|Hungarian language ( magyar nyelv )|
|see under " Official Status ", also distributed in Western and Central Europe and North America|
|speaker||over 13.5 million
estimates worldwide : up to 15 million
(including over 9.5 million in Hungary)
|Official language in||
Hungary Vojvodina , Serbia European Union Districts Oberwart & Oberpullendorf , Austria
|Recognized minority /
regional language in
Croatia Burgenland , Austria Romania Slovakia Slovenia Zakarpattia , Ukraine
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
Hungarian is widespread in south-central Europe and is spoken by over 13.5 million people; other estimates put up to 15 million speakers. Hungarian is the official language in Hungary and since May 1, 2004 also one of the official languages in the European Union . Unlike most European languages, Hungarian does not belong to the Indo-European language family and is therefore not closely related to them. The language codes of Hungarian according to ISO 639 are
Origin and history
Comparative linguistics assigns Hungarian, together with Chantic and Mansic , the languages of two indigenous peoples of Western Siberia with a few thousand speakers each, to the Ugric subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages . The Finno-Ugric languages, together with the small group of Samoyed languages, form the Uralic language family .
The relationship between the various languages belonging to this family can often be demonstrated primarily through the structure of the language, while the vocabulary sometimes shows only a few similarities. The original forms of Finnish and Hungarian have been separated for many millennia, and the relationship is no closer than the relationship between different Indo-European languages such as German and Persian .
Until they conquered the Danube in the 9th century, the Magyars lived for several centuries in intensive cultural contact with the neighboring Turkic-speaking ethnic groups ( Khazars , Volga-Bulgarians ). An influence on language development therefore appears possible. The foreign name “Hungarian” is occasionally associated with the name of a Hunno-Bulgarian tribal federation “ Onogur ” with the meaning “ten arrows”. During the stay in the “home in between” in the steppe areas north of the Black Sea ( Etelköz ) in the 9th century, cultural and linguistic contacts with the Crimean Goths can also be accepted.
The first inscriptions in Hungarian are said to date from the 9th century, when the Magyars still used the Hungarian runic script . The dating and relevance of the Hungarian runes is controversial, however. With the Christianization under King Stephen I , Latin was added as a source for numerous borrowings.
The foundation deed of the Benedictine Abbey of Tihany from 1055 is considered the first written monument in Hungarian. The document contains several Hungarian word combinations in a predominantly Latin text. The earliest surviving text in Hungarian is the “funeral speech” (halotti beszéd) from the end of the 12th century. As Altungarisch that language form is up to the Battle of Mohács referred to in the 1526th
The influence of the German language dates back to the time of the rule of the Habsburgs (1699–1867 / 1918) in Hungary. After the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867, a policy of intensive Magyarization was pursued in the peripheral areas (Slovakia, Croatia, Transylvania) , i.e. the enforcement of Hungarian over the regional languages. Magyarization manifested itself numerically in the fact that the proportion of the Magyar population in the Kingdom of Hungary rose from about 29% in 1780 to 54% in 1910, according to official reports. The discontent of the non-Magyar population of the Kingdom of Hungary resulting from the Magyarization was one of the main causes of the disintegration of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1918.
About 3.2 million Hungarians were separated from the mother country through the First World War and the subsequent peace treaties ( Treaty of Trianon ); half of them lived in border areas (especially in southern Slovakia), the other half in the interior of neighboring countries, especially in northern Transylvania (Romania) and in Vojvodina (northern Serbia). As a result, there are still many (only) Hungarian speakers in these countries.
After the Hungarian uprising in 1956, many Hungarians emigrated. Her main destinations were North and South America, Australia, Austria and Switzerland.
The great linguistic distance to the idioms of the neighboring peoples ( German , Romanian , Slovak , Croatian , Serbian , Ukrainian ) is one of the defining moments of the Hungarian national identity. Similar to the Proto-Bulgarians , the Magyars are descendants of Eurasian steppe nomads who immigrated to Central Europe relatively late . Unlike the first-named peoples, however, they have retained their language permanently.
Distribution and legal status
|country||Number of speakers||Elevation|
|Romania (mainly in eastern Transylvania and along the border with Hungary)||1,227,623||2011|
|Slovakia (mainly in southern Slovakia)||458.467||2011|
|Serbia (mainly in the north of Vojvodina)||253,899||2011|
|Ukraine (along the border with Hungary in Carpathian Ukraine )||149,400||2001|
|Austria (mainly in Burgenland )||55.038||2014|
|Croatia (mainly in the counties bordering Hungary )||16,500|
|Slovenia (mainly in the Prekmurje region )||9,240|
|Sources: censuses of the various states|
In addition, there are about a million other speakers all over the world, with smaller Hungarian-speaking communities in Argentina , Australia , Brazil , Germany , Finland , the Netherlands , Italy , Switzerland , Sweden , the Czech Republic and the USA .
Hungarian is the official language in the Serbian region of Vojvodina and the three municipalities of Hodoš , Dobrovnik and Lendava in the Slovenian region of Prekmurje, along with the respective state languages. In addition, the Hungarian language is a recognized minority language in Austria , Croatia, Romania and Slovakia.
The Hungarian dialects generally show fewer differences from one another than, for example, the German dialects. The dialectal differences are mainly on the phonetic level. The Hungarian Tschangos dialects, which are still widespread in the Romanian district of Bacău , are an exception. Due to the isolation from the Hungarian motherland, the Tschangos retained their own dialect, which changed significantly due to Romanian influence. The dialect of the Szekler on this side and the Tschango dialect on the other side of the Romanian Carpathians are occasionally also combined to form the eastern dialects .
As a result, nine dialect groups are distinguished:
- the southern dialects (déli nyelvjárások)
- the Transdanubian dialects (dunántúli nyelvjárások)
- the Western Transdanubian dialects (nyugat-dunántúli nyelvjárások)
- the northwest dialects (palóc nyelvjárások)
- the northeast dialects (északkeleti nyelvjárások)
- the Tisza dialects (tiszai nyelvjárások)
- the Middle Transylvanian dialects (mezőségi nyelvjárások)
- the Szekler dialects (székely nyelvjárások)
- the Tschango dialects (csángó nyelvjárások)
(in square brackets the pronunciation according to the International Phonetic Alphabet )
The phonology of the Hungarian language is implemented using Latin letters. All letters correspond to exactly one sound (in contrast to German, in which there are different pronunciation options for "e").
In Hungarian, digraphs and the trigraph dzs are also considered separate letters that are written with several characters. Thus, Hungarian spelling is largely regular. The only exception is the j-sound, which is written both as “j” and as “ly”. Historically called "ly" the sound [ ʎ ] , who is now with "j" to [ j ] has collapsed. Several letters differ from the pronunciation used in German.
All words are always stressed on the first syllable, however long they may be, cf. legeslegmegvesztegethetetlenebbeknek [ ˈlɛɡɛʃlɛɡmɛɡvɛstɛɡɛthɛtɛtlɛnɛbːɛknɛk ] "the most incorruptible" (13 syllables, the form is given in German with the dative plural). This rule also applies to loan words , cf. zsakett = "jacket".
A distinction is made between short and long vowels. Long vowels are consistently indicated by the acute and are not duplicated in the spelling. The short vowels i, o, ö, u, ü are always pronounced closed [ io ø uy ]. So only the vowel length is phonologically distinctive . It is used to distinguish words with different meanings, see:
- bor [ ˈbor ] "wine" vs. bór [ ˈboːr ] " boron (chemical element)"
- örül [ ˈøryl ] "he / she is happy" vs. (meg) őrül [ ˈmɛɡˌøːryl ] "he / she is going crazy"
In contrast to German, the short vowels a and e are pronounced:
|Characters||IPA phonetic characters||description||example|
|a||[ ɒ ]||Rounded open back vowel , as in British English flop [ flɒp ] (failure) or Bavarian I håb gsågdt [ i: hɒb gsɒgd ]||apa "father"|
|e||[ ɛ ]||Unrounded half-open front tongue vowel , very open e, almost ä; [ ɛ ] with bias to [ æ ]||egér "mouse"|
(In some dialects two short e-sounds are distinguished, where there is next to the open and a closed [ e ] but this will not marked in the written language is an exception here are the song books.. Kodály who likes the closed e -Sound marked as "ë", e.g. ëgyetëm "University".)
Long vowels can appear in all word syllables, cf. főméltóságáról “about his excellence”.
|Characters||IPA phonetic characters||description||example|
|c||[ t͡s ]||Voiceless alveolar affricates , as in German tz ; z in "cat"; "Sugar"||vicc "joke", cukor "sugar"|
|cs||[ t͡ʃ ]||Voiceless postalveolar affricates , such as German ch in "mud", "bye"||palacsinta "pancakes, pancakes", kocsi "carriage; Dare; Automobile"|
|dz||[ d͡z ]||Voiced affricates , voiced equivalent to c||bodza "elder"|
|dzs||[ d͡ʒ ]||Voiced postalveolar affricates , voiced equivalent to cs , like engl. j in john||dzsungel "jungle"|
|gy||[ ɟ ]||Voiced palatal plosive , palatalized "d", corresponds roughly to a "dj" or as in "Dieu" (French, God)||magyar [ ˈmɒɟɒr ] "Hungarian", György [ ˈɟørɟ ] "Georg"|
|H||[ h ]||Voiceless glottal fricative , as in German h in hold , mute at the end of the word, clearly articulated in the intervowel||méh [ meː ] "bee", but noisy [ ˈdyhøʃ ] "angry"|
|j , ly||[ j ]||Voiced palatal approximant , like German j in Jagd||jó "good", hely [ ˈhɛj ] "place"|
|ny||[ ɲ ]||Voiced palatal nasal , like French or Italian gn in Champagne or Bologna ; span. ñ in señor||nyíl "arrow"|
|r||[ r ]||Voiced alveolar vibrant , tongue tip-r (with more beats than the southern German tongue-r)||rózsa "rose"|
|s||[ ʃ ]||Voiceless postalveolar fricative , like German sch in "Schule"||spiritusz [ ˈʃpiritus ] "spirit"; sonka "ham"|
|sz||[ s ]||Voiceless alveolar fricative , like German ss in "class"||szexis "sexy", szoprán "soprano"|
|ty||[ c ]||Voiceless palatal plosive , such as ti in French loan words on -tier such as "Metier" or as German tj in "Matjes"||Mátyás [ ˈmaːcaːʃ ] "Matthias", kutya "dog"|
|v||[ v ]||Voiced labiodental fricative , like German w in wild , never like [ f ]||vicc "joke"|
|z||[ z ]||Voiced alveolar fricative , such as z in English. "Zero" or French "zéro"||"Music" scene|
|zs||[ ʒ ]||Voiced postalveolar fricative , like French j in "Journal", toujours||zselatin "gelatine", zsakett "jacket"|
The letters w and x are only used in names or words of foreign origin. The Y is - apart from the mentioned digraphs gy , ly , ny and ty - only at the end of surnames use and is as [ i ] pronounced. Originally it is a sign of nobility that is comparable to the German "von", e.g. B. in the family name Szalay (instead of Szalai ).
Doubled consonants are pronounced longer accordingly; preceding vowels are never shortened. Digraphs can also be pronounced long, but here only the first letter is doubled: ssz = double-sz, lly = double-ly, etc.
In Hungarian - in contrast to German - the letters Ö, Ő, Ü and Ű as well as the digraphs (cs, dz, gy, ly, ny, sz, ty, zs) and the trigraph (dzs) count as a separate letter. One sometimes speaks of the large and small Hungarian alphabet, depending on whether the four letters Q, W, X, Y that only appear in foreign words and historical spellings (e.g. family names) are added or not. In the first case the Hungarian alphabet has 44 letters, in the second 40 letters.
This seems like a lot compared to the 26 letters of German, but the difference is less serious if the comparison takes into account that in German Ä, Ö, Ü, ẞ and the combinations ch, sch, tsch would also increase the number, but this would traditionally not be counted as separate letters.
Historical orthography in proper names
In some Hungarian names an old orthography has been preserved, in which u. a. the following rules apply:
|(l) y||(l) i|
|(n) y||(ny) i|
|Széchenyi||Szé csé nyi|
|Thokoly||T eco li|
|Weöres||V ö r ö s|
|Chazar||Cs á sz ár|
|Gaál||G á l|
|Veér||V é r|
|Soós||S ó s|
|Thewrewk||Tö r ö k|
An extreme example is the name Dessewffy , which is pronounced like Dezsőfi .
Unlike in the inflected languages , the formation of word forms in Hungarian takes place through agglutination . In addition, relationships of possession, direction, temporality, etc., which are formed in German by possessive pronouns, prepositions or prepositional phrases, are also formed in Hungarian by agglutination. The suffixes are attached to the root of the word in a precisely defined order. The noun can be given many different function suffixes.
Hungarian knows 18 cases: nominative , dative , accusative , superessive , delative , sublative , inessive , elative , illative , adessive , ablative , allative , terminative , comitive-instrumental, causal-final, factive-translative, essive-modal , formal ( according to Béla Szent-Iványi: “The Hungarian language structure.” Leipzig 1964, Hamburg 1995). There are a total of 27 case suffixes in Hungarian, 18 of which can be used without restrictions. If one disregards the restrictions in the use of the other case suffixes, Hungarian has 27 cases. Because of the peculiarity of word formation, there is no agreement among linguists as to how many cases there are in total in the Hungarian language. Some linguists only assume five cases, others count up to 40.
Only three cases - nominative, dative and accusative - have German equivalents. Regardless of whether the remaining constructs are viewed as “real” cases, they can only be translated into German using prepositional phrases.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Article 1:
“Minden emberi lény szabadon születik és egyenlő méltósága és yoga van. Az emberek, ésszel és lelkiismerettel bírván, egymással szemben testvéri szellemben kell hogy viseltessenek. "
German: All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Influences from other languages on Hungarian
The basic vocabulary has a few hundred roots in common with other Uralic languages .
Examples are the numbers from two to four: kettő, három, négy (Finnish kaksi, kolme, neljä , Estonian kaks, kolm, neli , Mansi : китыг, хурум, нила / kityg, churum, nila )
Also the words víz - water, kéz - hand, vér - blood, fej - head (Finnish and Estonian vesi, käsi, veri , Finnish pää , Estonian pea ).
In addition, the Hungarian vocabulary contains borrowings from several languages and language groups:
- From German: vekni , zsemle - Wecken / Brötchen / Semmel, pék - baker, srég - oblique, subler - caliper (caliper), hokkedli - stool, sámli - stool, sláger - hit, street hit
- Especially from the common history with the Germans in the Habsburg Empire and Austria words were from the southern German-speaking area in Austria borrowed: sparhelt - saving stove (heated with wood and coal kitchen stove), karfiol - cauliflower (cauliflower), paradicsom - tomatoes (tomato) szekálni - sekkieren (torment), krampusz - Krampus , virsli - Frankfurter Würstel .
- There are also many words in everyday language, such as krumpli - " basic pear" ( potato ), spájz - pantry
- From the Latin: templom - church, kastély - castle, sors - destiny, pásztor - shepherd, lick - lesson, cédula - note
- From Italian: Piazza → piac - market, Pagliaccio → pojáca - clown ( old German also: pojazz ), spárga - asparagus
- From Slavic languages: macska - cat, asztal - table, szabad - free, cseresznye - cherry, unoka - grandchild, diák - student, pap - priest, kabát - coat, szoknya - skirt, király - king
- From Turkic languages: csizma - boots, padlizsán - eggplant, papucs - slippers, barack - peach, balta - ax, szakáll - beard
In Hungarian there is a tendency that internationalisms tend to have Hungarian equivalents, mostly loan translations , e.g. B. nemzetközi instead of internacionális (international). In addition to the internationalisms, there is often a Hungarian equivalent ( számítógép ("calculating machine") and komputer , szálloda and hotel ). Of course, words from other languages are also taken over directly, but the spelling and pronunciation are adapted to Hungarian: bájt (byte), dizájn (design), fájl ("file"), menedzser (manager), srapnel ( Shrapnel), szex (sex), szingli (single), trendi (trendy, fashionable). The spelling of first names of foreign origin is also "Magyarized": Jennifer and Jessica are z. B. written in Hungarian Dzsenifer and Dzsesszika .
Influences from Hungarian on other languages
Hungarian terms or expressions found their way into many other European languages. The German language, for example, adopted terms such as interpreter , goulash , coach or pancake (cf. loan word ). In addition, the German comes dub the Hungarian talpas from (breitfüßig).
In Croatian , the following terms have been borrowed or re-borrowed:
|cipela ( cipő , German shoe)||lopov (thief; from lop , German to steal)|
|čizma ( csizma , German boots)||lopta ( labda , German ball)|
|gaće ( gatya , German long johns )||puška (puska, German gun)|
|kamata ( kamat , German interest)||soba ( szoba , German room)|
|karika ( karika , German ring)||šator ( sátor , German tent)|
|kip (statue; from kép , German image)||šogor ( sógor , German brother-in-law)|
|kočija ( kocsi , German carriage, wagon)||teret ( teher , German load)|
The term remek-djelo , in the sense of masterpiece, masterpiece (from Hungarian "remek" , glorious, splendid and Croatian) is a very common borrowing from Hungarian, especially in art circles . "Djelo" , work ).
For example, in the following example sentence there are 13 Hungarisms. Knowledgeable Hungarian speakers could at least guess what we are talking about:
- » Šogor je obukao bundu , uzeo ašov i sablju pa izašao pred gazdu u kočiji . Šogorica je dotle u sobi kuhala gulaš i pekla palačinke , opasana pregačom i kose svezane u punđu , kako bi što bolje ugostila njegove pajdaše . «
- "The brother pulled the fur coat , took spades and saber and rode the carriage for men . The sister-in-law , who wore an apron and had her hair tied in a topknot , was cooking goulash and baking pancakes in the room in the meantime so that it would please his comrades as well as possible. "
Many names in these sentences could also be replaced by Croatian names. However , this language is particularly typical in Slavonia . Many of the terms that are typical of today's Croatian language are actually loan translations of Hungarian terms. Examples include: povjerenstvo ( bizottság , German committee, commission), brzojav ( sürgöny , German telegram), prethodnica ( elővéd , German vanguard), kolodvor ( pályaudvar , German train station), časnik (from tiszt - German vanguard) pure, German officer). The term for "railway" was coined according to the Hungarian or German model (so-called loan coinage): željeznica (after Hungarian vasút or German railway). Many Croatian towns contain the Hungarian name vár (dt. Castle) in their names , including Vukovar , Varaždin or Bjelovar .
Naming and relatives
In Hungarian, a distinction is made between older and younger sister ( nővér / húg ) and between older and younger brother ( báty / öcs ) . The (biological) parents ( anya, apa = mother, father) are denoted in Hungarian with the addition of the prefix édes ~ (literally: "sweet"): édesanyám / -apám = my mother / my father.
There are also separate prefixes for ancestors of older generations: nagy ~ = capital ~, déd ~ = great-great ~, ük ~ = great-great ~, szép ~ = great-great-great ~.
The relatives néni (aunt) and bácsi (uncle) are followed by the names: Anni néni, Józsi bácsi . Children address not only relatives, but also acquaintances. In kindergarten and elementary school, it is also common for children to address teachers with néni or bácsi : Zsuzsa néni , Feri bácsi . This form of address spread during the period of the Habsburg Monarchy into the eastern dialects of Austria: The usual form of address for an aunt Anna would be "Anna-Tant" in Viennese. A short form of bácsi is bá in combination with the baptismal name. This form is used almost exclusively by adolescent boys when they have a close male caregiver - e. B. address a football coach: Józsi bá . This form of address is used with the Sie-Form, but expresses a more familiar relationship. In secondary schools, the form of address is " Surname + tanár úr / tanárnő ": Kovács tanár úr, Kiss tanárnő or simply tanár úr / tanárnő .
Since the surnames are mostly derived from adjectives, the surname is given first and only then the first name ( utónév or keresztnév ) (e.g. Bátori Gábor, in German Gabriel von Bator or Bator's Gabriel). However, this practice is only applied to Hungarian names, foreign names are usually mentioned in the order usual in the country of origin.
The fact that a woman is married is often indicated by adding the ending -né to the husband's name: Kovács Józsefné (the wife of József Kovács). The short form (an official sounding form of address ) is Kovácsné (Ms. Kovács). While this naming was very common up until the 1990s - for a long time it was the only option - a tendency can be observed that women either keep their maiden name or prefer other forms after marriage (e.g. when Anna Kiss József Kovács married, the following forms are possible: Kovácsné Kiss Anna, Kovács Anna, Kovács-Kiss Anna ). Men are addressed with úr : Kovács úr . In the years of communism , the form of address elvtárs and elvtársnő (comrade and comrade) was still common: Kovács elvtárs .
Greetings and forms of address
The greetings and forms of address are particularly diverse in the Hungarian language. Some forms of greeting are still relics from the time of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, e.g. B. the form Kezét csókolom or Csókolom (kiss [the hand]). While this greeting originally expressed respect for (often older) women, the csókolom form is particularly common among children who greet their adult acquaintances in this way. Kezét csókolom , on the other hand , is the usual way of addressing men to strangers, while adult women practically never use this expression. The official greeting Jó reggelt / napot / estét (kívánok) (good morning / day / evening [I wish]) often sounds distant, especially in the full form. Young people and friends greet each other with szia , szervusz or heló (can be said both when meeting and when saying goodbye). The official goodbye formula is Viszontlátásra (Goodbye) or on the phone / radio Viszonthallásra ( Goodbye ). They are also often used in the short forms viszlát , or viszhall .
Diverse forms of courtesy
There are several forms of politeness in Hungarian. There are two equivalents of the German “Sie”, which are not entirely the same: Ön (Pl. Önök ) and maga (Pl. Maguk ), whereby the Ön is particularly important in official life (in the media, in politics, in shops - especially in the larger cities), the Maga is more colloquial and familiar. After Ön and maga the 3rd person singular is used, after Önök / maguk the 3rd person plural. The personal pronoun is often left out, however, you can only address one with the third person (singular or plural, depending on how many people are being addressed). Ön sounds more official, maga more confidential.
Children use the awkward tetszik form with an infinitive when talking to older people , roughly the same people they greet with csókolom : Le tetszik ülni ? (Would you like to sit down?). Tetszik (literally “fallen”) can also be used in the plural as well as in all tenses and modes: Le tetszett ülni? Le tetszett volna ülni ? (Did you want to sit down? Or would you have wanted to sit down?).
In Hungary there is a tendency for the Duzen to come more and more into the foreground, one is often used in the shops, especially young people of the same age. Meanwhile, more and more children are using their tutors and teachers. Up until the 1960s, it was still common for parents and grandparents to be married, especially in rural areas. Around the turn of the century (19th / 20th century) even married couples met. Even today one often hears that the in-laws are sighed. Often, (older) parents or in- laws are addressed with anyuka and apuka (mother and father) in addition to the Sie-form .
Scold in Hungarian
Hungarian is rich in swear words , some of which are very crude and are now used regardless of age and gender.
Some swear words (verbs in imperative form that describe sexual intercourse, for example: "baszd meg" as used in English according to " fuck ") are used as filler words or to emphatically underline the statement. There are also crude nouns (e.g. a term for prostitute ( kurva ) , which is a Slavic loan word) that are used to increase adjectives. Often the mother of the person abused is part of the expression ( anyád - "your mother"; the verb that denotes such abuse is anyázni ) - similar phrases can also be found in the Slavic languages. It is considered a particularly insulting abuse if you want to send the other person - literally translated - back to your mother ( menj vissza anyádba ). Various synonyms for homosexuals or names of a genital part are also used simply as swear words.
But there are euphemisms that can be used instead of swear words and are not crude, but sound similar to the swear words: z. B. banyek and basszuskulcs (literally “bass clef”) for the expressions with the most common verb for intercourse that begins with a similar syllable.
In general, insults should not be understood or translated literally. Some very coarse-sounding insults would correspond to the German "Du spinnst" if translated accordingly. In addition, insults often flow into conversations, especially between friendly men, without being perceived as an insult.
Opinions on the Hungarian language
George Bernard Shaw said in an interview with the US broadcaster CBS: “After studying Hungarian for years, I am convinced that my life's work would have been much more valuable if I had it as my mother tongue. Because with this strange language, bursting with ancient forces, one can describe the tiny differences and secret movements of the sensations much more precisely. "
The Viennese linguist N. Ebersberg said of the Hungarian language in the 19th century. “The structure of Hungarian seems to me as if it had been developed by an assembly of linguists so that the language contained everything important - regularity, density, clarity and harmony . "
According to Ove Berglund , Swedish doctor and translator: “ Today when I have knowledges about the structures of the language of humankind my opinion is this: the magyar (the hungarian) language is the top product of the logic / creativity of humanity. "(German:" Today, since I have knowledge of the structures of the language of mankind, this is my opinion: The Magyar (Hungarian) language is the highest product of human logic and creativity. ")
- Albert Szenczi Molnár : Dictionarium Ungarico-Latino-Germanicum . Endter, Nuremberg 1708 ( digitized version )
Grammars and other linguistic publications
- Szilvia Szita, Tamás Görbe: Gyakorló magyar nyelvtan / A Practical Hungarian Grammar, Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest (2009, 2010) ISBN 978-963-05-8703-7
- Pál Kövesdi: Elementa Linguae Hungaricae sive Grammatica Hungarica. Svccincta methodo comprehensa et perspicuis exemplis illvstrata . Leuschoviae, 1686 ( digitized version )
- Anselm Mansvet Riedl: Magyarian grammar . Vienna 1858 ( Google digitized version , dto. At MEK )
- Béla Szent-Iványi: The Hungarian language structure . Hamburg: Buske, 1995; ISBN 3-87548-101-1
- László Keresztes: Practical Hungarian grammar . Debrecen: Debreceni Nyári Egyetem, 1992; ISBN 963-472-038-2
- Mária D. Mátai: A Brief Hungarian Language History . Hamburg: Buske, 2002; ISBN 3-87548-323-5
- Tamás Forgács: Hungarian grammar . Vienna: Edition Praesens, 2002 (²2004); ISBN 3-7069-0107-2
- Gyula Décsy: Introduction to Finnish-Ugric Linguistics . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965; ISBN 3-447-00248-4
- Harald Haarmann: The Finnish-Ugric languages. Sociological and political aspects of their development . Hamburg: Buske, 1973; ISBN 3-87118-155-2
- Ural-Altaic yearbooks , ed. from the Societas Uralo-Altaica (SUA). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz
- Finnish-Ugric research. Journal of Finnish-Ugric Linguistics and Folklore , ed. by the Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura (Finnish-Ugric Society). Helsinki
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- Official Language Ordinance-Hungarian ( Memento of the original from 23 September 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Federal Law Gazette for the Republic of Austria of July 20, 2000
- MVPEI ( Memento of the original from March 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- EUROPA - Education and Training - Europa - Regional and minority languages - Euromosaïc study ( Memento of the original from October 19, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- EUROPA - Education & Training - Regional and Minority Languages of the European Union - Euromosaic Study ( Memento of the original from June 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Paul Lendvai: The Hungarians. A thousand years of history . Goldmann, 2001, ISBN 3-442-15122-8 , on this p. 418
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- cf. Croatian Wikipedia Hungarizam or Usvojenice
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