|IPA character description||small superscript minuscule h|
|Unicode||U + 02B0|
|HTML (dec.)||& # 688;|
Aspiration (from Latin aspirare "to breathe out air"; also breathing on ) means in phonetics that a sound, usually a plosive , is accompanied by an audible breath noise. In IPA phonetic transcription , it is identified by a superscript “h” (ʰ, Unicode MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H U + 02B0).
In standard German pronunciation, the unvoiced plosives p, t, k are aspirated in most positions, e.g. B. in cold [ kʰaltʰ ]. In High German, however, aspiration is an adjoint , not a distinctive feature , in other words: it is not decisive for distinguishing one sound from another. It is different, however, in some southern German dialects: Here b, d, g are spoken as [p], [t], [k] (not breathed) and can only be distinguished from p, t, k by their aspiration. So the aspiration is quite phonematic here . The same applies to the Indo-Aryan languages , Armenian , Korean or Thai . In the ancient Greek language , too , the letters φ , θ and χ were originally spoken as aspirated closures, which is still reflected in the fact that they are reproduced in foreign words with ph , th and ch .
The aspiration mostly concerns voiceless plosives, but in the Indo-Aryan languages there are also voiced aspirated plosives, e.g. B. [bʱ], before. Some Indo-Aryan languages also know aspirated liquids , Hindi for example the aspirated, voiced retroflex flap [ɽʰ].
In some German accents and dialects, unlike standard pronunciation, there is no aspiration of voiceless consonants, for example in High Alemannic (see Fortis ), southern Low German (namely East and Westphalian ) and in Rhenish . Many European standard languages such as French , Dutch , Spanish or Hungarian also have no aspiration .
|IPA character description||under set Trema|
|Unicode||U + 0324|
|HTML (dec.)||& # 804;|
A phonetically different case, which, however, occurs with aspirated voiced plosives, the Phonationstyp (especially vowels ), which in English as voice breathy (also German- touch voice) is called. In this case, a voiceless breath is not connected after opening a closure, but rather a stronger air flow is directed through the glottis when a voiced sound is generated, so that a noisy-voiced quality arises like a groan. In the IPA phonetic transcription, this is differentiated from aspiration in the above sense and indicated by a subordinate trema (◌̤, Unicode COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW U + 0324).
- Klaus J. Kohler : Introduction to the Phonetics of German (= Basics of German Studies. Vol. 20). Erich Schmidt, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-503-01237-0 .
- Aspiration. Retrieved October 13, 2016 (video in English).
- Paul Teepe, in: Low German. Language and literature. An introduction. Volume 1: Language. S. 156. Jan Goossens , LWL, 1983, accessed on November 29, 2018 . (PDF)