In today's parlance, grammarians are scholars in the field of grammar .
In ancient Greece , grammarians were initially referred to as teachers of grammar, and then, since the age of the Alexandrians, those scholars who dealt with the research of grammas , the written works of antiquity, according to their formal and real content, i.e. all the studies that we today summarize under the term philology . The first Greek grammar that has come down to us was written by Dionysios Thrax , the first syntax by Apollonius Dyskolus . Long before these works (4th century BC) a Sanskrit grammar was written by Panini in India .
Grammatical studies have been practiced in Rome since 169 BC It was operated by Mallos as a result of the suggestion of the Krates , and respected men like Aelius Stilo and Varro occupied themselves with it until the end of the republic .
As far as the grammarians gave lessons, they, the Greek and the Roman, were private tutors up to the imperial era . In Rome they received a salary from the state, like the rhetors, only since Emperor Vespasian (69–79) .
Since the time of the Antonine , publicly employed grammarians taught in all major cities of the Roman Empire alongside philosophers and rhetors, some of whom were paid by the municipalities, some by the emperor and everywhere benefited from the state by granting immunities . Theodosius II and Valentinianus III. founded a kind of academy in Constantinople in 425 (see University of Constantinople ), at which ten Latin and ten Greek grammarians taught alongside three Latin and five Greek rhetors.