Standard German , more precisely Standard High German , also called ambiguous High German , Swiss written German or Bavarian the writing , is the result of the standardization of the German language . In linguistics , such a standard language is represented in a system of elements, sub- and secondary elements, assigned to different levels. There are various linguistic models for this.
In the model of language centers, the top level is that of full centers . There the elements of the German standard are arranged, the so-called standard varieties : The West German (or deutschländische) High German , the Austrian standard German and Swiss high German . These differ in terms of lexicons , syntax , morphology and phonetics .
This standard varieties überdachen respectively in the half and quarter centers is associated non-standard varieties or substandard as everyday or handling languages , dialects , technolects ( multiple languages ) and sociolects as youth languages .
The standardization and codification of the three above-mentioned standard varieties of standard German as part of their standardization takes place in different ways, since there is no supra-regional institution for this in the German-speaking area, such as B. the Académie française for the standardization of French . On the one hand, “standardization” takes place to a greater or lesser extent in each case by various domestic standards committees. For example, in Germany these are the Institute for the German Language (IDS), in Austria the Austrian Ministry of Education (BMUKK) and in German-speaking Switzerland the Swiss Association for the German Language (SVDS).
The Duden and other works published in Germany, the dictionary Our vocabulary , published in Switzerland . Swiss dictionary of the German language ( Ingrid Bigler ) and the only official (on behalf of the BMUKK) reference work Austrian dictionary (ÖWB) in Austria that exist in the German-speaking area are examples of comprehensive works of the respective inland “codification”.
And there is also a collaboration between representatives of the three countries who are working on a joint codification work on similarities and differences between the three standard varieties, the German dictionary of variants (VWB). There was a cross-border cooperation between the Siebs Commissions for the discussion . In addition, the intergovernmental body of six states with a German-speaking population, the Council for German Spelling , came to an official regulation after the reform of 1996 , but only with regard to spelling . It is valid in Germany and other countries as well as, with deviations, in Austria and Switzerland.
Speech variety and standard variety
Languages have many forms and forms. The linguist Ulrich Ammon uses the term , technical term linguistic varieties, to describe these, whereas for his colleague Norbert Dittmar , varieties are the set of linguistic structures .
Standardization or standardization
In the case of language, standards committees have the task of establishing standards for them. This is done by unifying the language structures, standardizing and incorporating them into reference works , or codifying .
- generally binding, e.g. B. be an official language ,
- be standardized, d. i.e. that there is a codification of language structures such as vocabulary , pronunciation , grammar and spelling ,
- polyvalent, i.e. linguistically usable for all important areas of life and
- be distinguishable in terms of language style .
Assignments or affiliations
In linguistics, there are several models to represent assignments or affiliations to languages.
Standard German and pluricentric language
Firstly, Standard German is a standard language, since it fulfills the condition that at least one standard variety is also available for all of its subordinate varieties (e.g. those mentioned as secondary or sub-elements in the introduction) .
Second, it is considered a poly-, multi- or pluricentric language because, in addition to the previously described condition of the existence of a standard variety, it fulfills another criterion that several standard varieties are assigned to it. See U. Ammon (2015).
However, there is no single statement on the subject of multiple center language. It only developed with the definition criterion of several standard varieties. The sociolinguist William Alexander Stewart was the first to speak of a polycentric standard language in 1968 ; the counterpart was called monocentric standard language for him . Heinz Kloss used the term multicentric standard language from 1976 when there are three standard varieties. In 1984 Michael Clyne followed with the term pluricentric standard language and understood it to mean the existence of several national varieties (in the Clynean sense, standard varieties are meant), with one national variety for each center.
The authors of the German variant dictionary (VWB) developed in 2004 under the direction of Ulrich Ammon do not focus on pluricentrics in the Stewart / Kloss / Clyne line, for which the presence of several standard varieties was the sole criterion. The VWB authors considered other criteria to be necessary: For them, the language in question should be the national or regional official language in more than one country. In addition, the official language status is the reason that standard language differences are evident in this country or region.
Full, half, quarter and eighth centers
Another model of linguistics is the division into centers. So-called full centers are used when the peculiarities of the respective national variety are summarized and authorized in reference works, especially dictionaries , and official guidelines.
Half-centers, on the other hand, are states or regions where there are no authorized reference works for the varieties. From the point of view of the German language, these are Belgium (with the German-speaking Community as a member ), Luxembourg , Liechtenstein and Italy (with South Tyrol ).
Quarter centers are centers that are neither used as an official language nor codified. With regard to the German language, this applies to Namibia , for example . The background to possible eighth centers has not yet been researched.
So far, the linguistic landscape of German has not been adequately represented with regard to the pluricentric. The aim of the German variant dictionary published in 2004 is to present the variants of the standard language features, particularly in the area of vocabulary, but also pronunciation and word grammar in one work. A project based at the Universities of Graz, Salzburg (originally Augsburg) and Zurich has also been devoted to the variant grammar of Standard German since 2011 .
Martin Luther's translation of the New Testament , which he completed in September 1522, was an important step towards an early written German language that functioned as a language of compensation . Luther preferred to use lexemes of East Central German and East Upper German , which were well understood in written form in many German-speaking areas, and less those of western and Low German origin. The former also point to the use of the Meissner or Saxon office language .
Approaches to standardization in the 17th-18th century
From the middle of the 17th century onwards, several works appeared that showed a desire for codification and standardization, first of all in the written language. Mention should be made here of Teutsche Sprachkunst (1641 Justus-Georgius Schottelius ) and basic sentences of the German languages in speaking and writing (1690 Johann Bödiker ). This was followed as a contribution to the grammatical codification of Johann Christoph Gottsched's foundations of a German art of language from 1748, a guide to correct German. Gottsched used the Meissnian Upper Saxon as a model, which was not only for cultural reasons, but also for economic and political reasons. This common language , based mainly in East Central German and East Franconian, replaced the office languages of other regions of the German-speaking area between the 16th and early 19th centuries - mainly in the 17th century - such as Upper German written language , the federal state language , the Viennese office language and the Lübeck chancellery language of the Hanseatic League ( Hanseatic language ).
So translated manuals of individual scholars and groups of scholars standards. However, these have never remained undisputed because their authors, even if they relied on language observation, decided according to their own criteria what should and should not be considered a standard. Standard-setting works have therefore undergone numerous revisions over time, in which what was previously considered to be contrary to the standard is now recognized. An example of pronunciation is Theodor Siebs ' German pronunciation , whose original title from 1898 “Deutsche Bühnenaussprache” shows that initially no general standard was intended.
The increasing generality of the common language implicitly resulted in a new awareness of language developing in the individual regions from the 18th century, which was for example in the dispute between the Swiss authors Johann Jakob Bodmer , Johann Jakob Breitinger and Albrecht von Haller with the Saxon Johann Christoph Gottsched about the "Swiss freedom of language" was expressed.
Linguistic hegemony from the 18th to the 20th century
The preference for Meissnian Upper Saxon as a model for correct German, which was part of the standardization approaches from Schottelius to Gottsched and others, had features of hegemony as early as the 17th and 18th centuries . Despite the growing linguistic self-confidence as well as the attempts to differentiate between German-speaking Swiss authors and their examination of the previous standardization of German from the northern German-speaking area, in particular through Gottsched's work, nothing changed. On the contrary, there was sometimes a kind of “submission”, according to the Austrian side. During Gottsched's visit to Vienna in 1749, Archduchess Maria Theresa apologized for the poor language used by the Austrians.
The hegemony was still growing in the 18th century and continued in the 19th century with language imperialism and chauvinism , especially after the " small German " empire was founded in 1871 until the 20th century. Around the time the empire was founded, a linguistic political contradiction between the German-speaking imperial German, Austrian and Swiss large group identities manifested itself. Thus, the German language developed into a pluricentric language since the 19th century. Swiss vocabulary from Gottfried Keller's work was already included in the first edition of the spelling dudens , and in the fourth edition from 1893 the preface expressly referred to an expanded “number of good Swiss expressions”. At the beginning of the 20th century, the treatise German German and Austrian German written by Otto Behaghel in 1915 and Paul Kretschmer's word geography of the High German colloquial language from 1918 provided further clues for a pluricentric, but the recognition was essentially only in the form of outside or marginalized existing "deviations" from Germany. In 1939, the then German-speaking Swiss Language Association (DSSV) submitted a list of Helvetisms for the Duden edition of 1941 to the Duden editorial team - a collaboration that was institutionalized in 1960 in the form of a "Swiss Duden Committee" and continues to this day.
Linguistic research on the "special features" began with Hugo Moser in the Federal Republic of Germany , among others . In the 1960s he made studies on the “peculiarities”, examining Austria and Switzerland as well as Luxembourg and the GDR, but making no reference to the language used in the Federal Republic. Reichsdeutsch, which he now called Binnendeutsch , continued to be the “real” German. The term Binnendeutsch continued to represent the monocentric point of view, since there was only one German language center, in contrast to which everything else would be “on the edge” or “outside”. The Germanist Stephan Kaiser first dealt in detail with the “special features of the written German language in Switzerland” in the areas of lexicons, morphology and syntax in 1969/70. In 1973, Hannelore Fenske's study of the “Swiss and Austrian peculiarities in German dictionaries” followed. The work of Kurt Meyer laid the foundation for the recognition of Swiss Standard German, with his scientifically based but popular book How do you say in Switzerland? from 1989 (revised 2006) could reach broad circles. The codification of the Swiss standard pronunciation also began in the second half of the 20th century when Bruno Boesch drafted the first set of rules on behalf of the Swiss Siebs Commission in 1957.
Pluricentrics from the end of the 20th century
At the end of the 20th century there was a fundamental change in the previous process of standardization of German. An equality of the Austrian and German- Swiss standard varieties as compared to the West German as described by linguists prevailed in the 1990s with the pluricentric view of the German language of Clyne, Ammon and others.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the 4th volume (Die Grammatik) of the Duden series became important in the area of grammar because its 1st volume (The German Spelling) was considered to be "authoritative in all cases of doubt" for decades before the accession of the New States in 1990 ( so the subtitle of the 20th edition from 1991) was to be used. The 3rd and 5th editions of the Duden grammar have been revised, which have followed recent developments on the one hand in linguistics and on the other in the language itself. Both the theoretical conditions, according to which criteria for the standards are established, as well as the language practice, which deviated more and more from the alleged standards, have led to the formulation of new standards. Such and competing grammars are therefore more descriptive than normative and difficult to use for orientation for many potential users.
In the “old” Federal Republic before 1990 (based on a resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education of the Federal States of November 1955), the dictionary of spelling was the decisive instrument for the field of orthography (spelling) . In Switzerland the Duden volume was one of the instruments, in Austria the Austrian Dictionary (ÖWB) , which has been published in recurring editions since 1951, serves as a domestic codification system.
Since 2004, in Germany, Liechtenstein, South Tyrol and the German-speaking Community of Belgium, the rules of the Council for German Spelling have been binding for administration and schools. For Switzerland, this spelling norm is only a house orthography by decree of the Swiss Federal Chancellery , for the documents created in German in the federal administration. However, deviations apply e.g. B. because of the missing ß and in some spellings. Further deviations are listed in the approx. 200-page current guideline for German spelling published by the BK with a rule section including a word list. In Austria, the current version of the ÖWB continues to apply in cases of doubt and deviations .
The lexic (vocabulary) is one of the areas in which the standard varieties of Germany, Austria and Switzerland differ to a greater extent. There are several reference works for the German vocabulary. The most recent codification works on lexicons published in Germany are: Duden - The large dictionary of the German language in six or ten volumes (GWDS), the German dictionary in six volumes ( Brockhaus-WAHRIG ) and the digital dictionary of the German language (DWDS), which is based on the lexic codification work published in the GDR, the dictionary of contemporary German (WDG). In addition to the core corpus, the DWDS contains other corpora, including a. a GDR-specific and a Swiss text corpus.
Standard language vs. dialect
Among the dialect groups, the Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialect group , the Anhalt dialect and the East Franconian dialect group show the most parallels to the written language. The pronunciation, on the other hand, is largely based on the Low German substrate present in northern Germany . According to a widespread opinion, a colloquial language that comes close to the standard written German language (“the best standard German”) is spoken in Hanover and the surrounding area. This is a landscape in which the original Low German dialects are rarely spoken today, which is why the pronunciation of Standard German is interpreted as being virtually “dialect-free” - what is forgotten is the linguistic historical fact that there was actually a High German (mainly East Central German) based there Language variety is paired with the Low German phonetic system. By contrast, until the early 20th century, Prague German was considered “the best standard German”.
Assignment to centers
Federal German Standard German is the Federal German standard variety of Standard German. The term "High German", which is falsely equating for the German standard language as a whole, actually refers to a group of dialects in Central and Southern Germany ( Central and Upper German ) that are differentiated from Low German and Lower Franconian by the Benrath line .
For the Federal Republic of Germany, the term "Standard German" or "Standard Varietät" is problematic in that there is no instance that could set standards for the German language in terms of rules for grammar and pronunciation , such as the Académie française in France Standard French regulated. The codification is done by commercial institutions that publish the Duden , for example .
In the sense of such established standards of the Académie française there is no such thing as “correct” German for all citizens. Due to service regulations, there is an “official standard German” for federal German civil servants (thus also for teachers) and public service employees. House orthographies regulate the spelling to be used in various institutions (e.g. in publishing houses). They determine which standards are to be used, which can deviate from current rules. Likewise, workers and employees are usually given work instructions to comply with z. B. requested the "new German spelling" in accordance with the 1996 spelling reform (e.g. journalists). A private person is allowed to write and speak (in German) as they wish (in their free time).
Austrian German, synonymous with Austrian Standard German and Austrian Standard German, denotes the variety of the New Standard German standard language used in Austria . Like the other two national standard varieties, Swiss Standard German and West German German, it emerged from the Saxon language of the office .
Swiss Standard German or Swiss Standard German describes the standard variety of Standard German used in Switzerland. It is a national variety of Standard German that differs from varieties that occur outside of Switzerland in numerous peculiarities in vocabulary, word formation, morphology, syntax, orthography and pronunciation. These peculiarities are called helvetisms.
Swiss Standard German is called Written German or simply Standard German in Switzerland. It must not be confused with Swiss German , under which the Alemannic dialects commonly used in German-speaking Switzerland are summarized.
In the Belgian member state German-speaking Community , German is the official language. In oral communication there is a continuum between Moselle-Franconian , Lower Franconian and Ripuarian dialect on the one hand and standard German on the other. Integration into the Wallonia region encourages acquisitions from French , especially in the form of loan translations .
In Luxembourg there is a Luxembourg-German-French triglossy , which means that each language has its own, little mixed sphere of activity. In the constitution, Luxembourgish, German and French were defined as the official languages, with Luxembourgish ( Lëtzebuergesch, derived from Moselle Franconian ) being the national language. French has a strong position as a legal language, German as the language of schooling and newspapers; The colloquial language is Luxembourgish, but also French in the urban areas because of the foreigners mainly coming from Romansh- speaking countries. The strong position of French, especially in the administration, on the one hand and the linguistic similarity between Luxembourgish and German on the other lead to loanwords and loan coinage that are unique to the Luxembourgish variety of German.
In Liechtenstein , Alemannic dialects are spoken in everyday life, so, as in neighboring Switzerland, Diglossian conditions prevail . Due to its linguistic and political proximity to Switzerland, the written German language is strongly influenced by the standard variety of Switzerland. For historical reasons - the principality leaned against Austria-Hungary until the end of the First World War , and the princely family lived in Vienna until 1938 - the influence of the Austrian standard variety is also strong.
In the Italian autonomous South Tyrol (officially autonomous province Bozen-Südtirol) German and Italian , locally also Ladin, are official languages. The German-speaking population speaks southern Bavarian dialects on a daily basis , which means that Diglossian conditions prevail. Both German and Italian are omnipresent at the written language level. Administration and legislation are consistently bilingual (locally trilingual), the school system is separated according to the ethnic groups. As a result, South Tyrolean German on the one hand has numerous borrowings and loan translations from Italian, but on the other hand, due to its centuries-long association with Austria , which continues until 1919, and the strong contacts with this country to this day, it is also particularly oriented towards the Austrian standard variety.
The African state of Namibia , known as German South West Africa, was one of the former colonies of the German Empire called " protected areas ". Up to the present day German is one of the languages spoken in Namibia.
Article 3 of Namibia's constitution, adopted in 1990 , stipulated that the only official language was English. However, German has a presence that goes far beyond the comparatively small number of native speakers and is recognized as one of the many national languages, in some parts of the country also as a local official language at the municipal level. Namibian German is basically based on the federal German standard variety, but is also characterized by leanings and borrowings resulting from daily contact with Afrikaans , English and the Bantu languages .
Controversial standard varieties
From the 12th century onwards, the emigration of Germans, especially from central and southern Germany and Luxembourg, with their settlement in the area of today's Romania , resulted in several German-speaking "islands". Outside and largely independent of the further language development in the original region of origin of the speakers.
The extent to which Romanian German represents a standardized variety of Standard German as a canopy of the local varieties in the form of dialects, church language , etc., or at least was such before the massive emigration or expulsion of the 20th century, especially to Germany and Austria, is controversial in the literature or hardly researched scientifically. Ulrich Ammon refers to Brunhilde Szöke , who is researching Romanian German as a standard variety. Ioan Lăzărescu puts forward an affirmative thesis in this context and justifies this, despite the lack of the official language criterion, with the existence of a church language and teaching in the language in the entire German-speaking school system from schools in the lower grades to higher schools.
Following the center model, Romania is an example of neighborhood centers.
Standardization in Former States
German Empire (1871-1918)
German Empire (1933–1945)
In the German Reich from 1933 to 1945 there was an attempt to change the spelling. But this reform , which was intended to be extensive , remained in the planning status and ended with an elaboration for school use, which was also not implemented. The vocabulary, however, changed in that geographical terms such as place names in the heartland and in the conquered states were "Germanized" in accordance with Nazi ideology (see also Germanization ).
- Community German - the standardized German vocabulary that is identical in the entire High German language area.
- Regional language - used in three meanings.
- Ulrich Ammon : The German language in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The problem of national varieties. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995, ISBN 3-11-014753-X .
- Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel , Jakob Ebner a. a .: German variant dictionary. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 .
- Werner Besch : The emergence of the written German language. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1987, ISBN 3-531-07290-0 .
- Werner Besch: The role of Luther in German language history. Carl Winter, Heidelberg 1999, ISBN 3-8253-0881-2 .
- Ruth Brons-Albert: Spoken standard German. Telephone dialogues (= studies on German grammar 18). Stauffenburg, Tübingen 1984, ISBN 3-86057-408-6 .
- Michael Clyne: The German Language in a Changing Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998, ISBN 0-521-49970-4 .
- Christa Dürscheid and Martin Businger (eds.): Swiss Standard German. Contributions to variety linguistics. Gunter Narr, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-8233-6225-9 .
- Mirra Moissejewna Guchman : The Road to the German National Language Part 1 . 2nd Edition. Akademie-Verlag , Berlin 1970. , Mirra Moissejewna Guchman: The way to the German national language part 2 . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1969.
- Birte Kellermeister-Rehbein: Pluricentric. Introduction to the national varieties of German. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-503-15550-7 .
- Alfred Lameli: Standard and Substandard. Regionalisms in a diachronic longitudinal section. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-08558-0 .
- Christa Dürscheid : Is standard German a marginal phenomenon in Switzerland? In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . January 16, 2007, accessed March 7, 2018 .
- Chiara Messinas: The Austrian business languages: terminology and diatopic variation. Frank and Timme, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-7329-0113-5 , p. 64. See also Ulrich Ammon.
- Klaus Mattheier, Peter Wiesinger: Dialektologie des Deutschen. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1994, ISBN 3-484-31147-9 , p. 370 ff.
- Karina Schneider-Wiejowski, Birte Kellermeier-Rehbein, Jakob Haselhuber: Diversity, Variation and Position of the German Language . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-030930-0 , p. 102.
- Helmut Spiekermann: Language in Baden-Württemberg: Features of the regional standard . Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-484-30526-7 , p. 35 ff.
- Ludwig M. Eichinger and Werner Kallmeyer: Standard variation: how much variation can the German language tolerate? Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-11-018256-4 , p. 19 ff.
- Chiara Messinas: The Austrian business languages: terminology and diatopic variation. Frank and Timme, Berlin 2015, p. 19 f.
- Christa Dürscheid and Martin Businger: Swiss Standard German: Contributions to Varietal Linguistics. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-8233-6225-8 , p. 59 f.
- Gerhard Helbig: German as a foreign language: an international handbook . Half volume 1. In: Handbooks Linguistics and Communication Studies, Volume 19, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-11-013595-7 , p. 166 f.
- Hans Friebertshäuser et al .: Lexicography of Dialects (= series of Germanistic linguistics). Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1986, ISBN 3-484-31059-6 , p. 188 f.
- Ulrich Ammon: The position of the German language in the world . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-11-019298-8 , p. 107 ff.
- Ulrich Ammon: The position of the German language in the world . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-11-019298-8 , p. 113 ff.
- Ulrich Ammon: The German language in Germany, Austria and Switzerland . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-11-014753-X , p. 42 ff.
- Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Jakob Ebner a. a .: German variant dictionary. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 , p. XXXI.
- The preceding sections based on Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Jakob Ebner u. a .: German variant dictionary. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 , pp. XXXI ff.
- Karina Schneider-Wiejowski, Birte Kellermeier-Rehbein, Jakob Haselhuber: Diversity, Variation and Position of the German Language . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2013, p. 46.
- Variant of standard German - homepage
- Variant of standard German - project description of the chair Christa Dürscheid
- Hermut Spiekermann: Language in Baden-Württemberg. Max Niemeyer, Tübingen 2008, p. 9 f.
- Dieter Kattenbusch: On the status of the codification of regional and minority languages . In: Bruno Staib (Ed.): Linguista Romanica et indiana . Gunter Narr, Tübingen 2000, ISBN 3-8233-5855-3 , p. 211.
- For details see Werner Besch: The emergence and formation of the New High German written language / standard language (pp. 1781–1810); Ulf Bichel: The superimposition of Low German by High German (pp. 1865–1873); Stefan Sonderegger: The development of the relationship between standard language and dialects in German-speaking Switzerland (pp. 1873–1939, esp. 1904–1911), in: Sprachgeschichte. A handbook on the history of the German language and its research. Edited by Werner Besch, Oskar Reichmann, Stefan Sonderegger. Second half volume. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1985 (Handbooks for Linguistics and Communication Science 2.2), ISBN 3-11-009590-4 .
- See Stefan Sonderegger: The development of the relationship between standard language and dialects in German-speaking Switzerland. In: History of Language. A handbook on the history of the German language and its research. Edited by Werner Besch, Oskar Reichmann, Stefan Sonderegger. Second half volume. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1985 (Handbooks for Linguistics and Communication Science 2.2), ISBN 3-11-009590-4 , pp. 1906-1911).
- Kurt Meyer: “Der Duden”, Switzerland and the “Swiss Duden Committee”. In: Sprachspiegel 52, 1996, pp. 115-120 ( digitized version ).
- Johannes Wyss: From the “Guggisberg” inn in Burgdorf to voice information by e-mail - a brief look back at the history of the SVDS. In: Jürg Niederhauser, Johannes Wyss (Ed.): German in Switzerland. One hundred years of the Swiss Association for the German Language (SVDS). Verlag sprachverein.ch, Thalwil 2007, pp. 141–155, here p. 147.
- Stephan Kaiser: The special features of the written German language in Switzerland. Vol. 1: Words and word usage. Vol. 2: Word formation and sentence formation. Dudenverlag, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1969–1970 ( Duden articles. Special series: The special features of the written German language abroad 30a and 30b).
- Hannelore Fenske: Swiss and Austrian peculiarities in German dictionaries. Narr, Tübingen 1973 (Institute for the German Language. Research Reports 10).
- Kurt Meyer: How do you say in Switzerland? Dictionary of Swiss peculiarities. Dudenverlag, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1989 (Duden-Taschenbücher 22), ISBN 3-411-04131-5 ; Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld 2006, ISBN 3-7193-1382-4 .
- The pronunciation of standard German in Switzerland. A guide. On behalf of the Swiss Siebs Commission ed. by Bruno Boesch. Schweizer Spiegel Verlag, Zurich 1957.
- Peter von Polenz: German language history from the late Middle Ages to the present . Volume III, 19th and 20th centuries. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-11-016426-4 , pp. 175 and 415 ff.
- Daniel Klaaß: studies on selected aspects of the consonants in Austrian newscasters (= Duisburg work on Linguistics and Cultural Studies 74). Peter Lang, International Science Publishing House. Frankfurt a. M. 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-58539-9 , p. 11 ff.
- Werner Besch: History of language . In: Handbooks for Linguistics and Communication Studies . Second half volume. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-11-015882-5 , p. 1090 ff.
- Christa Dürscheid, Martin Businger: Swiss Standard German . Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-8233-6225-8 , pp. 25 and 81 ff.
- Peter von Polenz: German as a pluricentric language in the post-nationalist age . In: Andreas Gardt, Ulrike Haß-Zumkehr, Thorsten Roelcke: History of language as cultural history . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-11-016373-X , p. 115 ff.
- BMUKK: Completion of the spelling reform - announcement ( Memento of the original from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Swiss Federal Chancellery: Guide to German Spelling 2014 PDF document ( Memento of the original from October 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- Undine Kramer: Special vocabulary and their codification in German dictionaries. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-023467-1 , pp. 226-293.
- Klaus Gantert: Electronic information resources for Germanists. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-598-21169-0 , p. 247 ff.
- Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Jakob Ebner a. a .: German variant dictionary. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 , p. L ff.
- Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Jakob Ebner a. a .: German variant dictionary. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 , pp. XLVIII ff.
- Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Jakob Ebner a. a .: German variant dictionary. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 , p. XLVIII.
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