v ("in") before voiceless consonants. Colloquially, however, it mostly sounds as [u], [w] or as [və] (German “w” with the following Schwa ).
The prepositions v , z / s and k / h are clitics that are spoken with the following noun as one word. In colloquial language, however, a Schwa and the following voiceless glottal plosive can often be heard ( glottal stop, common in German).
|Vsi ljudje se rodijo svobodni in imajo enako dostojanstvo in enake pravice. Obdarjeni so z razumom in vestjo in bi morali ravnati drug z drugim kakor bratje.||All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
- Štih, Simoniti, Vodopivec: Slovenian history . Graz: Leykam, 2008. ISBN 978-3-7011-0101-6
- Entry on the Slovene language in the Encyclopedia of the European East ( Memento from August 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Link catalog on the topic of the Slovenian language at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Peter Stih: Ethnogenesis of the Slovenes , accessed on January 7, 2012
- Peter Štih : The Slovenian ideas about the Slovenian-German relations in the Middle Ages . In: Slovenes and Germans in common space. New research . R Oldenbourg, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-486-56701-2 , p. 10 .
- Herwig Wolfram : The Birth of Central Europe. Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 1987, ISBN 3-218-00451-9 , p. 264.
- limited preview in the Google book search
- Clm 6462 , fol. 78 rv and 158 v - 161v , cf. Documents on Slovenia at the Bavarian State Library (accessed January 27, 2009)
- Kodeks - Starogorski Rokopis. In: kodeks.uni-bamberg.de. Retrieved November 12, 2016 .
- limited preview in the Google book search
- Đuro Šurmin: Protiv kvarenja narodnog jezika ["Against the corruption of the national language", Croatian]. Naš jezik, stara serija 4, Beograd 1935, pp. 141f.
- Census in Austria 2001, according to Ethnologue , accessed on May 11, 2014.
- 2014 the spoken Slovenian dialect from Radsberg, which is included in the dialect of the Klagenfurt field , was published in its current form in dialectal episodes and cheerful village stories by Tomaž Ogris in book form and on CD-ROM in the book Vamprat pa Hana . Tomaž Ogris: Vamprat pa Hana, Domislice, čenče, šale, laži . Klagenfurt / Celovec, Drava Verlag 2014, ISBN 978-3-85435-748-3 .
- cover: Archived copy ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Rastislav Šuštaršič, Smiljana Komar, Bojan Petek: Slovene. In: Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet . International Phonetic Association, 1999, pp. 135-139.
- Peter Herrity: Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar . Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-23147-7 / ISBN 0-415-23148-5 , p. 7f.
- Peter Herrity: Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar . Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-23147-7 / ISBN 0-415-23148-5 , p. 6.
- Peter Herrity: Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar . Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-23147-7 / ISBN 0-415-23148-5 , p. 7.
- Peter Herrity: Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar . Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-23147-7 / ISBN 0-415-23148-5 , p. 9.
- Peter Herrity: Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar . Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-23147-7 / ISBN 0-415-23148-5 , p. 10.
- Peter Herrity: Slovene: A Comprehensive Grammar . Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-23147-7 / ISBN 0-415-23148-5 , p. 11.
- Samostalnik ( Memento from December 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (noun) on www.eknjiga.si (Slovenian, accessed December 5, 2008)
- File: Hishni_shegen.jpg . ... ... svetih treh Kra l ou , l udi , po l e , mi l ost , vsmi l i (always l ), modern: ... svetih treh Kra lj ev , lj udi , po lj e , mi l ost , usmi l i ( lj vs. l ). Compare but nj e vs. n as .