Gradišće ( Croatian )
Őrvidék ( Hungarian )
|Country flag||State coat of arms|
|National language :||German , Croatian and Hungarian|
|State capital :||Eisenstadt|
|Biggest City :||Eisenstadt|
|National anthem :||
|ISO 3166-2 :||AT-1|
|Map: Burgenland in Austria|
|Area :||3,961.8 km²|
|- of which country:||3,680 km² (92.8%)|
|- of which water:||286 km² (7.2%)|
|- Rank:||7th of 9th|
|Geographic location :||46 ° 52 '- 48 ° 7' n. Br.
16 ° 2 '- 17 ° 6' ö. L.
|Expansion:||North – South: 166 km
West – East: 85 km
|The highest point:||
( Geschrittenstein )
(at Apetlon )
statutory cities 7 districts
|Judicial districts :||6th|
|Municipalities :||171, of which
67 market communities
|Map: administrative districts|
|Residents :||294,436 (January 1, 2020)|
|- Rank:||9th of 9th|
|Population density :||74 inhabitants per km²|
|Proportion of foreigners:||8.6% (2018)|
|Governor :||Hans Peter Doskozil ( SPÖ )|
|Distribution of seats in the state parliament :|
|Allocation of seats in the 22nd state parliament : A total of 36 seats|
|Last choice:||January 26, 2020|
|Gross domestic product :||8.77 billion euros (2017)|
|GDP per capita:||30,000 euros|
|Unemployment rate :||6.4% (July 2019)|
The Burgenland ( Burgenland-Croatian Gradišće, Hungarian Felsőőrvidék / Őrvidék , Lajtabánság or more recently Várvidék ) is a country of the Republic of Austria . The state capital is Eisenstadt . It is the easternmost of Austria's nine countries and the smallest in terms of population. The area once belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary , which was obliged in the Treaty of Trianon in 1920 to cede what was then German West Hungary to the new Republic of Austria. In 1921 the land acquisition of Burgenland came to an end; The newly added state was given the legally binding name Burgenland with the Federal Constitutional Act of 25 January 1921.
Burgenland borders in the north on the Pressburger Land ( Slovakia ), in the east on the counties Győr-Moson-Sopron and Vas (both Hungarians ), in the south for a few kilometers on the two municipalities of Kuzma and Rogašovci ( Slovenia ) and in the west on the Austrian federal states of Styria and Lower Austria .
Burgenland is characterized by Lake Neusiedl in the north and the foothills of the Alps in the hilly south, it is elongated and narrows to a width of 4 km at Sieggraben in the Ödenburg Mountains . Burgenland is a member of the Centrope European region .
Around 400 BC Chr. Settled Celts on the territory of today's Burgenland. Around the time of Christ's birth, Burgenland became part of the (ancient) Roman Empire ; his area belonged to the province of Pannonia . Roman rule ended in 378 AD. The Ostrogoths colonized the country . The Huns ruled here from 433 to 453 AD . In 454, Theodoric the Great, later King of the Ostrogoths, was born in the area of Lake Neusiedl. The Lombards followed the Huns from 490 to 568 . From 600 to 800 the country was ruled by the Avars . At the end of the 8th century, the Frankish king, Charlemagne , defeated the Avars and the country was incorporated into the Frankish Empire as part of the Avarmark . After 800, the first German settlement took place under Charlemagne. In the 9th century it was part of the Slavic Balaton Principality and the Great Moravian Empire . In 907 the Magyars conquered the country.
Around 1260 the Güssing counts owned 25 castles in the area. The Mattersdorf-Forchtensteiner Counts, who came from Aragon in Spain , also held large estates in what is now northern and central Burgenland. At the time of the first Turkish siege of Vienna in 1529, the villages of the Seewinkel were devastated. Around 1530, Croats were settled in what is now Burgenland. The area, which has been predominantly German-settled since the Turkish wars , part of the Kingdom of Hungary , was leased by the Hungarian kings in the Middle Ages to the Habsburgs as archdukes of neighboring Austria under the Enns and as dukes of the neighboring Styria . When Habsburg inherited the Hungarian royal crown in 1526, this lease became obsolete. In 1622 Nikolaus Esterházy was enfeoffed with the rule of Forchtenstein, in 1648 with Eisenstadt.
From 1648 to 1921 the area was under Hungarian administration. In 1664 the country suffered from the Turkish War and in 1678 from the Kuruc War . At the time of the second Turkish siege of Vienna , northern Burgenland was hit hard again.
After the Austro-Hungarian settlement in 1867, the area later known as German West Hungary was also subjected to the Magyarization that began throughout Old Hungary : the attempt to gradually turn the non-Magyar peoples of the Kingdom of Hungary, who made up around 50% of the total population, into Magyars (Hungarians) or to assimilate them. In contrast, Woodrow Wilson called for the peoples of the Danube Monarchy's right to self-determination at the end of the First World War .
After the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the newly founded state of German Austria claimed, among other things, the German-speaking part of western Hungary for itself. In the Treaty of St. Germain concluded between Austria and the victorious powers of the First World War , the area was granted to Austria in 1919; In the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, Hungary had to undertake to cede it. After the establishment of the short-lived Lajtabánság Republic under the leadership of the commander-in-chief Pál Prónay in October 1921, the area was occupied by the Austrian army in the following month and officially handed over from Hungary to Austria on December 5, 1921. The attitude of the German-speaking settlers in western Hungary towards the annexation to Austria was (more) inconsistent for economic reasons.
After violent protests in Hungary was for Sopron (Sopron), which as the capital was provided of the new state, and its surroundings a referendum carried out that led to the whereabouts of Wastes Petersburg in Hungary. The overall result of the referendum resulted in a clear two-thirds majority for Hungary. The communities around Ödenburg voted for Austria (but stayed with Hungary, as the voting area was only rated as a whole); the majority of the population in the city of Ödenburg voted to stay with Hungary.
The state's admission to the Republic of Austria was regulated in the Federal Constitutional Law on the status of Burgenland as an independent and equal state in the Federation and through its provisional establishment of January 25, 1921.
The country name Heinzenland (after the Hianzn dialect , see also the short-lived Republic of Heinzenland ) was propagated by some proponents of integration into the Republic of Austria, and the Burgenland proposal ultimately prevailed.
Burgenland was taken over by Austrian administration in autumn 1921. Bad Sauerbrunn was the provisional seat of the state government and administration until 1925 ; then the until then relatively insignificant small town Eisenstadt (Hungarian: Kismarton) became the capital of Burgenland.
In the "Greater German Reich" after the "Anschluss" of Austria , the cities of Eisenstadt, Rust and the districts of Eisenstadt, Mattersburg, Neusiedl am See and Oberpullendorf were added to the Reichsgau Niederdonau on October 15, 1938 , the districts of Güssing, Jennersdorf and Oberwart to the Reichsgau Styria.
After the end of the Second World War and the re-establishment of the Republic of Austria in 1945 ( Second Republic ), Burgenland was also re-established as a federal state. Until 1955 it was in the Soviet occupation zone , until 1989 the iron curtain existed on its eastern border .
The name “Burgenland” reminds us that the country is made up of parts of three old Hungarian counties , all of which had “Burg” in their name. What is curious is the fact that none of the three eponymous castles are in today's Burgenland. They are all on Hungarian territory:
At the beginning of 1919, Austria also claimed parts of the Pressburg County (Slovak Bratislava , Hungarian Pozsony ) for Burgenland. Therefore, in June 1919, the name "Vierburgenland" was proposed. In mid-August 1919, however, it became apparent in the peace negotiations that Pressburg was going to Czechoslovakia . The politician Karl Renner recommended (from Saint-Germain) to change the name to "Dreiburgenland".
The name “Burgenland” was allegedly first proposed by Frauenkirchener Gregor Meidlinger , on September 6, 1919 after a German-West Hungarian delegation had spoken to State Chancellor Karl Renner . This name became common with the Federal Constitutional Law on the status of Burgenland as a federal state with equal rights of January 25, 1921.
Burgenland covers an area of 3,965.46 km² and shares a 397 km long state border for the most part with Hungary, and in small parts with Slovenia and Slovakia.
The highest point in Burgenland is the 884 m high Geschrittenstein (Írott-kő) , through whose summit tower the state border runs. The lowest point is the Hedwighof (municipality of Apetlon - district of Neusiedl am See ) at 114 m. The deepest municipality is Illmitz at 116 m.
The geographical center of Burgenland (coordinates: 47 ° 28'34 N, 16 ° 34'24 E ) is located in Unterpullendorf (municipality of Frankenau-Unterpullendorf ) and was marked by geographers of Burgenland with the "center stone" (basalt stone from Pauliberg) . In the south, Riedel shape the landscape.
The landscape is divided into three regions, with the Central Burgenland sometimes being assigned to the Southern Burgenland.
- Northern Burgenland
- Central Burgenland
- Southern Burgenland
The landscape of Northern Burgenland north of the Ödenburg Mountains is largely part of the Pannonian Plain and includes the statutory cities of Eisenstadt and Rust as well as the districts of Eisenstadt-Umgebung , Mattersburg and Neusiedl am See . Here lies the Neusiedler See , a steppe lake surrounded by a wide belt of reeds , the "Sea of the Viennese". In its vicinity, the Lange Lacke nature reserve offers a refuge for rare bird species. In 1992 the Neusiedler See-Seewinkel National Park was founded in this area , which continues across the border in the Hungarian Fertő-Hanság National Park .
The Central Burgenland , consisting of the district Oberpullendorf, however, is hilly and the south by the kőszeg mountains , the 884-meter high Geschriebenstein is in the, separated from the also hilly southern Burgenland. The loamy soil is characteristic of Central Burgenland. In between there are some basalt hills that come from the earlier Transdanubian volcanic region . The whole area is drained by the Rabnitz (Danube) river , which flows east to the Danube.
The Burgenland consists of the districts of Güssing , Jennersdorf and Oberwart . The hilly terrain slopes down from the East Styrian hill country and the Günser Mountains towards the southeast. The highest peaks in this part south of the Günser Mountains only reach just over 400 meters above sea level. The south is shaped by the river Raab and its many tributaries and tributaries.
Almost the entire area of Burgenland drains via the Raab into the Danube . While the Neusiedler See is tributary over the Einserkanal , the Pinka and the Raab themselves determine the waters in southern Burgenland . In the far north, the Leitha forms the historical border river to Lower Austria. The Wulka rises in the Rosaliengebirge and flows into the Neusiedlersee. The Zöbern is a left tributary of the Güns and flows into it in the Burgenland market town of Lockenhaus . The diving stream or diving (Hungarian Tava ) is an approximately 40 km long tributary that flows into the Pinka on the left.
Burgenland has a share in the Illyrian climate in southern Burgenland and in the Pannonian climate in the rest of the country. Central and northern Burgenland is more continental than the south of the country. The average temperatures here are between −2 ° C and −4 ° C in January and around 21 ° C in July.
On August 8, 2013, a new Burgenland temperature record was reached in Neusiedl am See with a maximum temperature of 40.3 degrees Celsius.
Burgenland consists of 171 independent municipalities and is divided into seven political districts and the two statutory cities Eisenstadt and Rust . In 2019, Burgenland had the lowest average number of inhabitants per municipality of all federal states in Austria, with an average of only 1716 inhabitants per municipality, see also municipalities of the states of Europe . The whole of Austria had an average of 4,227 inhabitants per municipality in 2019.
January 1st, 2020
|Neusiedl am See||1,037.55||59,990||ND|
|2.||Neusiedl am See||Borough||8,585||ND|
The strongly rural Burgenland was ruled by state governors of the ÖVP until 1964 , since then everyone has belonged to the SPÖ . The social democrats benefited from the structural change, which was reflected in a sharp decline in the number of people employed in agriculture and a high number of commuters to Vienna and Graz. Due to its decades of dominance, the party has a dense network of political structures down to the lowest political level. Especially since there are no large urban centers, the election results of Neos and Greens are well below the national average, and the FPÖ also achieved poorer results in the youngest Austrian state. In Burgenland, too, the proportion of regular voters has continuously decreased. While the SPÖ won an absolute majority in the 2020 state elections in Burgenland , the ÖVP became the strongest party for the first time since the 1960s in the National Council elections in Austria in 2019 and the European elections in Austria in 2019 .
The provincial government of Burgenland with its seat in the country house consists of five members of the SPÖ after the state elections in 2020 . After the abolition of proportional representation in 2015, this is the first sole government in Burgenland since 1945. Between 2015 and 2020, a coalition of the SPÖ and the FPÖ ruled .
State governor has been Hans Peter Doskozil (SPÖ) since 2019 .
Members of the state government Doskozil II (since February 2020)
Provincial governors of Burgenland since 1921
- Robert Davy (1921–1922, independent)
- Alfred Rausnitz (1922–1923, independent)
- Alfred Walheim (1923–1924, GDVP , Landbund )
- Josef Rauhofer (1924–1928, CS )
- Johann Thullner (1929–1930, CS)
- Anton Schreiner (1930–1931, CS)
- Alfred Walheim (1931–1934, CS)
- Hans Sylvester (1934–1938, VF )
- Tobias Portschy (1938, NSDAP)
- Ludwig Readers (1945–1946, SPÖ)
- Lorenz Karall (1946–1956, ÖVP)
- Johann Wagner (1956–1961, ÖVP)
- Josef Lentsch (1961–1964, ÖVP)
- Hans Bögl (1964–1966, SPÖ)
- Theodor Kery (1966–1987, SPÖ)
- Johann Sipötz (1987–1991, SPÖ)
- Karl Stix (1991-2000, SPÖ)
- Hans Niessl (2000-2019, SPÖ)
- Hans Peter Doskozil (since 2019, SPÖ)
Municipal council elections
In the 2017 local council elections , the SPÖ emerged as the strongest party despite slight losses.
coat of arms
Description: In gold, a red eagle, naturally seated on a black mountain, looking to the left, crowned, red-tongued and gold-armored eagle with outstretched wings and black paw crosses hovering over the Saxony . On the chest a shield split three times in red and white ermine .
The online platform E-Government Burgenland provides online forms and print forms for citizens and companies with which entries can be sent to the Province of Burgenland, its authorities and offices regardless of time and location. The Burgenland Form Service thus provides a central access option to forms from the most diverse areas of life such as work, building and living, health, etc. Form solutions from the Austrian IT service provider aforms2web are used.
Since Burgenland is traditionally economically backward , many Burgenlanders emigrated to the big cities and to America, so that Vienna and Chicago are the cities with the largest “Burgenland” populations, before Eisenstadt.
|Languages in Burgenland (May 15, 2001)|
In the 2001 census , 19,374 people across Austria stated that they speak Burgenland-Croatian , with 16,245 resident in Burgenland itself. According to the self-assessment of the ethnic group itself, their number is 40,000. There were also 4,704 Burgenland-Hungarians (self-assessment 25,000). 263 gave Romanes as a colloquial language . The real number of Burgenland Roma is probably also significantly higher.
The various ethnic groups are legally recognized as autochthonous language groups. The Croatian and Hungarian Burgenlanders as well as the Sinti and Roma are therefore entitled to use their languages in public correspondence. On the basis of a resolution of the Council of Ministers of May 23, 2000, in places or districts with a share of at least 25% bilingual population (in the 1991 census) place-name signs with bilingual inscriptions German / Croatian (47 places) or German / Hungarian (4 places ) set up. Their existence and the high 25 percent limit are no longer controversial in Burgenland - in the 1970s there were also heated debates, but the discussions about bilingual place-name signs never led to an escalation level like that reached during the place-sign dispute in Carinthia .
Although the majority of Burgenlanders, as in the rest of Austria, are predominantly Roman Catholic , there is a relatively high proportion of Protestants ( 14%) who are organized in the 29 parishes of the Superintendentur A. B. Burgenland and in the Protestant parish HB Oberwart . There used to be a large and important Jewish culture, especially in the so-called " Siebengemeinden " (Eisenstadt, Mattersburg, Kittsee, Frauenkirchen, Kobersdorf, Lackenbach and Deutschkreutz) with a high proportion of Jewish populations. In Lackenbach in 1869, 62% of the population was Jewish; however, the largest Jewish community in Burgenland was that in Mattersburg . By the end of the 19th century, Jews made up more than a third of the population here. In 1938 all Jews were expelled or murdered from Burgenland, today very little in Burgenland reminds of what once was.
In the absence of alternatives, the country was long characterized by agriculture. As an economically underdeveloped federal state in Austria, Burgenland was declared an Objective 1 area of the European Union in 1995 . These subsidies continued until 2013 in a “phasing out” phase. Burgenland has continued to develop economically over the past ten years. In comparison with the gross domestic product of the European Union expressed as purchasing power standard (PPS), the region achieved an index of 89 (EU-28: 100, Austria: 129) (2014). There is still a north-south divide in economic power. These disparities can only be reduced very slowly. Around 23,000 Burgenlanders commute to work as daily or weekly commuters to Vienna, depending on the distance . In 2017, the degree of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 659.
Burgenland is very agricultural. Together with Lower Austria, it is the most important wine-growing region in Austria. Over 13,000 hectares are cultivated in the Burgenland viticulture . It is subdivided into the wine-growing areas of Neusiedlersee (6,675 hectares ), Leithaberg (3,097 hectares), Rosalia (297 hectares), Mittelburgenland (2,104 hectares) and Eisenberg (515 hectares).
Burgenland is a European pioneer in the field of wind energy . In 2000 around three percent of the electricity produced in the country came from wind turbines , in 2011 it was already half. By 2013 it should be 100 percent. Several large wind farms are currently under construction. The Andau / Halbturn wind farm , with 79 Enercon E-101 wind turbines and an installed capacity of 237 MW , will be the largest wind farm in Central Europe when it is completed.
Another important economic factor is summer tourism.
The tourism figures in Burgenland have improved continuously in recent years. However, in terms of the number of overnight stays, it cannot keep up with the tourist strongholds in western Austria. In the absence of ski areas, there is hardly any winter tourism. Draft of tourism in Burgenland are the Lake Neusiedl , the spas St. Martins Therme & Lodge , Lutzmannsburg , Stegersbach and Bad Tatzmannsdorf and not least the wine that is almost grown throughout Burgenland.
The well-developed network of cycle paths , which is over 5000 km long, is particularly popular . Although the northern part of Burgenland is rather flat, cycling tours can be strenuous when the wind blows through the country.
Shopping tourism is also not to be underestimated. There are now two designer outlets near Parndorf with over 200 shops and bars. These attract over four million guests a year who come for shopping tours not only from nearby Vienna, but from all of Eastern Europe and sometimes even from other continents. Since many customers do not manage to manage the entire outlet in one day, a hotel even opened on the premises in 2009.
The Neusiedlersee Familypark , Austria's largest amusement park, which attracts around 500,000 guests every year, is also an important tourist magnet .
Culture and events
There are cultural offers especially in summer, with the Mörbisch Seefestspiele on the lake stage on Lake Neusiedl , the opera festival in the Roman quarry St. Margarethen , the Kobersdorf Castle Games , the Güssing Castle Games , Güssing Musicals , Güssing Cultural Summer, Jennersdorf Festival Summer or the European Symposium Kaisersteinbruch with the Kaisersteinbrucher concerts .
Due to the large number of minorities, folk customs in Burgenland are particularly diverse. There are also cultural events such as B. Croatian or Hungarian homeland evenings held. With Romano Rath from Oberwart there is also a well-known Roma band in Burgenland .
Several festivals take place in Wiesen every year from June to September, with a focus on rock, reggae, jazz and electronic music. There are also numerous concerts with world stars from various genres. Jazz and rock festivals have also been held in Eisenstadt since 2016. In Nickelsdorf Austria's largest rock music festival, Nova Rock , attracts up to 160,000 guests from home and abroad every June. The jazz festival Konfrontationen has also been held in Nickelsdorf every July since 1980; In addition to the concerts, there are also film screenings, art exhibitions, plays and readings. Another small festival that regularly brings well-known musicians and bands to Burgenland is the Picture on in the village of Bildein . With the Cselley mill in Oslip , Burgenland also has a nationwide important action and cultural center, where concerts or performances by cabaret artists take place on a regular basis.
The forum "Nonviolent Burgenland" regularly organizes the literary competition "Goldenes Kleeblatt".
The highest police department is the State Police Directorate based in Eisenstadt. In every district except Rust there is a district police command to which the individual police stations are subordinate. In 2016, as a pilot project in some communities, the security partners were founded to increase the feeling of security and, if necessary, to alert the police.
In 2011, a total of 319 volunteer fire brigades and 7 company fire brigades , which are organized in the Burgenland Fire Brigade Association, were responsible for fire protection and general assistance . There are no professional fire departments in Burgenland. The association's own fire brigade school exists in Eisenstadt to train around 15,000 fire brigade members .
The coordination of the blue light organizations is carried out throughout the federal state by the LSZ Burgenland (state security center) with its headquarters in Landhaus Eisenstadt. The storm warnings for Lake Neusiedl are also triggered here.
The University of Applied Sciences Burgenland has two locations: The location in the north (Eisenstadt) specializes in information technology, social work and economics, the one in the south ( Pinkafeld ) on energy and environmental management and health. Students in Burgenland do not have to pay any tuition fees. In addition to the Burgenland University of Education and the Joseph Haydn Conservatory of the Province of Burgenland (both in Eisenstadt), there was the European Peace University in Stadtschlaining until 2014 .
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