Bregenz

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Borough
Bregenz
coat of arms Austria map
Bregenz coat of arms
Bregenz (Austria)
Bregenz
Basic data
Country: Austria
State : Vorarlberg
Political District : Bregenz
License plate : B.
Surface: 29.78 km²
Coordinates : 47 ° 30 '  N , 9 ° 45'  E Coordinates: 47 ° 30 '18 "  N , 9 ° 44' 57"  E
Height : 427  m above sea level A.
Residents : 29,711 (January 1, 2020)
Postal code : 6900
Area code : 05574
Community code : 8 02 07
Address of the
municipal administration:
Rathausstrasse 4
6900 Bregenz
Website: www.bregenz.gv.at
politics
Mayor : Markus Linhart (Bregenz People's Party) ( ÖVP )
Municipal council : (Election year: 2015)
(36 members)
16
8th
6th
5
1
16 8th 6th 
A total of 36 seats
Location of Bregenz in the Bregenz district
Alberschwende Andelsbuch Au Bezau Bildstein Bizau Bregenz Buch Damüls Doren Egg Eichenberg Fußach Gaißau Hard Hittisau Höchst Hörbranz Hohenweiler Kennelbach Krumbach Langen bei Bregenz Langenegg Lauterach Lingenau Lochau Mellau Mittelberg Möggers Reuthe Riefensberg Schnepfau Schoppernau Schröcken Schwarzach Schwarzenberg Sibratsgfäll Sulzberg Warth Wolfurt VorarlbergLocation of the municipality of Bregenz in the Bregenz district (clickable map)
About this picture
Template: Infobox municipality in Austria / maintenance / site plan image map
View from Haggen to the city of Bregenz
View from Haggen to the city of Bregenz
Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria

Bregenz ( standard German pronunciation: [ ˈbreːɡɛnt͡s ], listen ? / I , Vorarlbergerisch : [ ˈbreaɡɐt͡s ]) is the capital of the Austrian state of Vorarlberg and the district capital of the Bregenz district . The city has the most important Austrian port of Lake Constance , is a railway junction and a sports and cultural center. In terms of its population, Bregenz is the third largest city in Vorarlberg after Dornbirn and Feldkirch , but the agglomeration is more than twice the size of the city itself. Audio file / audio sample

geography

Geographical location

Bregenz is on the east bank of Lake Constance. Bregenz borders on Lindau and thus on Germany via a narrow strip of shore that extends northwards along the easternmost area of ​​Lake Constance before Lochau . This border extends over a few hundred meters in the mouth of the Leiblach (middle of the river).

The Bregenzer Ach forms the border to the neighboring communities of Lauterach and Hard in the south and south-west . It then flows into Lake Constance between Bregenz and Hard. The Pfänderbahn has been leading up to Bregenz's local mountain, the Pfänder ( 1064  m above sea level ), the southern flank of which is the Gebhardsberg . Bregenz is 502 km west of Vienna as the crow flies.

City structure

The four districts of Bregenz

The political municipality of Bregenz consists of three cadastral municipalities (area as of December 31, 2019):

  • Bregenz (936.41 ha)
  • Fluh (585.97 ha)
  • Rieden (1,400.58 ha; incorporated in 1919)

In these cadastral communities, there are the four districts: Prelude, City, Rieden (this is also where Riedenburg Abbey is located) and Fluh. Kennelbach was also part of Rieden until 1912. In addition, there is the separate district of Fluh (incorporated in 1938/1945) on the slopes of Pfänder and Gebhardsberg, which forms a third cadastral community. In the municipality of Bregenz, certain locations are described in the form of reed names. The names, e.g. B. Schendlingen, Am Stein, Funkenbühel, Hinterfeld, Ölrain, Thalbach, Brittenhütten and others were already mentioned in the original folder from 1857.

The municipality is divided into two localities (number of inhabitants in brackets as of January 1, 2020):

  • Bregenz (29,371)
  • Fluh (340)

Sea facilities

The lakeside facilities began with a lakeside path in 1842. The expansion continued with the shipping port . It began in 1842 and the Molo was completed in 1890 . The railway site was filled in and the bank promenade built in 1900 was extended by running a pipeline towards Lochau .

In urban terms, however, the city was cut off from the lake shore by this railway line. This would have been reinforced by the parallel motorway route planned in the 1960s. A referendum in 1960 revealed a 90 percent rejection of the lakeshore route, but the federal government continued to pursue it. In January 1969, however, there was massive resentment among the Bregenz population, which ultimately led to the use of the motorway in the Pfänder tunnel .

In 2009 and 2010 the port and sea facilities were redesigned. A new port building ( shaft ) was built. Concrete seating was created at the flower mole ( sunset steps ) and a new lighthouse was built. Since 2014, the pipeline, i.e. the 1.7 km long access to Lake Constance between the Bregenz harbor and Lochau, has been gradually redesigned so that a new beach with a gently sloping bank is being created.

Agglomeration

Around 63,000 people live in the Bregenz metropolitan area. In addition to Bregenz (28,000), this contiguous settlement area also includes Hard (13,000), Lauterach (10,000), Wolfurt (8,000), Kennelbach (2,000) and Lochau-Süd (2,000). In addition, a ribbon of settlements increasingly connects the cities of Bregenz and Dornbirn to form an agglomeration with over 100,000 inhabitants.

climate

In Bregenz there is a maritime climate ( Cfb ).

Bregenz
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
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Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: ZAMG average climate values ​​1981 - 2010
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Bregenz
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 3.6 5.0 9.7 14.2 18.9 21.9 24.2 23.5 19.0 14.0 8.0 4.6 O 13.9
Min. Temperature (° C) -1.6 -1.1 2.3 5.4 9.9 13.0 15.0 14.7 11.4 7.7 2.6 -0.3 O 6.6
Temperature (° C) 0.4 1.1 5.0 9.2 14.1 17.3 19.2 18.3 14.2 10.0 4.7 1.6 O 9.6
Precipitation ( mm ) 71 75 100 114 146 182 191 177 148 105 108 102 Σ 1,519
Humidity ( % ) 76.4 72.0 62.9 57.5 58.8 60.0 60.8 63.4 68.4 74.2 77.4 77.7 O 67.4
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
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3.6
-1.6
5.0
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9.7
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9.9
21.9
13.0
24.2
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Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
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  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

population

Population development


Population structure

The age structure of the Bregenz population in 2011 differed slightly from the average in Vorarlberg. While 15.7% of the population in Bregenz were under 15 years of age, the figure in the federal state was 16.6%. At 17.1%, the proportion of the population over 65 was above the Vorarlberg average of 15.7%. In terms of the employment rate of 15 to 64 year olds, Bregenz was 65.0%, well below the Vorarlberg value of 70.9%. The unemployment rate of 8.1% was also well above the Vorarlberg average of 5.0%. 47.9% men and 52.1% women live in Bregenz.

level of education

In 2011, 50.7% of Bregenz residents had a secondary degree (AHS, BMS, BHS or apprenticeship) and 12.7% had a tertiary degree (university, academy or college degree) as the highest degree, which is above the Vorarlberg average of 9.4%.

history

Early history and Roman times

The first settlements in the area of ​​today's Bregenz emerged around 1500 BC. This is evidenced by settlement finds from the Early Bronze Age at the foot of the Gebhardsberg . During the Celtic times (from around 500 BC) Bregenz was one of the most heavily fortified places ( oppidum ) in the region. At that time the Brigantier Celtic tribe settled in Vorarlberg. A testimony to Celtic culture is the Epona relief ( Epona or Rhiannon ) found in Bregenz , which, however, dates back to Roman times.

In the year 15 BC The Romans conquered the Vorarlberg area for Emperor Augustus and established the city of Brigantium here - a Roman civil city with a forum, temple district, market halls, basilica, etc. Extensive archaeological remains, u. a. Mosaics that have been preserved. In today's Protestant cemetery, a few remains of the walls of the imperial thermal baths are visible over the day. Brigantium quickly grew into a settlement and was also of military importance. The prefect of the Roman Lake Constance fleet had its seat here. A road connected Brigantium via Cambodunum (Kempten im Allgäu) with Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg).

Probably in 233 and 259/260 AD Brigantium was destroyed by invading Alemanni , but was rebuilt by the Roman-Celtic population; the naturally better protected upper town has now been expanded and fortified like a fort. All land west of the Arlberg up to Lake Constance and adjacent areas in the north belonged to the territory of the late antique brigantium . The fortress remained militarily important after 300 AD and, like Arbor Felix , Constantia and Tasgaetium, belonged to a chain of forts that secured the Roman border on the Rhine and Lake Constance. Like Arbor Felix , it was mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana , a late Roman map.

The Roman emperor Gratian visited the city in 377. At least until about 410 AD, a Roman navy was stationed in Brigantium . During construction work on the pedestrian passage in the area of ​​the Roman port (Leutbühel), remains of the late Roman port facility were discovered in 1969.

The Alemanni colonized the area around Brigantium from around 470 AD. Between the years 610 and 612 the Irish Scottish missionaries Columban and Gallus worked in the Bregenz area .

The plans of Roman excavations - made over the last 150 years - were recorded in the digital city map by June 2017 and made freely accessible on the Internet.

middle Ages

Bregenz, copper engraving by Merian , around 1650

The upper town (old town) lies within the roughly rectangular wall area of ​​the town walls from the 13th to 16th centuries, most of which are still preserved today. Around 1220, three parallel alleys were laid out with around 57 farmsteads of the same size, each with two ares .

The first city expansion took place downhill through the Maurach and was completed at the end of the 13th century. At the foot of the same in the direction of the lake, the Kaiserstraße was expanded in 1363.

In 1330, Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian granted the citizens of Bregenz the right to hold a weekly market every Monday.

In 1404 and 1445 the Bregenz suburb was destroyed in the Appenzell Wars and besieged for several months in the winter of 1407/1408 during the Battle of Bregenz . In 1451 the Princely House of Habsburg bought half of the County of Bregenz with the city of Bregenz. In 1484 the expansion of Kirchstrasse was completed and at the end of the 15th century the market at Leutbühel predominated over the upper town.

After the most important noble family of the Lake Constance area, the Bregenz branch of the Counts of Montfort , died out, all of Bregenz became part of Front Austria in the Archduchy of Austria in 1523 .

17th to 19th century

On January 4, 1647, Bregenz was captured by the united armies of Sweden and France under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Wrangel during the Thirty Years' War . Before the Swedes withdrew again towards the end of the war in 1647, they blew up Hohenbregenz Castle on Gebhardsberg (see Naval Warfare on Lake Constance 1632–1648 ).

From 1650 to 1652 the "Kornmarkt" was founded in Bregenz, which was paved from 1665 to 1667 and gained in importance.

In 1704, attacks by the French on the Klause were repulsed. In 1753 an administration in Upper Austria was established with its seat in Constance , which existed until 1759. From 1759 to 1803 the responsibility for Vorarlberg, Swabia and Breisgau lay in Freiburg im Breisgau . Bregenz became a Habsburg country town .

In 1805 Bregenz became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1809, around 3,000 Vorarlberg freedom fighters were set up under the command of Chief Commissioner Anton Schneider .

Vorarlberg riflemen march into Bregenz (1809)
Bregenz (1895)

In the course of the following clashes against Bavarian and French troops, the Vorarlberg riflemen were able to record their greatest success on May 29, 1809 in Klien (near Hohenems ). After the defeat of the Austrian troops by Napoleon in July near Wagram , most of the Vorarlbergers gave up the fight. Only a few Oberlanders ( Klostertaler and Montafoner ) continued to resist the advancing French and Bavarian troops under Riedmiller's command - until they too fled to Tyrol in August.

Anton Schneider was arrested and Vorarlberg came under strong Bavarian occupation. Under the government of the Count of Montgelas, which was under French influence, the city got a modern administrative structure. In the impression of the Congress of Vienna in 1814, Bavaria renounced the front of Austria, which meant that the rulers in front of the Arlberg (Vorarlberg) with the city of Bregenz and Tyrol fell back to the Austrian Empire.

The slopes behind the upper town with u. a. the residences Lößler, Schedler, Mildenberg and Riedenburg were originally counts of the Montfort family, were used for wine and fruit growing and later partly belonged to the Mehrerau monastery.

For a long time the city was only accessible from the north through the hermitage . The widening of the Reichsstraße took place in 1831/1832 by Alois von Negrelli . A new connecting axis was created in 1849 by building the Römerstrasse / Arlbergstrasse. In 1861 Vorarlberg received its own state parliament with its seat in Bregenz. At the end of the 19th century the area between Belruptstrasse and Kornmarktstrasse was laid out like a grid.

20th and 21st centuries

Bregenz lies between its local mountain, the Pfänder, and Lake Constance
The port of Bregenz as seen from the vorarlberg museum
View of the lower Rhine valley with Lake Constance, Bregenz (top right) and Dornbirn (bottom)

Until the First World War, Bregenz was a garrison of the Austro-Hungarian Army , in 1914 the staff and the 1st Battalion of the Salzburg Infantry Regiment "Archduke Rainer" No. 59 were located here.

In 1918, now part of the Republic of German Austria, later Austria, the Vorarlberg administration separated from that of Tyrol, and Vorarlberg became a federal state with the provincial government in Bregenz.

On May 11, 1919, a referendum took place in Vorarlberg - it was about the start of negotiations with Switzerland about the country's accession to the Confederation: 80% of Vorarlberg's eligible voters were in favor of such negotiations, and in Bregenz 1,701 in favor and 1,453 against it.

From 1938 the city was part of the new Ostmark . The area was later renamed "Donau- und Alpengaue" in the Greater German Empire . Bregenz became a district town in the Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg and district leader was Hans Dietrich.

In the years 1939 to 1941, more than 2,000 South Tyroleans moved to the South Tyrolean settlement .

Bregenz Jews were also affected by persecution and deportations . On the day of " annexation " to the German Reich , a Bregenz doctor demanded in the Vorarlberger Tagblatt that the "annihilators of the German people" be stamped out. Especially from the spring of 1942 onwards there were waves of persecution.

On April 29, 1945, French troops crossed the Vorarlberg border at Lochau and Hohenweiler and on May 1, Bregenz was conquered, with the city being partially destroyed. From 1945 to 1955, Bregenz was part of the French occupation zone , and reconstruction in the state of Vorarlberg took place. With the occupation, a state government and a mayor were appointed.

In the post-war period, the use of the level of the Feldmoos and the Weidach, located under the Arlberg-, Josef-Huter- and Kennelbacherstrasse, for residential buildings began.

In 1984, on the occasion of the 175th anniversary of the uprising year 1809, an Andreas Hofer monument was opened in the South Tyrolean settlement .

The Johann-August-Malin-Gesellschaft , founded in 1982 as the “Historical Association for Vorarlberg”, is dedicated to researching contemporary history, especially anti-Semitism, Austrofascism and National Socialism and the resistance to it. In 2011, their chairman Werner Bundschuh and the then Deputy Mayor of Bregenz, Gernot Kiermayr (Greens) , demanded the erection of a memorial for Wehrmacht deserters in Bregenz. At this point in time, only one large project for a deserter monument in Vienna was conceived in Austria. In November 2014, the city of Bregenz announced a two-phase competition. From October to December 2015, a program of events accompanied the opening of the memorial by Nataša Sienčnik on November 14, 2015 at Sparkassenplatz with a speech by Holocaust survivor Ágnes Heller on the subject of “A world that needs heroes”.

On December 4, 2019, Bregenz received the Austrian SDG Award and was recognized as a pioneer in the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Austria. This was the first time that the Senate of the Economy, supported by the Austrian National Council and the Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism , had announced the Austrian SDG Award for sustainable communities and cities in Austria and for Vorarlberg the Market town of Nenzing and the provincial capital of Bregenz awarded.

Culture and sights

Bregenz has a cultural offer that is far above average for cities of this size. The largest cultural event is the Bregenz Festival.

Festivals

Bregenz Festival

The Bregenz Festival is an internationally acclaimed cultural festival and attracts well over 100,000 people to Bregenz (2011: 166,453) every year with a budget of around 20 million euros. The program changes every two years and always lasts from July to August. In addition to playing on the lake on the floating stage, orchestral concerts or operas are played in the adjoining festival hall . With crossculture, there is also a children's and youth program during and before the start of the festival.

With an audience capacity of around 7,000, the stage is the largest floating stage in the world.

Jazz festival

The Bregenz Jazz Festival has taken place every June on Kornmarktplatz since 2014, after the New Orleans Festival , which took place in early summer for several days in early summer from 1999 to 2013, was no longer supported by the initiator Markus Linder . In addition to the name change, there was also a change in musical genre from blues to jazz . The location and timing remained roughly the same.

Bregenz spring

The Bregenz Spring is a dance festival that has been held every year between March and May in the Festspielhaus since 1987 . Dance ensembles from all over the world show their new productions, including Austrian premieres. With a budget of around 500,000 euros and up to 10,000 visitors, the Bregenz Spring is one of the most important dance festivals in Austria. The artistic director was Wolfgang Fetz until the end of 2016. Until 2016 it was an event of the Bregenz Art Association, from the Bregenz Spring 2017 the cultural department of the city of Bregenz will take over the organization, from 2018 also the artistic direction.

theatre

Vorarlberg State Theater

Located in the middle of the “Bregenz Culture Mile”, the Vorarlberg State Theater in the “Theater am Kornmarkt” has made a name for itself for the interpretation of classics as well as for premieres of modern plays.

Theater cosmos

The aim of the contemporary theater Kosmos is to inspire young people for theatrical art.

Museums

vorarlberg museum

vorarlberg museum

The vorarlberg museum located on the Kornmarkt , until 2011 the “Vorarlberger Landesmuseum”, shows collections on the Roman history of the region, on the art and culture of Vorarlberg, as well as thematic special exhibitions. The new building designed by the architects Andreas Cukrowicz and Anton Nachbaur was opened in June 2013. The seamlessly cast facades by the Bolzano artist Manfred Alois Mayr show a structure made from casts of PET bottle bottoms.

Wettingen-Mehrerau Territorial Abbey

The showpiece of the Cistercian Abbey Wettingen-Mehrerau is the old library. Chalices, vestments, altarpieces and other treasures are in the possession of the monks.

Contemporary fine arts

Kunsthaus Bregenz

Kunsthaus Bregenz (KUB)

Since it opened in 1997, the Kunsthaus Bregenz has been one of the most important museums for contemporary art in German-speaking countries. Works by well-known artists such as Roy Lichtenstein and Jeff Koons are shown.
The architect Peter Zumthor won the Mies van der Rohe Prize for Architecture in 1998 with the KUB project .

Artist house Bregenz

In the Künstlerhaus Bregenz (“Palais Thurn und Taxis ”), changing exhibitions of contemporary art by international and Austrian artists can be seen.

Magazine 4

The magazine 4 is the former warehouse "Magazin 4" of the Pircher company and today the official building of the state capital Bregenz. In addition to the offices of the Culture Department, the building also houses event rooms that are used or rented by the city. Until the end of 2016 it was the home of the “Magazin4-Bregenz Art Association”. Among other things, he organized exhibitions and events in the building.

Buildings

State Library

Vorarlberg's largest library is housed in a baroque church or a former monastery. The renovated domed hall also serves as a venue for B. for readings.

Country house Bregenz

The official building of the Vorarlberg state government was built 1973–1980 by Wilhelm Holzbauer .

Martinsturm

The Martinsturm, a former granary in the first courtyard of the Counts of Bregenz, was built in 1601 as a tower with a loggia with three arched arcades each on pillars and stone parapets in the northeast corner of the curtain wall. It is crowned by a high curved onion dome with a lantern by Benedetto Prato. It is now one of the landmarks of the city of Bregenz.

Pfänderbahn valley station

For cable car stations, planned in 1926 by the architect Willibald Braun , there were no models at that time.

Other structures

  • Old Town Hall: Built in 1662 by Michael Kuen , this free-standing building with a high pointed gable housed the town hall from the 17th to the 19th century.
  • Benger area: The factory building with its own administration wing was planned in 1892 by the architects Wittmann und Stahl from Stuttgart and, at the same time, the weaving section was designed by the Bregenz architect Otto Mallaun . This hosiery production facility is an iron construction with a clinker brick facade, with numerous neo-Gothic details such as a crossed gable, tower and bay window. This is where the name “industrial lock” comes from.
  • Hohenbregenz Castle
  • Deuringschlössle: This building has a core from the 14th or 15th century and was essentially erected in its current form in the second half of the 17th century.
  • Fischersteg: In the 1920s, it was possible to take a seaplane tour around Lake Constance from here . In the meantime the Fischersteg serves mainly as a viewing platform and in the summer months (May to September) as an open-air bar when the weather is nice.
  • Green House: Today this is the seat of the Environmental Institute in Montfortstrasse. This building by Willibald Braun was built in 1925/1926. In the 1920s, classicist architectural elements were still used in a greatly simplified form, the result is representative architecture reduced to objectivity. Traces of Expressionism (arcades) and homeland security architecture (oriel turrets) have also been preserved on this building.
  • “Mili” (former military baths): The operators of this historic bathing establishment are the Bregenz municipal utilities. It is a U-shaped wooden pile structure that lies on the Bregenz pipeline.
  • Post office: A striking building from the Austro-Hungarian era, built in 1895 by Friedrich Setz . It shows monumental neo-renaissance forms, a domed central risalit with aedicula and ridge lattice as well as presented Ionic columns with crowning allegorical figures of traffic. The post office is in the immediate vicinity of the Kunsthaus and the State Theater.
  • Roman villa (ruin): The remains of a Roman villa from the 1st to 3rd centuries AD were uncovered in 1990 near the city tunnel.
  • Lake promenade with pier: The lake promenade leads from the ship harbor past the boat harbor to the floating stage with the festival and congress hall.
  • Sports house: The sports house of the tourist association with an attached restaurant was integrated into the lake landscape, built in the lake facilities in 1906 by the architect Otto Mallaun . Sports houses of this type were a meeting place for society, hence the villa and country house character.
  • Textilhaus Holzner: Built in Kaiserstraße by Klaus Ströbele in 1935/1936. While in the 1930s the Vorarlberg builders preferred at least allusions to down-to-earth architecture, here the builder gave his architect the opportunity for a decidedly international architecture.
  • The Achsiedlung is a satellite town along the Bregenzer Ach on the outskirts of Bregenz. The residential complex - consisting of around 50 buildings - is still one of the largest settlement projects in the state of Vorarlberg.

Churches

Catholic churches

Protestant churches

  • The Evangelical Kreuzkirche am Ölrain in Kosmus-Jenny-Strasse was built in the neo-Gothic style between 1862 and 1864 according to plans by Carl Leins . She owns a Rieger organ (1981). During the construction, remains of Roman walls were discovered, some of which are included in the cemetery wall. The building is from the Protestant Church A. and H. B. used.
  • The Methodist Church is housed in a villa from the turn of the century and an attached community center at Blumenstrasse 5 .

Monasteries

Raczyński Monastery and Villa
Riedenburg, Sacré Cœur
  • Marienberg Monastery (Villa Raczyński): In 1877 the Polish Count Raczyński had this villa built for his wife on the north-western slope of the Gebhardsberg. The castle villa in neo-baroque style (by Stefan Dragl) crowns the gently sloping park landscape. Since 1904 the villa has housed a Dominican convent and school.
  • Riedenburg Monastery : The monastery was built by Hans Sutter between 1862 and 1865. The exterior is structured by strong buttresses. The nave and the narrow transept have a shared gable roof. The private girls' secondary school Sacré Coeur of the Catholic order of sisters Sacré-Coeur is located on the grounds of the Riedenburg monastery .

Wettingen-Mehrerau Monastery

This strictly symmetrical construction of the Mehrerau sanatorium (1922/1923) with a two-story loggia and archial entrance staircase with modest dimensions anticipates the representative style of Clemens Holzmeister , which he later developed for the government buildings in Ankara .

Thalbach Monastery, "The Work"

In 1436 a community of Franciscan women was founded in the clusa Thalbach at the foot of the Gebhardsberg .

In 1485 the first chapel in the Thalbachklause was inaugurated. After the first new building, Thalbach was given all the rights of a monastery in 1575. For centuries the sisters from Thalbach were known for their exemplary religious life: Thalbach Franciscan Sisters were called to revive decayed or extinct monasteries (e.g. Wonnenstein Monastery in 1584 and Grimmenstein Monastery in Appenzell) or to lead other monasteries ( Sipplingen and Möggingen ) to be.

When an epidemic raged in the Benedictine monastery of Mehrerau (Cistercian since 1854) in 1592 , the Thalbach sisters were asked to look after the monastery kitchen. The plague has been defeated. As a thank you gift in 1592 the Franciscan Sisters received a precious statue of the Virgin Mary of the Sedes Sapientiae type (“Seat of Wisdom”). In 1609/1910 the monastery church was rebuilt by Giovanni Prato . In 1675 a new monastery was built by the baroque master builders Michael Thumb from Bezau and Michael Kuen from Bregenz. In 1782 the Thalbach monastery was abolished by Emperor Joseph II.

In 1796 the Dominicans of Hirschberg-Hirschtal / Kennelbach acquired the orphaned Thalbach monastery from the city of Bregenz . In 1797 the valuable statue of the Virgin Mary, which had been kept by the Bregenz citizen Karg, was returned to the monastery church. The work of the Dominican women as a contemplative community and at the same time in the upbringing and education of girls was significant for Bregenz and the surrounding area.

In 1983 the clerical family "Das Werk" took over the Thalbach monastery at the request of the Dominican Sisters.

Fountains and monuments

  • The memorial " Resistance in Vorarlberg 1938–1945" by Nataša Sienčnik has been commemorating about 100 people who opposed National Socialism , deserted or helped refugees since November 2015 on Sparkassenplatz with a three-line case- sheet advertisement.
  • Anton Schneider Memorial, Seestrasse: The portrait sculpture of the commander of the popular uprising of 1809 was created in bronze by Georg Matt in 1910 .
  • Hugo-Von-Montfort-Brunnen: Fountain depicting the minstrel Hugo von Montfort (* 1357 in Bregenz) in bronze by Emil Gehrer .
  • Shadow square fountain: The shadow square is located 100 meters from downtown Bregenz, at the end of Maurachgasse. It got its name because of the light at night, where the fountain is always in the shade.

Mushroom kiosk

Near the port is one of the last eight copies of a mushroom kiosk , which is also called "milk mushroom", the latter because you can buy various milk drinks there.

Sports

Swimming, skating, jogging and cycling are possible along Lake Constance in summer and ice skating in winter. The conglomerate rock band under the Gebhardsberg has been developed as a climbing garden since the 1980s and is included in the Vorarlberg climbing guide .

The Pfänder is used as a hiking area in summer and as a small ski and toboggan area in winter.

Every year in October the marathon of the 3 countries on Lake Constance takes place in Bregenz . The route leads through the three countries bordering Lake Constance, Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and most of the distance runs along Lake Constance, the destination is in Bregenz.

In the Bundesliga , Schwarz-Weiß Bregenz achieved 5th place in the 2003/2004 season, the best placement that a Vorarlberg soccer club had ever achieved in this league. In 2005 the heavily indebted association had to file for bankruptcy. The successor club of the same name, Schwarz-Weiß Bregenz , also plays in the Bodenseestadion, which is now called the "Casinostadion" due to the sponsorship agreement with Casinos Austria .

The Lake Constance Cup has been held annually in Bregenz for young football teams in the U9 to U19 age groups since 2014. During the Whitsun weekend, up to 100 teams with over 1700 players from up to eight countries meet in this competition.

In 1946 the handball club Bregenz Handball (then SC Schwarz-Weiß Bregenz ) was founded as a section of SC Schwarz-Weiß Bregenz . Bregenz Handball has won the Austrian Championship in the Handball League Austria nine times and is therefore the record champion. Bregenz Handball also won the Austrian Cup four times and made it into the group stage of the EHF Champions League several times .

Bathing establishments

Bregenz military bathing establishment

Military bath (Mili) in Bregenz

The Bregenz military bathing facility on Reichsstrasse (popularly known as “Mili”) was built in 1825 to train the soldiers of the nearby Bilgeri barracks . It is a single-story pile structure connected to the shore by a wooden walkway and includes changing rooms, a two-story sundeck and ladders into the water. Since the end of the Second World War, the bathing establishment has been operated by the city of Bregenz as a public outdoor pool.

Bregenz beach and indoor swimming pool

The first lido in Bregenz was opened as early as 1935 after there were already a few interim outdoor pools. Prior to a referendum, the demolition of the old lido, the old floating stage and the sports hall began in 1978 and a new lido with an adjoining indoor pool was built.

Spa

In the Am Brand parcel in the upper town of Bregenz, a sulfur bath was used from 1790 to 1806, but it was only of regional importance and is said to have had little healing effect. The nearby Gasthof Schiff also had a small medicinal bath.

See also the therapeutic bath in the Mehrerau: Heilbad Mehrerau and the territorial abbey Wettingen-Mehrerau .

Site design

As part of the European “ Entente Florale Europe ” competition, Bregenz was awarded a silver medal in the city category in 1996.

Economy and Infrastructure

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city of Bregenz experienced strong economic development with the food and luxury goods industry, precision mechanics and textiles. Tourism also became an important branch of industry.

The 1527 companies based in Bregenz had 17,357 employees and 571 apprentices as of May 15, 2001. There were 12,385 employees subject to wage tax. Nine companies in Bregenz employ more than 200 people and are therefore to be regarded as large companies.

Companies

Festival hall Bregenz with lake stage (top left) and Casino Bregenz (bottom right)

The most important companies in Bregenz include:

Public healthcare system

View of the LKH Bregenz

In the area of ​​public health, Bregenz has adequate care for a state capital. The city of Bregenz, for example, is a larger hospital, which is operated by the state of Vorarlberg as part of the Vorarlberger Krankenhausbetriebsgesellschaft . In addition, the city of Bregenz itself maintains three retirement homes, two of which are run as social centers.

The Austrian Red Cross operates a Red Cross office in Bregenz, which comprises 191 mostly voluntary employees and who completed 22,395 missions in 2011. The office with five ambulances and three ambulances is not only responsible for the Bregenz city area, but also for the Leiblachtal , the Vorderwald in the Sulzberg / Doren area and the entire Rhine delta . There is also an emergency doctor's vehicle stationed at the LKH Bregenz , which is also looked after by the Red Cross and provides emergency medical care for the area.

In Bregenz, the Austrian Mountain Rescue Service and the Austrian Water Rescue also maintain their headquarters and their own offices.

public safety

The building of the state police headquarters

As the capital of Vorarlberg, Bregenz is the seat of the Vorarlberg State Police Department, to which the State Office of Criminal Investigation and the State Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Combating Terrorism are affiliated. Contrary to the different designations, these are federal authorities, specifically the guard body of the Federal Police of the Federal Ministry of the Interior . In Bregenz, the Federal Police also maintains the district police command for the Bregenz district, a police station and a border police station at the Bregenz train station. The municipal guard of the city of Bregenz, which is commonly referred to as the Bregenz city police , also takes care of public safety .

As a further public safety facility, the voluntary fire brigade of the city of Bregenz maintains four local fire brigades in the municipality (Bregenz-Stadt, Bregenz-Rieden, Bregenz-Vorloster and Bregenz-Fluh). Bregenz is one of only three Austrian provincial capitals that does not have its own professional fire brigade, but leaves the fire brigade tasks to the volunteer fire brigade, which is equipped and financially supported by the city of Bregenz.

education

Bregenz is one of the most important educational centers in the state of Vorarlberg and the most important school location in the Bregenz district. There were 14 kindergartens and 9,175 pupils in Bregenz, 2,125 of them at general secondary schools (AHS) and 4,645 at higher vocational schools (BHS) (as of January 2003).

The state capital Bregenz operates six municipal primary schools . There is also a private elementary school in Marienberg and an elementary school at the Bregenz Weidach school, which is run as a special education school. In the field of secondary three urban exist in Bregenz middle schools and the lower grades of the four high schools Bregenz, the two federal schools Blumenstraße and Gallusstraße and private high schools Mehrerau and Sacre Coeur Riedenburg . There are also two vocational middle schools, both of which are located at the private business school in Marienberg (one-year business school and business school). In addition, the three state vocational schools in Bregenz are also part of the middle school education, which, however , is completed in parallel with the apprenticeship training .

In addition, Bregenz is particularly important as a school location as a location for several higher schools beyond the city limits. In addition to the upper levels of the four grammar schools mentioned above, there are also several higher vocational schools. The largest school in Bregenz is the Federal Trade Academy and Federal Trade School Bregenz , closely followed by the Higher Technical Federal Training and Research Institute Bregenz . In addition, there are again two private schools, namely the higher education institutions for economic professions in Marienberg and Riedenburg. As a continuing educational offer, there is also a school for general health and nursing care in Bregenz .

The Vorarlberg State Library is located in Bregenz as a scientific regional library for Vorarlberg and the city library with two branches (branch town and branch Vorarlberg).

An important cultural institute in Bregenz is the Bregenz Music School with the main building Villa Liebenstein and the Grunental branch. Around 1,300 music students are currently being taught by around 50 teachers. Numerous concerts and performances take place every year, the most important of which include a. "Music in the Park" and the final concert.

The adult education center in Bregenz offers more than 500 courses every year.

Since October 2016, in cooperation with the Sigmund Freud University of Vienna, the subjects of psychology, law, psychotherapy studies and art therapy have been taught at the Sigmund Freud Private University Bodensee ( SFU Bodensee ) in Bregenz.

traffic

South portal of the Pfänder tunnel with Weidach knot

The Rheintal / Walgau motorway A 14 bypasses Bregenz through the Pfänder tunnel east of the city area, the city is connected to the A 14 by a motorway feeder via the city ​​tunnel . The two important state roads L 190 Vorarlberger Straße and L 202 Schweizer Straße , which meet in Bregenz and connect the city with the national borders with Switzerland and Germany, lead directly through the city of Bregenz. Due to the geographical location of the city of Bregenz between Lake Constance and the mountain range of the Pfänderstock, the main traffic connections leading through Bregenz are bottlenecks for individual traffic, which is why there are frequent congestion in and around the city, especially at rush hour and when the holiday shift changes.

Main building of the Bregenz train station

Bregenz received a railway connection in 1872 with the opening of the standard-gauge railway line Lindau-Bludenz , and from 1902 to 1983 there was a railway connection to Bezau with the narrow-gauge Bregenzerwaldbahn . Today the ÖBB operates three train stations in the city: Bregenz train station (often incorrectly referred to as Bregenz main train station), "Bregenz Hafen" and Riedenburg , with Bregenz Hafen and Riedenburg only serving regional traffic within the Vorarlberg S-Bahn . In addition to the Railjets coming from Vienna and ending here, Bregenz also has a pair of InterCity trains from / to Innsbruck and the EuroCity trains on the Zurich - Munich connection . Due to the direct rail connection from Bregenz to Switzerland (in the direction of St. Margrethen or St. Gallen ) and to Germany (via the Bavarian city of Lindau ), the station has its own border police station, which is located in the reception building.

Various city and regional bus routes also operate from the station forecourt, including Landbus Unterland , Landbus Bregenzerwald and connections to Leiblachtal . Bregenz is thus the central traffic junction of the northern Rhine Valley and of traffic-related importance for the entire Bregenz district. Within the urban area, the Bregenz city bus, owned by Stadtwerke Bregenz, has been set up, which connects the most important facilities and residential areas of the city with five bus routes.

The Lake Constance cycle route, which is mostly close to the shore, also runs through Bregenz .

The international transport association United Shipping Companies for Lake Constance and Rhine (VSU), commonly known as Lake Constance shipping, for scheduled, excursion and special trips has existed in its beginnings since 1860/65 and serves the port of Bregenz.

politics

mayor

The mayors of the state capital Bregenz since 1945:

Markus Linhart Siegfried Gasser Norbert Neururer Fritz Mayer (Politiker) Karl Tizian Julius Wachter Stefan Kohler

Election results

The results of the municipal council and mayoral elections of the state capital Bregenz since 1950:

date Eligible voters voter turnout be right
April 23, 1950 11,229 91.9% ÖVP: 41.5%
SPÖ: 26.7%
FPÖ: 5.8%
KLS: 26.0%
April 3, 1955 12,177 93.3% ÖVP: 50.7%
SPÖ: 28.9%
FPÖ: 4.6%
KLS: 15.8%
April 3, 1960 13,444 93.8% ÖVP: 54.6%
SPÖ: 26.6%
FPÖ: 16.1%
KLS: 2.7%
April 4, 1965 14,237 93.3% ÖVP: 57.9%
SPÖ: 24.5%
FPÖ: 15.2%
KLS: 2.4%
April 12, 1970 14,407 92.9% ÖVP: 41.0%
SPÖ: 35.8%
FPÖ: 22.5%
KPÖ: 0.7%
April 13, 1975 14,288 93.4% ÖVP: 36.7%
SPÖ: 51.1%
FPÖ: 11.4%
KPÖ: 0.6%
SGP: 0.2%
April 20, 1980 15,263 92.6% ÖVP: 32.6%
SPÖ: 53.6%
FPÖ: 6.1%
KPÖ: 0.3%
B. List: 7.4%
April 21, 1985 16,315 90.8% ÖVP: 30.2%
SPÖ: 54.5%
FPÖ: 4.4%
KPÖ: 0.3%
B. List: 7.6%
B. Green: 3.0%
April 1, 1990 17,109 89.2% ÖVP: 37.1%
SPÖ: 42.1%
FPÖ: 9.3%
B.Liste: 5.6%
B.Grünt: 5.9%
April 2, 1995 17,361 90.0% ÖVP: 47.3%
SPÖ: 25.1%
FPÖ: 15.1%
GFB: 5.8%
LFB: 5.6%
League: 1.1%
April 2, 2000 17,516 85.3% ÖVP: 52.32%
SPÖ: 17.49%
FPÖ: 14.82%
GFB: 8.5%
LiB: 2.39%
Bregenz thinks: 3.99%
List V: 0.49%
Direct mayor election 2000 Markus Linhart: 72.98%
Manfred Bliem: 12.68%
Irina Schoettel: 9.36%
Karl-Heinz Marent: 4.98%
April 2, 2005 18,141 61.38% ÖVP: 38.15%
SPÖ: 35.48%
FPÖ .: 7.28%
The Greens: 13.41%
Bregenz thinks: 5.30%
Per pre-monastery: 0.36%
Mayor direct election 2005 Markus Linhart: 40.68%
Michael Ritsch: 37.32%
Werner Karg: 6.82%
Gernot Kiermayr: 9.90%
Karl-Heinz Marent: 5.27%
Mayoral election 2005 Markus Linhart: 52.56%
Michael Ritsch: 47.44%
March 14, 2010 19,899 59.38% ÖVP: 48.76%
SPÖ: 26.28%
The Greens: 10.40%
FPÖ: 8.48%
Bregenz thinks: 4.44%
Pirates .: 1.64%
Mayor direct election 2010 Markus Linhart: 56.84%
Michael Ritsch: 26.09%
Gernot Kiermayr: 6.87%
Harald Stifter: 6.14%
Karl-Heinz Marent: 4.06%
March 15, 2015 21,051 52.57% ÖVP: 43.89%
SPÖ: 22.89%
The Greens: 14.04%
FPÖ: 15.52%
Bregenz thinks: 0.98%
NEOS: 2.67%
Mayor direct election 2015 Markus Linhart: 50.02%
Michael Ritsch: 22.82%
Sandra Schoch: 8.14%
Andrea Kinz: 16.35%
Marent Karl-Heinz: 0.79%
Alexander Moosbrugger: 1.88%

City council

City council members (as of April 2015):

City council

City council election 2015
 %
50
40
30th
20th
10
0
43.90
(-4.86)
22.89
(-3.39)
14.03
(+3.63)
15.53
(+7.05)
0.98
(-3.46)
n. k.
(-1.64)
2.67
( n. K. )
BD [[#WD 2015 e | e]]
 
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
Remarks:
e Bregenz thinks

After the municipal council and mayoral elections in 2015, the city ​​council (36) is composed as follows:

coat of arms

Coat of arms of Bregenz (3 tails (or beets))

The city of Bregenz was awarded the city arms in 1529 by the new sovereign King Ferdinand, who later became Emperor Ferdinand I. It is that of the Counts of Bregenz (the Ulriche ). This coat of arms is a fur coat of arms, as it is often found in France or England. The entire shield surface of the coat of arms is covered with fur . The official description of the coat of arms does not speak of an ermine in the middle post, but of "silver with ermine tails":

A sign of Kürsch that of a silver piles is traversed, in which three Hermelinschwänzchen appear one above the other.

In graphics, the furrier, i.e. squirrel fur , is often shown in steel blue (the valuable Russian fur). The city administration of Bregenz uses (as of 2011) a black and white outline of the coat of arms.

Whether this coat of arms is actually that of the old Counts of Bregenz is currently being questioned by researchers. It is likely to be an apocryphal , that is, a fake or false coat of arms. The heraldist Otto Titan von Hefner writes: "The city of Bregenz received the coat of arms of the old Count of Bregenz by means of a letter of arms dated February 24, 1529: ain is shaped like a fehwambleinkürschen and inside a white street, one after the other standing on top of it drew black Hermlein Schwentzlin " .

Town twinning

Personalities

Trivia

Narrowest house facade in Europe
Wonderful rescue of a drowned boy from Bregenz, Collection Heinz Kisters , Kreuzlingen
  • The Emperor of Austria-Hungary also carried the title "Count of Bregenz" (see Grand Title of the Emperor of Austria ).
  • The narrowest house facade in Europe is 57 cm wide in Bregenz Kirchstrasse No. 29 (also known as “the narrowest house”).
  • The city's landmark , the Martinsturm , is considered to be the largest onion dome in Central Europe.
  • The game on the lake takes place annually on the world's largest floating stage (as of 2005).
  • Some scenes from the James Bond film Quantum of Consolation were partly filmed in Bregenz - but, unlike in the film, the city does not have an airport. However, from 1924 there was once an airport for seaplanes on the "Fischersteg" built in 1902 on the lake promenade. With these you could enjoy a sightseeing flight over the Bregenz Bay.
  • A mummified shark hangs over the city ​​gate , which is supposed to ward off evil from the city.
  • Legends deal with the Ehreguta of Bregenz , the Bregenzerwald women during the Swedish War and other topics.
  • Albrecht Dürer painted the picture Miraculous Rescue of a Drowned Boy from Bregenz .
  • The Stadtmusik Bregenz - one of three Bregenz music associations - is the oldest music association in the city and one of the oldest in the country. The first mention of "urban music" goes back to a source in which the city pastor Liberat Steger describes the festive course of the Corpus Christi procession in 1801: "After the children and maidens came first, a military department with flags, pipes and drums followed, followed by the municipal department Music with their trumpets, timpani and wind instruments ".

literature

Web links

Commons : Bregenz  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Bregenz  - travel guide
Wiktionary: Bregenz  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. city ​​council. City Office Directorate Bregenz, accessed on June 28, 2020 .
  2. Regionalinformation , bev.gv.at (1,094 kB); accessed on January 10, 2020.
  3. Statistics Austria: Population on January 1st, 2020 by locality (area status on January 1st, 2020) , ( CSV )
  4. New Molo opened in Bregenz. In: ORF. May 24, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2017 .
  5. Ten million euros for the expansion of the pipeline in Bregenz. In: Vorarlberg Online. October 15, 2013, accessed June 17, 2017 .
  6. a b Register census 2011 Statistics Austria municipality table Vorarlberg
  7. Demographic data Statistics Austria
  8. Roman excavations recorded in city map orf.at, June 22, 2017, accessed on June 23, 2017.
  9. ^ Heinrich Gottfried Gengler: "Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages." Erlangen 1863, p. 308 ; see also pp. 973-975 .
  10. State capital Bregenz in figures ( Memento from February 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 47 kB)
  11. Barnay: “Invention of the Vorarlberger.” P. 144.
  12. Bregenz: Greens call for deserters memorial . Article on Vorarlberg Online from September 23, 2011, accessed on November 15, 2015.
  13. Memorial for resistance: Bregenz starts competition . Article in the Neue Vorarlberger Tageszeitung from November 6, 2014, accessed on deserteursdenkmal.at on November 15, 2015.
  14. competition: design resistance memorial / -Denkmal ( Memento of 17 November 2015, Internet Archive ). Document from the city of Bregenz (2014), accessed on November 15, 2015.
  15. a b Resistance memorial unveiled in Bregenz . Article on vorarlberg.orf.at from November 14, 2015, accessed on November 14, 2015.
  16. Sobotka: Austrian SDG Award sets an important example for raising awareness about global sustainability goals , parliamentary correspondence No. 1162 of December 5, 2019, website of the Austrian parliament.
  17. Bregenz Festival “would have liked to have had a little more visitors”. In: Vorarlberg Online . Russmedia, August 16, 2012, accessed April 30, 2015 .
  18. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives: The Bregenz Festival - facts and figures ) (PDF file; 0.6 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / presse.bregenzerfestspiele.com
  19. The Great Wall of China in Lake Constance. In: Upper Bavarian Volksblatt. Oberbayerisches Volksblatt Medienhaus, April 16, 2015, accessed on May 4, 2015 .
  20. Christa Dietrich: Jazz instead of blues and art instead of drunkenness. In: Vorarlberger Nachrichten. Russmedia, May 14, 2013, accessed April 30, 2015 .
  21. Bregenz Spring , on bodensee-vorarlberg.com, accessed on June 3, 2015
  22. Brutality, brilliance or everything. (PDF) (No longer available online.) In: Vorarlberger Nachrichten. April 21, 2014, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved June 3, 2015 .
  23. Christina Porod: "Nataša Sienčnik designed the resistance memorial in Bregenz" . Article on kulturzeitschrift.at from May 5, 2015, accessed on November 14, 2015.
  24. Vorarlberg climbing guide . Panico-Alpinverl., 2003, ISBN 978-3-926807-94-6 .
  25. EurosportRing: Bodensee Pokal. In: www.bodenseepokal.com. Retrieved May 17, 2016 .
  26. Bregenz handball homepage. Retrieved December 20, 2016 .
  27. The "Mili". In: Alexander Pohle: “99 x Lake Constance, as you don't know it yet.” Bruckmann Verlag, 2014, ISBN 978-3-7654-8303-5 . Pp. 186-187.
  28. ^ History of Mili Stadtwerke Bregenz
  29. ^ History of Bregenz Beach
  30. ^ Christoph Vallaster: "Kleines Vorarlberger Heilbäderbuch", p. 139.
  31. Flower Office Austria
  32. Presentation of the Bregenz office as part of the Red Cross website.
  33. Fire brigades ( memento of October 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on the website of the state capital Bregenz ( www.bregenz.gv.at )
  34. orf.at - private university starts operations in Bregenz . Article dated September 23, 2016, accessed September 23, 2016.
  35. New study center of the Sigmund Freud University in Bregenz on Lake Constance . OTS news from July 1, 2016, accessed on September 23, 2016.
  36. Homepage of the Bregenz city bus as part of the Bregenz public utilities website.
  37. Shipping on Lake Constance at hafen-bregenz.at, accessed on April 7, 2015
  38. Results of the municipal council elections since 1950, bregenz.gv.at (PDF) ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  39. Sprengel results of Representatives election on 15 March 2015 (PDF) bregenz.gv.at ( Memento of 2 April 2015, Internet Archive )
  40. Sprengel results, mayoral election on March 15, 2015, bregenz.gv.at (PDF) ( Memento from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  41. New city council on the homepage of the state capital Bregenz
  42. In the 19th century the coat of arms was interpreted quite differently: "[...] because of the county of Bregenz four vertically standing piles of ermine, in the middle of which a silver bar with three black turnips embedded in the same." New titulature and coats of arms of his Roman and Austrian-Imperial, also Royal-Apostolic Majesty, after the changes brought about by the Luneviller Peace Treaty and the Most Highest Pragmatical Ordinance of August 11th, 1804. Vienna, 1804. Quoted from Otto Posse: The seals of the German emperors and kings . tape 5 . Wilhelm and Bertha v. Baensch Foundation, Dresden 1913, supplements, p. 253 ( Wikisource ).
  43. Vorarlberger Landesregierung (Ed.): 96 municipal coats of arms - national emblem and civic pride. Vorarlberger Landesarchiv, Bregenz 2008, ISBN 978-3-902622-04-4 ( pdf , vorarlberg.at)
  44. Otto Titan von Hefner: Handbook of theoretical and practical heraldry. Heraldisches Institut, Munich 1861.
  45. ^ Vorarlberg then and now. The fishing pier in Bregenz. Retrieved March 1, 2019 .
  46. ↑ Then & Now. Retrieved January 23, 2020 (German).