Tyrol (state)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Country flag State coat of arms
Country flag State coat of arms
Basic data
National language : German
State capital : innsbruck
Biggest City : innsbruck
National anthem : Andreas Hofer song
ISO 3166-2 : AT-7
Abbreviation: T
Website: www.tirol.gv.at
Map: Tyrol in Austria
Liechtenstein Schweiz Bodensee Vorarlberg Tirol Tirol Salzburg Kärnten Burgenland Wien Steiermark Oberösterreich Niederösterreich Italien Slowenien Deutschland Kroatien Slowakei Tschechien UngarnTyrol in Austria.svg
About this picture
Area : 12,640.17 km²
- of which country: 12,534 km² (99.1%)
- of which water: 114 km² (0.9%)
- Rank: 3rd of 9th
Geographic location : 46 ° 39 ′ - 47 ° 45 ′ n. Br.
10 ° 06 ′ - 12 ° 58 ′ east.
Expansion: North – South: 107 km
West – East: 220 km
The highest point: 3798  m above sea level A.
( Grossglockner )
Deepest point: 465  m above sea level A.
(border at Erl )
Administrative division
Districts : 001 statutory city 8 districts
Judicial districts : 013
Municipalities : 279, of which
011 cities
0 21 market communities
Map: administrative districts
Bezirk Imst Innsbruck Bezirk Innsbruck-Land Bezirk Kitzbühel Bezirk Kufstein Bezirk Landeck Bezirk Lienz Bezirk Reutte Bezirk SchwazLocation of the district of Karte A Tirol ohne.svg in the state of Tirol (clickable map)
About this picture
Residents : 757,634 (January 1, 2020)
- Rank: 5th of 9th
Population density : 60 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners: 15% (2017)
Governor : Günther Platter ( ÖVP )
Ruling parties: ÖVP and Greens
Distribution of seats in the state parliament :
6th 4th 17th 
A total of 36 seats
Last choice: February 25, 2018
Gross domestic product : 29.9 billion euros (2014)
GDP per capita: 41,200 euros
Unemployment rate : 4% (September 2018)
View from the city tower of the Old Town Hall to Innsbruck Cathedral
Oberinntal and Mieminger Plateau , Seefeld in the foreground
Swarovski Crystal Worlds at Wattens
Stubai Wildspitze , Stubai Alps

Tyrol is a federal state in the west of the Republic of Austria and the northern and eastern part of the historic Alpine region of Tyrol . Its state capital and at the same time the most populous city is Innsbruck .


With an area of ​​12,640.17 square kilometers, Tyrol is the third largest country in Austria. It borders Vorarlberg to the west , Salzburg and Carinthia to the east, Bavaria ( Germany ) to the north, the canton of Graubünden ( Switzerland ) to the southwest , South Tyrol and the Belluno province ( Italy ) to the south . Of all the federal states, it has the longest external border with a total of 719 kilometers and with 11.9% the lowest proportion of permanent settlement area in the state.

Administrative division

The state is divided into nine political districts (Innsbruck city is a statutory city):

Cities and municipalities with the largest population

Cities are marked in bold .

All Tyrolean communities with more than 5000 inhabitants:

rank City / market / municipality Inhabitants
January 1st, 2020
political district
1. innsbruck 131,961 innsbruck
2. Kufstein 19,527 Kufstein
3. Telfs 16,046 Innsbruck country
4th Hall in Tirol 14,153 Innsbruck country
5. Worgl 14,059 Kufstein
6th black 13,791 black
7th Lienz 11,905 Lienz
8th. Imst 10,765 Imst
9. St. Johann in Tirol 9,547 Kitzbühel
10. rum 9,271 Innsbruck country
11. Kitzbühel 8,225 Kitzbühel
12. Zirl 8,110 Innsbruck country
13. Wattens 8,010 Innsbruck country
14th Landeck 7,633 Landeck
15th Absam 7,311 Innsbruck country
16. Jenbach 7,230 black
17th Völs 6,938 Innsbruck country
18th Reutte 6,918 Reutte
19th Axams 6,048 Innsbruck country
20th Kirchbichl 5,858 Kufstein
21st Ebbs 5,645 Kufstein
22nd Hopfgarten in Brixental 5,630 Kitzbühel
23. Vomp 5,235 black
24. Kirchberg in Tyrol 5,230 Kitzbühel


The highest mountain - and at the same time the highest mountain in Austria - is at 3798  m above sea level. A. the Großglockner in East Tyrol , the highest peak in North Tyrol is the Wildspitze ( 3768  m above sea level ).

Mountains in Tyrol
Valleys and important side valleys
Rivers and major tributaries


Tyrol belongs to the moderate climate zone and lies on the border between Atlantic, continental and Mediterranean influence. The inner-alpine mountain climate, which has subcontinental features, is predominant. Relatively humid summers, dry autumns, snowy winters, but also strong local differences characterize the climate.

Chain mountains are weather divisions, while air can flow around isolated mountain ranges. The northern Limestone Alps consist mainly of mountain ranges, where there is precipitation in the reservoirs . The leeward sides are mostly mild and dry. Like all of Central Europe, Tyrol is under the influence of the west wind zone , which is why the northern edge of the Alps is the most humid and snowiest.

The inner alpine valleys have a comparatively mild climate. While the mean annual rainfall in Reutte is 1375 millimeters, on the northern edge of the Karwendel Mountains around 2000 millimeters and in Kufstein 1330 millimeters, it is around 900 millimeters around Innsbruck and only 600 millimeters in the uppermost Inn Valley. Large daily temperature amplitudes are also characteristic of the inner-alpine valleys; the mean daily maximum in July for Innsbruck is 25.1 ° C, higher than that of most other weather stations in Austria.

The mean altitude of Tyrol has a major influence on temperatures. Except for the area around Kufstein , the settlements are over 500 meters. The mountains reduce possible solar radiation, especially in the narrow north-south valleys such as the Ötztal and Pitztal .

Winter is usually characterized by the change between snowy and snowless weather. In the northern parts of the country ( Unterland , Ausserfern and Karwendel area), thick snowpacks of 50 cm and more are not uncommon, even in locations below 1000 m above sea level, due to the northern damming effect, the effect of which is particularly pronounced on cold fronts. In such weather conditions, it snows little or no snow in the inner Alps. Conversely, greater amounts of precipitation are possible inside the Alps, especially when warm fronts arrive. Since the precipitation often falls as rain at lower altitudes due to the milder weather, a thick blanket of snow is far less common in the Upper Inn Valley. It often happens that there is less snow in Landeck and Innsbruck than in Wörgl or Kufstein. Spring in the Alpine region is usually very unstable and rainy, and cold snaps can occur. In summer, most of the rain falls through thunderstorms. Autumn is often characterized by long periods of good weather. A special weather event is the foehn , which occurs mainly in the transitional seasons, can reach wind speeds of up to 200 km / h on the Patscherkofel and up to 120 km / h in Innsbruck and enables temperatures of over 20 ° C even in late autumn and early spring.


For the history before 1918 see Tirol # Geschichte .

Tyrol until 1919

Separated from South Tyrol (Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bozen) by the Peace Treaty of St. Germain in 1919 , the State of Tyrol (North and East Tyrol) became part of the newly founded Republic of German Austria (later the Republic of Austria). There were various efforts for an autonomous or independent state of Tyrol or the connection to the German Reich . In the 1920s, the economy gradually stabilized through industry, construction projects (roads, electrification of railway lines, power stations) and the resumption of tourism (first cable car construction ). The onset of the global economic crisis and the one-thousand-mark block imposed by Hitler in 1933 caused a sharp drop in the number of overnight stays, which severely affected Tyrol's economy. In a civil war on February 13, 1934 , fighting broke out in Wörgl between the Social Democratic Republican Protection Association and armed forces of the authoritarian Dollfuss government .

After the "reunification of Austria with the German Reich" (connection of Hitler's homeland to the National Socialist German Reich ), the Reichsgau Tyrol-Vorarlberg was founded and East Tyrol was attached to the Gau Carinthia . As a result of the resettlement agreement between the two dictators Hitler and Mussolini (“ Option in South Tyrol ”), around 70,000 German South Tyroleans left their homeland in 1940, half of whom found accommodation in the settlements built especially for them in North and East Tyrol. During the Second World War , the resettlement was stopped. A third of those who were resettled returned to their old homeland after 1945. The rule of the Nazi regime came to an end in 1945, but the fighting on all fronts had claimed numerous victims in Tyrol as well. In addition, from 1943 onwards, the Allied air raids claimed numerous civilian lives. On December 15, 1943, Innsbruck was the target of the first and at the same time the most serious Allied air raid to hit the strategically important rail links. 126 tons of high-explosive bombs caused 269 deaths, 500 wounded and hundreds of houses, some of which were completely destroyed.

When American troops marched into Innsbruck on May 3, 1945, the time came for the small resistance movement , which handed the new rulers a provisional state line. In the summer of 1945, Tyrol became part of the French zone of occupation , while East Tyrol was added to the British zone. In 1947 East Tyrol was reunited with North Tyrol.

After the Austrian State Treaty on May 15, 1955, the occupation troops left the country again. A noticeable economic upswing then set in, and the country changed from an agrarian to an industrial society with a significant service sector. A recovery in tourism also contributed to this. At the end of the 1950s, there was a real road construction boom with important motorway and tunnel construction. Innsbruck, along with other venues, has twice hosted the Winter Olympics (1964 and 1976). At the suggestion of Governor Eduard Wallnöfer , the Alpine countries working group ( Arge Alp ) was founded in 1972 in order to be able to discuss questions of the Alpine region of cross-border interest. In the 1980s, the population began to criticize the negative effects of increasing car traffic and mass tourism. When Austria joined the EU in 1995 and joined the Schengen area on December 1, 1997, economic, cultural and political cooperation on both sides of the Brenner border with South Tyrol was intensified, to which the European region Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino also contributed.


The old country house in Innsbruck is the seat of the state parliament

Due to the federal structure of Austria and the federal principle of its federal constitution, Tyrol has its own executive and legislative bodies as well as its own judicial body with the regional administrative court. The organs of the executive, legislative and judicial branches all have their seat in the state capital Innsbruck . The Tyrolean provincial government, as the government elected by the Landtag, is responsible for the enforcement of provincial laws and special federal laws that fall within the enforcement of the provinces. The governor, represented by the deputy governor, is the chairman of the state government and head of government of the state. In addition to the governor and his deputy, the government also has regional councils with different responsibilities.

The state of Tyrol is a stronghold of the ÖVP , which has provided all governors since 1945. Even with nationwide elections, the results were always below the three best federal states. The dominance is due to the historically strong influence of the Roman Catholic Church and the weak industrial sector in the country, which has developed directly from an agricultural country to a service country. In the state elections in 1945, 1949, 1965, 1975, 1979 and 1984, the ÖVP even won a 2/3 majority of the seats in the Tyrolean state parliament. In the state elections in 1989 it lost the absolute majority of the votes for the first time, and in 1999 also those based on mandates. In 2003 the absolute majority by mandate was won for the last time. Until the state elections in 1999, the other state parliament parties were integrated into the government via the proportional representation system. After an amendment to the Tyrolean state constitution, the proportional representation model gave way to the interplay between government and opposition, which was also practiced in the federal government. The ÖVP formed a coalition with the SPÖ from 1999 to 2013 and then decided to work with Die Grünen Tirol .

Share of votes of the parties in percent in the 2018 state election

  • ÖVP 44.3%
  • SPÖ 17.2%
  • FPÖ 15.5%
  • Greens 10.7%
  • FRITZ 5.5%
  • NEOS 5.2%
  • Remaining 1.6%

State government

After the state elections on April 28, 2013, the Tyrolean state government was formed from a coalition of the ÖVP and the Greens. The state government Platter II elected on May 24, 2013 included Günther Platter as governor, new deputies were Josef Geisler (ÖVP) as first governor deputy and Ingrid Felipe (Greens) as second governor deputy. Christine Baur (Greens) joined the new regional councilor , while the ÖVP regional councilors remained as before Beate Palfrader, Johannes Tratter, Bernhard Tilg and Patrizia Zoller-Frischauf.

After the state elections in Tyrol in 2018 , the state government Platter III was formed and sworn in on March 28, 2018. There were no personnel changes at the ÖVP. Gabriele Fischer (Greens) replaced Christine Baur as state councilor.

List of governors since 1945

Governor Beginning of the term of office Term expires
Karl Gruber May 4, 1945 December 11, 1945
Alfons Weissgatterer December 11, 1945 January 31, 1951
Alois Grauss February 27, 1951 November 12, 1957
Hans Tschiggfrey November 12, 1957 June 30, 1963
Eduard Wallnöfer July 13, 1963 March 2nd 1987
Alois Partl March 5th 1987 September 24, 1993
Wendelin Weingartner September 24, 1993 October 26, 2002
Herwig van Staa October 26, 2002 July 1, 2008
Günther Platter July 1, 2008 officiating

Weißgatterer became governor after the state elections in 1945 and Platter after the state elections in 2008 . From 1951 to 2002, all governors took office during the current legislative period. The ÖVP has provided all state governors since 1945. In the state elections in 1989 it did not receive an absolute majority of the votes for the first time. In the 1994 state elections it again achieved an absolute majority of the seats, 18 in the 1999 state election and 20 of the 36 seats in 2003 . After the 2008 election , the then Interior Minister Platter replaced Governor Van Staa.

coat of arms

State coat of arms of Tyrol
Blazon : “In silver, a red, gold-armored and crowned red-tongue

Eagle with golden clover stalks on the wings of two green branches nimbled . "

Economy and Infrastructure


The economic structure in Tyrol is very different from region to region. The greater Innsbruck area has a concentration of educational and administrative infrastructure with simultaneously existing larger industrial companies. In the rest of the country, the economy is predominantly characterized by small and medium-sized enterprises, especially the Oberland, the Kitzbühel district and East Tyrol are characterized by a small-business structure. In the Kitzbühel district, however, there are also industrial and service companies with Europe-wide importance in the areas of chipboard , pharmaceuticals , insulation and tourism ( incoming and outgoing ).

The industry is mainly represented in the greater Innsbruck area, in the districts of Schwaz and Kufstein (Unterinntal) and in the Reutte area.

In the Oberland and in the district Kitzbuehel tourism dominated. He plays a big role across the country. The Schwaz district has important industrial areas as well as the important tourist regions ( Zillertal and Achensee ).

Tyrol has around 360,000 guest beds, around half of them in hotels and around a third in holiday apartments. Tyrolean tourism employs around 55,000 people, many of them not all year round.

Agriculture does not play a major role economically, but it is important for the self-image of the country and for the preservation of the landscape.

In 2014, the regional gross domestic product per inhabitant, expressed in purchasing power standards , was 138% (EU-28: 100% Austria: 129%).

Compared with the residents of the other Austrian federal states, the Tyroleans earn the least. While the average gross annual income throughout Austria was 22,611 euros in 2005, the average Tyrolean earned only 20,671 euros in the same period.

Economic structure by sectors

  • Primary sector: 1.2%
  • Secondary sector: 28.0%
  • Tertiary sector: 70.8%

(As of 2001)


Tourism is an important economic sector in Tyrol. This area accounts for an average of 17.5% of Tyrol's gross regional product. In addition, around 55,000 people are employed in Tyrolean tourism.

In the tourism year 2017/18, 12.3 million guests came to the various municipalities of the state. About half of the tourists came from Germany (52.1% of the 49.4 million overnight stays). In addition, many holidaymakers came from the Netherlands (10.0%), Austria (8.5%), Switzerland (5.6%) and the United Kingdom (3.4%). Other nations that only played a subordinate role a few years ago are becoming increasingly important. B. Russia.

The winter season is stronger than the summer season. In the tourism year 2017/18, 27.6 million overnight stays were accounted for in the winter season (56%) and 21.8 million in the summer season.


Historically, Tyrol is a central intersection of European highways and thus a transit country for trans-European trade across the Alps. As early as 15 BC In BC Tyrol was crossed by the most important north-south connection of the Roman Empire, the Via Claudia Augusta . Roman roads led through Tyrol from the Po plain in what is now Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in what is now South Tyrol, over the current border on the Brenner and then down the northern Wipptal to Hall. From there, roads branch off along the Inn. The Via Raetia went west and up to the Seefeld plateau, where at Scharnitz you passed into today's Bavaria. From the early 17th century. there is the fortress of Porta Claudia , which emphasized the strategic importance of the road in modern times.

Today Tyrol is connected to international road, rail and air traffic. With Innsbruck Airport , Tyrol has an international airport at its disposal. There are also some small airfields in various places, for example in St. Johann in Tirol , in Höfen im Ausserfern or in Langkampfen . Many public transport companies are grouped together in the Verkehrsverbund Tirol . In 2017, the level of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 532.


Two motorways run through the country: the Tyrolean part of the Inntal motorway A 12 begins at Kufstein , which leads to the Munich - Salzburg motorway ( A 8 ) at Rosenheim in Bavaria and thus represents the only continuous motorway connection to Eastern Austria via the Great German Corner . From Kufstein the Inntal motorway leads through the Inntal , past the cities of Wörgl , Schwaz , Hall , Innsbruck, Imst to Landeck . There the Inntal autobahn turns into the Arlberg Schnellstraße S 16, which connects the country with Vorarlberg through the Arlberg road tunnel near St. Anton . There is a motorway junction near Innsbruck with the A 13 Brenner motorway , which leads south through the Wipptal to the Italian state border .

An important inner-Austrian connection ( small German corner ) is the Loferer Straße B 178, which leads from Kirchbichl via St. Johann in Tirol to Unken .

Connections to the Federal Republic of Germany via federal highways exist at Vils in the directions Kempten (Allgäu) and Füssen , at Ehrwald to Garmisch-Partenkirchen , at Scharnitz to Mittenwald , through the Achental over the Achenpass to Tegernsee , at Kössen to Reit im Winkl and Schleching , near Niederndorf to Aschau im Chiemgau as well as to Oberaudorf and near Kufstein to Kiefersfelden .

There are federal road connections to Italy from Sillian to Innichen , through the Wipptal and over the Brenner Pass to Sterzing , through the Ötztal at the Timmelsjoch and through the upper Inn Valley over the Reschenpass to Meran .

There is a connection with Switzerland through the Upper Court to the Engadine .

Rail transport

Today's offer

The north-south connection from Munich to Verona leads near Kufstein on Tyrolean soil, then to Innsbruck and as a Brenner railway on the Brenner Pass , where it leaves the country again for Italy. The Innsbruck bypass has been available for freight traffic since 1994 , which means that the state capital Innsbruck and the city of Hall no longer have to be crossed by a large proportion of goods in transit.

The east-west connection from Vienna via Linz and Salzburg (the “Austrian West Railway”) runs as the Lower Inn Valley Railway in two variants: the shorter and faster variant leads from Salzburg via Rosenheim to Kufstein without stopping through Germany , the longer and only one in Austria The route runs as the Salzburg-Tiroler or Giselabahn from Salzburg via Schwarzach / St. Veit , where it comes to Tyrol at Hochfilzen and via St. Johann in Tirol and Kitzbühel to Wörgl , where it meets the Unterinntalbahn at the Wörgl main station . This continues through the Inn valley to Innsbruck and then as the Arlbergbahn over the Arlberg to Feldkirch in Vorarlberg , where the route divides towards Bregenz and towards Buchs in Switzerland.

Twice a day there were through trains from Innsbruck in North Tyrol to Lienz in East Tyrol . These trains used the route through South Tyrol and also stopped at all stations on Italian territory. The route initially leads in a southerly direction over the Brenner Pass to Franzensfeste , where it branches off to the east from the Brennerbahn until it meets Austrian territory again after Innichen near Weitlanbrunn . This direct connection was discontinued on December 14, 2013; Since December 15, 2013, a double-decker bus has been running from Lienz to Innsbruck and back, which is why there are no longer any boarding options in South Tyrol.

There are also less frequented international rail connections, such as the Ausserfernbahn , which connects Reutte with Kempten (Allgäu) and Garmisch-Partenkirchen , or the Mittenwaldbahn , which also runs from Innsbruck via Seefeld and Mittenwald to Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

Tirol also has a good transport infrastructure system with four other railway lines: the Stubaitalbahn of the IVB (line STB) from Innsbruck to Fulpmes, the Innsbrucker Mittelgebirgsbahn of the IVB (line 6) from Innsbruck to Innsbruck-Igls , the Zillertalbahn from Jenbach to Mayrhofen and the only Achenseebahn also runs from Jenbach to Seespitz in summer .

The backbone of local traffic in the state capital is the Innsbruck tram and light rail system , which is currently being expanded, while the backbone of regional traffic in the central area is the S-Bahn Tirol . The regional bus network of the VVT , which also connects the higher valleys, is also important for public transport .

Development history

The connection of Tyrol to the railway network began with the Lower Inn Valley Railway from Kufstein to Innsbruck, opened on November 24, 1858 by the North Tyrolean State Railway . The Brennerbahn was built by the private kk Südbahngesellschaft and went into operation in 1867. The first inner-Austrian connection from Vienna to Tyrol was established with the completion of the Pustertal Railway in November 1871. The first connection, which is still within Austria today, was the Salzburg-Tyrol Railway, which was built in 1873 . The Arlberg Railway to the west was put into operation in 1883 to Landeck, and in 1884 in full length to Bludenz in Vorarlberg . The Ausserfernbahn, which has been in operation since 1895, has only been connected to the Bavarian network ( Garmisch and Kempten (Allgäu) ). The Mittenwaldbahn , built between 1910 and 1912, is one of the first standard-gauge railways to be electrified from the start .

The formation of a full-fledged railway system to connect the side valleys (e.g. projects existed for the development of the Upper Court with the Reschenbahn , the Ötztal , the Alpbachtal , the Isel valley ) were thwarted by the outbreak of the First World War and were not attacked afterwards taken.

Arts and Culture

Prehistory and Roman times

In the Urnfield period there were numerous settlements due to mining. In Roman times, the city of Aguntum near Lienz was the only settlement worth mentioning.


Comparatively little has survived from the Romanesque period, as, in contrast to South Tyrol, many churches and castles were later rebuilt or rebuilt. Examples are the Leonhard Chapel in Nauders and the Nikolauskirche in Matrei in East Tyrol . The painting is based on the Byzantine severity.


The Golden Roof in Innsbruck

The Gothic was able to spread in Tyrol particularly in the 15th century, when wealth poured into the country through many mines. Much was able to survive later renovations, which can be seen in the pointed church towers, which have mostly been preserved even after being baroque. Landeck, Schwaz and Seefeld are examples of this. In addition to church buildings, secular ones such as the town hall and Hasegg Castle in Hall, the city tower and the Golden Roof in Innsbruck were built. The Inn-Salzach-Stadt type emerged in the Inn Valley , as can be seen in Innsbruck, Hall and Rattenberg.


The Renaissance style found its way into Tyrol in the course of the 16th century. Only a few important works were created, such as the Ambras and Tratzberg castles and the tomb of Emperor Maximilian I in the court church . Numerous houses in Innsbruck's old town are at the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The Innsbruck area has been an important European center of bronze casting since the late Gothic period.

In the Oberland you can find facade paintings on inns and town houses (e.g. in Oetz , Habichen , Wenns , Kauns , Ladis ).

Baroque and Rococo

The splendor of the Baroque goes back to the Counter-Reformation, the first spread of baroque forms in Tyrol began around 1620.

The first noteworthy baroque buildings are the Servitenkirche near Volders and the Jesuitenkirche in Innsbruck, both influenced by Italian. The important master builder family Gumpp determined the architecture of Innsbruck for three generations. Georg Anton Gumpp created the country house and the redesign of the Stams monastery in the Upper Inn Valley. The Innsbruck Cathedral was designed by the famous Füssen master builder J. Herkomer. Other important baroque artists are Jakob Prandtauer ( Melk Abbey ), Paul Troger and the Zeiller family of painters in Ausserfern as representatives of Lüftlmalerei , a folk facade painting .

The Singer family worked in the lowlands. Franz de Paula Penz worked as a spiritual building director, through him many village churches were built south of Innsbruck. His main work is the Wilten basilica , which is considered a high point of the Rococo. Rococo stucco also adorns the facade of the Helblinghaus in Innsbruck.

19th century

The painter Franz von Defregger shaped the artistic image of Tyrolean peasant life

At the end of the 18th century, classicism with its simple, strictly structured architecture emerged as a counter-movement to the baroque. It can be seen to some extent in the church of Neustift in the Stubaital , more clearly in that of Reith near Kitzbühel . The Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent economic crisis were detrimental to further building activity. The facade of the Landestheater in Innsbruck from 1846 shows classicist columns.

From the middle of the 19th century, several churches were built in the style of historicism (neo-Romanesque and neo-Gothic), for example in Telfs , Weerberg , St. Nikolaus . Large-scale wall paintings of the church interiors took up the Renaissance style of the Nazarenes again.

The ornamental Art Nouveau at the turn of the century left only a few traces in Tyrol. The most important can be found in Kufstein , as well as at the Winklerhaus at the Triumphpforte in Innsbruck.

Literature and painting experienced an upswing in the 19th century. Franz von Defregger and his student Albin Egger-Lienz shaped the image of Tyrol with their genre pictures from Tyrolean peasant life. The geology professor and geographer Adolf Pichler was initially a scientist, later he became one of the most influential poets of the 19th century. With the playwright Franz Kranewitter , Tyrolean literature broke into the modern age.

20th century

Albin Egger-Lienz was at the beginning of modernism, Alfons Walde took up his motifs again and worked as the architect of the Hahnenkamm cable car stations in Kitzbühel . Some of the works by the playwright Karl Schönherr became world successes. In 1910 Ludwig von Ficker founded the literary magazine Der Brenner , a forum for cultural criticism. He was also a sponsor of Georg Trakl .

After the First World War, there was a renewal movement in architecture, supported primarily by Clemens Holzmeister and Alois Welzenbacher . Max Weiler caused a scandal with his frescoes in the Theresienkirche on Innsbruck's Hungerburg . Among other things, he designed the murals at the main station in 1954 , which were removed and re-hung on the new main station building in 2004. Paul Flora had a drawing style similar to the caricature.

Markus Wilhelm , Hans Haid and Felix Mitterer deal critically with Tyrol and the effects of mass tourism . Mitterer's best-known work is probably the television satire The Piefke Saga .


Population development

Upper German dialects

South Bavarian dialects are predominantly spoken in Tyrol (see Bavarian ). Characteristic of the Tirolean is deleted -Aussprache of st in the word inside and especially in initial position is rubbed k as KCH . The dialects in the Tiroler Unterland show transition features to Central Bavarian , and the dialects spoken in East Tyrol have similarities with the Pustertal dialect in South Tyrol and with the dialects in Carinthia. In addition, Alemannic dialects are spoken in parts of the Ausserfern region. The dialects in the west of Tyrol show clear transition features to Alemannic and Swabian.


According to the 2001 census, 561,700 people (83.4% of the population) were Catholics . Tyrol thus had the highest proportion of Catholics of all Austrian federal states. 16,000 (2.4%) were Protestants , 10,900 (1.6%) belonged to an Orthodox church and 4,500 (0.7%) belonged to another Christian denomination. Approx. 4% of the population were Muslims and 5.2% were non-denominational . Since then, as everywhere in Austria, the proportion of non-denominational citizens, Muslims and Orthodox Christians has increased in Tyrol, while the proportion of Protestant and Catholic Christians has decreased.

See also

Portal: Tyrol  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Tyrol


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Individual evidence

  1. a b Statistics Austria - Population at the beginning of 2002–2020 by municipalities (area status 01/01/2020)
  2. Population at the beginning of the year since 2002 by summarized nationality - Tyrol , Statistics Austria
  3. Regional GDP, disposable income and employment 2014 , Statistics Austria
  4. ↑ Permanent settlement area of ​​the federal states, territorial status 2013 ( Memento of November 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Statistics Austria (PDF)
  5. Michael Domanig: When the bombing war broke out over Innsbruck . In: Tiroler Tageszeitung from December 14, 2015.
  6. Law of 17 May 2006 on the use and use of the state coat of arms (Tyrolean State Coat of Arms Act). Federal Chancellery (BKA), accessed on September 19, 2015 .
  7. a b c Der Tiroler Tourismus Figures, data and facts 2017 (pdf), Tirol Werbung GmbH, accessed on June 14, 2019.
  8. Eurostat press release 23/2009: Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27 (PDF file; 360 kB)
  9. ^ Die Presse, December 20, 2006, No. 17.660, p. 3.
  10. statistik.at
  11. DIE TIROLER BEVÖLKERUNG Results of the 2001 census , accessed on September 3, 2017 (PDF).
  12. Number of believers of religions in Austria , The Statistics Portal , accessed on September 3, 2017.
  13. ↑ The number of Muslims in Austria is growing rapidly , accessed on September 3, 2017

Coordinates: 47 ° 15 '  N , 11 ° 25'  E