Voiceless glottal plosive
|IPA character description||Kind of question mark with no point|
|Unicode||U + 0294|
|HTML (dec.)||& # 660;|
The unvoiced plosive glottal or glottal (English stop glottal ; an unvoiced , glottal formed plosive ) is in the Phonetic a consonant , by the sudden, unvoiced solution of a closure of the vocal cords is formed. Other names are glottal stop , glottal plosive , Glottisverschlusslaut , Einschaltknack , laryngeal plosive , Glottalstop .
The original Latin alphabet does not have its own symbol for the glottic stroke, and neither does the German spelling based on the Latin alphabet , although the glottic stroke occurs in many varieties of standard German . In the Duden - grammar it is by a vertical bar | reproduced and otherwise in the dictionary by a  apostrophe . Likewise, the Danish shock tone (stød) has no orthographic realization.
- In the Latin alphabet of Maltese , the letter q stands for the glottic stroke.
- The Somali Latin script uses an apostrophe for the glottic stroke.
- It is also represented with an apostrophe in a number of South American languages in which the glottic stroke has a phonemic function, e.g. B. in Aymara , in southern Quechua and the Maya languages ( Mayathan , Quiché and others).
- In classical Nahuatl , the sound called Saltillo is reproduced with an h .
- In various Polynesian languages , the in Hawaiian as 'Okina , in Tongan as fakau'a designated According to a upside-down apostrophe '( Unicode : U + 02BB modifier letter turned comma written).
Other writing systems
- Hebrew [ ʔ ] : א ( Aleph )
- Arabic [ ʔ ] : ء ( Hamza )
- The old Greek spelling uses the spiritus lenis to denote the voiceless initial sound before vowels, which is written as a left-curved apostrophe in front of or above the letter (e.g. Ἀριστοτέλης ). According to a controversial view, this could have been a glottal closure sound (see Spiritus lenis).
The stroke of the glottis in German
Glottal beat in the vowel sound
In most of the varieties of the German language, a glottic stroke appears in the following cases:
- Before the initial vowel sound , for example eight [ˈʔaxt] , the old [deːɐ̯ ˈʔaltʰə] .
- Before vowel- like word stems in compound words, for example note [bəˈʔaxtʰən] , fried egg [ˈʃpiːɡəlˌʔaɪ̯] . However, there are some compound words that are so common that they are often no longer perceived as compounds and therefore occur without a glottic stroke, for example up [hɪnˈʔaʊ̯f] / [hɪˈnaʊ̯f] , remember [ʔɛɐ̯ˈʔinɐn] / [ʔɛˈʁɪnɐn] , association [fɛɐ̯ʔaɪ̯n ] / [fɛˈʁaɪ̯n] (but always combine [fɛɐ̯ʔaɪ̯nən] ) and midwife [ˈheːpʔamə] / [ˈheːbamə] .
Trained speakers are also able to use the voice as imperceptibly as possible, so that no loud crack is audible, but in most varieties of German this voiceless glottal plosive is pronounced. Sometimes two different words in German can only be distinguished from each other by the stroke of the glottis (e.g. the mirror egg, the fried egg). In this example, the stresses on the first and last syllables are also different.
The glottic stroke often does not occur in Swiss High German . Various German dialects do not know him at all. If it is not pronounced, then the words are connected directly to one another, as in French or English. For example, my car, with glottal stop: [ˌmaɪ̯n ʔaʊ̯tʰo] , is then pronounced as if it * mei NAUTO would [ˌmaɪ̯naʊ̯tʰo] , as well as French une autre is another 'pronounced as if it * u nautre would [yn otʁ ( ə)] , or English an apple , an apple 'as if it * a napple would [ənæpʰəɫ] . On the other hand, word combinations are pronounced with a short interruption or stress, such as [ˈʃpiːɡəlˈaɪ̯] , which is spoken in contrast to "the fried egg" like "mirror egg".
The systematic use of a click when pronouncing vowels at the beginning of a word is a typical and difficult to suppress pronunciation error made by many German native speakers in foreign languages (e.g. in English, French). Conversely, people who learn German as a foreign language regularly find it difficult to imitate the use of the crackling sound.
The glottic stroke in phonology
In most phonological analyzes of German, the glottic stroke is not viewed as an independent phoneme , but as a phonetic boundary marker in front of the vowel sound, as it does not appear in all varieties of the German standard language.
It is not clear whether older language levels of German exhibited a glottic stroke or not.
A possible clue that the glottic stroke could have already existed in Old High German lies in the alliance . Only those words that began with the same consonant (or consonant cluster ) were alliterated . However, alliteration between words that began with any vowel was also possible. One possible explanation is that the words beginning with a vowel would have alliterated because in reality they would also have started with the same consonant, namely the glottal beat.
Conversely, there is a clue that in Old High German, no glottal stop in word spanning could have existed, elision as GIBU ih> gibuh 'I give'. The glottal beat would then have arisen along with a number of other features that separate the words from each other more clearly, for example with the weakening of the adjacent syllable vowels to a Schwa . Alternatively, the glottic stroke in unstressed ( clitical ) words was already omitted in Old High German, which would resolve the contradiction.
Glottal beat as a vowel separator (Hiattilger)
In German , the crackling sound can serve as a separator between vowels ( Hiattilger , Diärese ) if they are not drawn together to form a diphthong ( syneresis ): for example in Aleutians (pronunciation: [ aleˈʔuːtən ], not: * [ aˈlɔʏ̯tən ], but often without Click : [ aleˈuːtən ]).
In German, the glottic stroke occurs in several interjections :
- A [ˈʔə̃ʔə̃] or [ˈʔ̰m̩ʔ̰m̩] with falling intonation means negation.
- A [ʔə̃'hə̃] or [ʔ̰m̩ˈh̰m̩] with increasing intonation means agreement.
Sighs often begin with a glottic stroke.
Glottal stroke in gender-sensitive language
Since the 2010s, the glottic stroke has been used in individual circles as part of gender-equitable language for gender characters. The voiceless plosive sound is used in the place where there is a gender asterisk or a gender gap in the written language, sometimes also in place of an internal Is ; for example, “authors”, “authors” or “authors” are pronounced as [ˈaʊ̯toːɐ̯ˈʔɪnən]
[Autor-innen] (see pronunciation and accessibility ).
The glottic stroke in Arabic
|Graphemes for the phoneme Hamz|
In standard Arabic the phoneme corresponds همز / Hamz / 'compression' a voiceless glottal plosive. In modern orthography, the grapheme Hamza is used to reproduce the sound in writing.
Up until the early Islamic period, Hamza was not the grapheme for the phoneme Hamz, but Alif . However, Alif increasingly took over the function of the sign for a long / a / sound - in order to be able to distinguish these two functions of the Alif, al-Farāhīdī introduced Hamza as an additional sign in the 8th century.
Hamzatu l-qatʿ and Hamzatu l-wasl
In Arabic, the phoneme Hamz can appear in two forms, as Hamzat al-qatʿ /همزة القطع / Hamzatu l-qaṭʿ / 'Cut-Hamza' and as Hamzat al-wasl /همزة الوصل / Hamzatu l-waṣl / 'Coupling Hamza'. Hamzatu l-qatʿ, also called separating alif at the beginning of the word , is a full consonant, which can also be used as a radical as inقرأ / Qara'a / reading appears' and a Shadda geminated can be. Hamzatu l-qatʿ can appear in any position in the word and can be written in the form of a single Hamza, above or below a vowel or as Madda (the exact writing rules are shown in the Hamza article ). A Hamzatu l-wasl or connecting alif occurs only at the beginning of the word and only as alif with wasla . The phoneme Hamz in the grapheme Wasla can only be articulated in the absolute initial (isolated or at the beginning of a sentence), the vocalization only after a consonant.
There are three types of tachfīf al-hamza /تخفيف الهمزة / taḫfīf al-hamza / 'Hamza diminution' as accepted and not mandatory:
- hamza baina baina /همزة بين بين / hamza baina baina / literally “Hamza between between” - weakening of the hamz between two specific vowels until it is not articulated
- ibdāl /إبدال / ibdāl / 'change' - change in pronunciation from iʾa to iya and uʾa to uwa
- hadhf /حذف / Ḥaḏf / deletion '- discharging the Hamz between vowel and consonant, instead of the strain may foregoing short vowel (Ra's to Ras; saw'at to sawat)
/ aʾa / can be pronounced simply as / ā /. The pronunciation relief Hamza baina baina after / ū / or / ī / as well as Ibdāl with a different vocalization of the (to be replaced) Hamza existed, but were rejected by Arabic grammarians. If two Hamza meet, for example by adding the question particle ʾa-, the second Hamza is dissimilated and instead the vowel between the Hamza is compulsorily stretched.
In several Arabic dialects , the articulation of Hamz does not correspond to that of Standard Arabic. The Taiyi' -Beduinen a Hamza is partly as [ h articulated], as is ha- than old dialect form of the question particle 'a- handed. In the case of the Arab tribes Tamīm and Qais , an initial Hamz became an -Ain sound [ ʕ ]. In Eastern Arabic dialects, according to Jean Cantineau , the pronunciation of Hamza is weakened, in the Maghreb the sound has almost completely disappeared and has lost its phonemic character. According to Mary Catherine Bateson, however, Western dialects tend not to articulate Hamza, while Eastern dialects have retained it and are sometimes pronounced “exaggerated” as ʿAin.
In Egyptian Arabic and partly in Syrian dialects , Qāf , in Standard Arabic the grapheme for the voiceless uvular plosive [ q ], is pronounced as a glottic stroke , except in book words like Hamza. According to Gotthold Weil, a “fairly common” phenomenon in vernacular is the articulation of an initial Hamza as [w] or [j] and mentions a further deviation in Vulgar Arabic when an initial Hamza is dropped (example: bū instead of ʾabū ). Some language purists read the Dehnungsalif as Hamza.
Arabic and Western doctrines
Hamz itself is voiceless , but Arabic grammarians did not separate the consonantic element of Hamz from the vowel articulated with Hamz and therefore described Hamz as voiced . Al-Farāhīdī did not seem to recognize any consonantic element in Hamz and did not list the sound among the gutturals . In his opinion, Hamz, like Alif, Wāw and Yāʾ, had no point of articulation at all, rather the entire oral cavity was reserved for these sounds. az-Zamachscharī described the place of articulation of Hamz as withه / h andا / ā as aqsā l-halq /أقصى الحلق / aqsā l-ḥalq / 'rearmost part of the throat', Hamz was then contrasted with the voiceless glottal fricative as a voiced image.
According to Richard Lepsius , Orthoepists assigned Hamz to both resounding, non-spiriting and solid, explosive sounds. It belongs to the resounding sounds “because at the end it assumes a resounding extension without which it cannot be pronounced; on the other hand, it cannot be aspirated […]; it is one of the perfect explosives because a real organ closure takes place [...]. ”Since Hamz“ only has the one sounding element of the follow-up, not that of the proposal ”, Lepsius Georg August Wallin , who Hamz as media and harf al-qalqala, contradicted /حرف قلقلة / ḥarf al-qalqala / 'pop or suffix letter ' (Arabic category with usually five consonantsق / q ,ب / b ,ط / ṭ ,ج / ǧ andد / d with vowel element).
Ibn Qutaiba spoke out in favor of a regulated pronunciation only from a grammatical point of view and thus renounced Tachfīf al-hamza . Guidelines for the correct application of Tachfīf al-hamza can be found in the textbooks of Ibn Jaʿīsch , Sībawaihi and az-Zamachscharī later added. Ibn al-Anbārī devoted himself in his Kitāb al-ansāf to the controversies of the Kufeans and Basrens over the correct Arabic grammar - among the topics discussed there are also differences of opinion on Tachfīf al-hamza .
- Cf. Donka Minkova: Alliteration and Sound Change in Early English (= Cambridge Studies in Linguistics . No. 101 ). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003. Chap. 4th
- Cf. Renata Szczepaniak: The phonological-typological change of German from a syllable to a word language (= Studia Linguistica Germanica . No. 85 ). de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 2007. p. 142.
- Anatol Stefanowitsch : Gender gap and gender asterisks in spoken language. In: Sprachlog.de . June 9, 2018, accessed April 30, 2020.
- Felix Stephan : German language: The gender issue has arrived in phonetics. In: Süddeutsche.de . April 26, 2019, accessed April 30, 2020.
- Gotthold Weil : The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, particularly according to the teaching of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal of Assyriology and Allied Areas , Volume 19, 1905-06, p. 12.
- El-Said M. Badawi, MG Carter, Adrian Gully: Modern written Arabic: a comprehensive grammar . Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-415-13085-1 ; Pp. 11-14.
- Gotthold Weil: The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, particularly according to the teaching of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal of Assyriology and Allied Areas, Volume 19, 1905-06, p. 7.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Volume 3. 1971; Pp. 150-152.
- Mary Catherine Bateson: Arabic language handbook . Georgetown University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-87840-386-8 ; P. 76.
- Bernard Lewin: Notes on Cabali. The Arabic Dialect Spoken by the Alawis of “Jebel Ansariye” . Gothenburg 1969; P. 3 f.
- Lexus: Egyptian Arabic. Rough Guide Phrasebook . Rough Guides, 2003. ISBN 978-1-84353-174-6 ; P. 10.
- Gotthold Weil: The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, particularly according to the teaching of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal of Assyriology and Allied Areas, Volume 19, 1905-06, pp. 21-24.
- Richard Lepsius : About the Arabic speech sounds and their transcription: together with some explanations about the hard i-vocal in the Tartar, Slavic and Romanian languages . Dümmler, 1861; P. 128.
- Gotthold Weil: The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, especially according to the teachings of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal of Assyriology and Allied Areas, Volume 19, 1905-06, p. 8.
- Richard Lepsius: About the Arabic speech sounds and their transcription: together with some explanations about the hard i-vocal in the Tartar, Slavic and Romanian languages . Dümmler, 1861; P. 129.
- GA Wallin : About the sounds of Arabic and their designation . In: Journal of the German Oriental Society , Volume 9, 1855, p. 10.
- Gotthold Weil: The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, particularly according to the teaching of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal of Assyriology and Allied Areas, Volume 19, 1905-06, p. 5.
- Gotthold Weil: The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, particularly according to the teaching of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal of Assyriology and Related Fields, Volume 19, 1905-06, pp. 16-18.
- Cf. Gotthold Weil: The treatment of Hamza-Alif in Arabic, especially according to the teaching of az-Zamaḫšarî and Ibn al-Anbârî . In: Journal for Assyriology and Related Areas, Volume 19, 1905-06, pp. 42 ff.
according to IPA (2005)
|Taps / flaps||ⱱ||ɾ||ɽ|
|¹ The labialised variant [ w ] was inserted here as a voiced velar approximant ( half vowel ) instead of the non-labialised variant [ ɰ ].|