In technology and economy, standardization is the unification of components , manufacturing processes , units of measurement , processes , structures , types or goods and services . The opposite is individualization .
Competitors offer products or services with a similar functionality or purpose without first harmonizing them with other competitors . The result is a multitude of similar products or services that the consumer can hardly distinguish from one another. Often there is a lack of compatibility , which hinders the interchangeability of assemblies or components , for example . This interchangeability is even prevented by the lock-in effect in order to increase customer loyalty . In March 1954, for example, the color version of the US television standard NTSC came onto the market, but its standard did not establish itself in Europe, Asia and Australia. Either the German PAL system established here in January 1963 or the French Secam color system introduced in October 1967 . The different television standards ensured that televisions were only suitable for one television standard.
These variations should be reduced through standardization. The aim is to reduce existing variations to a manageable number. Standardization is therefore a selection process for a manufacturer, and a coordination process if several manufacturers are involved. To this end, different work processes must be adapted and the most appropriate work result determined. With the standardization and pre-structuring of processes, quantitative goals are pursued, whereby costs, quality and time are central criteria. The standardization leads to increased market transparency and cost reduction (with production costs , information costs , transaction costs , shipping costs , distribution costs , switching costs ).
There is factual, institutional and legislative standardization. Actual standardization exists when the selection of a standard is left to the market participants . Of institutional standardization is spoken when under recognized international standards organizations such as the such as International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or the German Institute for Standardization takes place (DIN) . To legislative standardization is, if the state regulates certain specifications binding in law.
Standardization in production takes place primarily through standardization (standardization of product parts ) and typing (standardization of products). Advantages for the manufacturer are simplifications in the production process , storage and for the buyer easier orders . Standardization is particularly worthwhile in mass production, as it can also help promote lean production . The aim is to standardize products and services, the result is the standard . Standardization can create a greater competitive advantage on the world market through cost leadership .
Organization and accounting
A position plan can contribute to the standardization of positions , tasks and functions in a company in the process organization . The management style can also be standardized within the framework of personnel management . In these organizational areas, standardization can contribute to lean management .
Uniform standards in accounting ensure national ( Commercial Code ) and international ( International Financial Reporting Standards ) standardization of accounting ( balance sheets and profit and loss account , annual report ).
Securities and especially commodity exchanges require a high degree of standardization of the trading objects . The main reason is that buyers cannot see the commercial objects as they can in floor trading and when making their purchase decision they have to trust that the offered commercial objects are identical in their respective category. The standardization comprises the unit of measure ( nominal value , shares / shares with nominal value , commodities in quantitatively defined units ) and the type ( product quality ) of the subject of the contract.
In marketing , products or services are adapted to average customer expectations through standardization . In addition to standardizing products or services, the marketing tools and brand names can be standardized. Marlboro has standardized its logo internationally, while Nivea appears differentiated; Langnese (also "Eskimo" or "Algida") appears with different brand names , while Nivea also differentiates the brand names ("Glorix", "Wega", "Klorin").
In technology, an industrial standard is a certain embodiment or specification of an object that has prevailed against a large number of similar specifications and has consequently established itself as a benchmark. Standardization in technology is often very difficult. The standardization of mobile radio in the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) comprises several thousand pages of specifications. The computer and network-based interaction of actors requires compatibility at the level of communication networks , information and communication services and syntactics .
In linguistics , standardization means the development and sometimes also the targeted construction of a standard language that takes the place of several previous writing varieties or, if there are no such variants, also as an umbrella variety of the various dialects . While languages like German or English have a long way to go towards a common written language, Nynorsk , Rumantsch Grischun and Ladin Dolomitan are examples of standardizations developed by linguists.
In psychological diagnostics, this is understood as the standardization of the implementation (both the test material and the implementation conditions), evaluation and interpretation of psychological test procedures to meet the test quality criterion of objectivity . Depending on the degree, one speaks of fully standardized or partially standardized tests (e.g. if the questions are given, answers are given freely and the evaluation criteria are again uniform). This is to be distinguished from the standardization of the parameters as the results of the tests, which is called normalization for better delimitation .
Even in the particularly individualized dental implantology , standardization cannot be dispensed with nowadays. One understands by this z. B. Information on the implant body and material , information on the administration, planning aids and surgical instruments . The relevant standard information includes items such as recommended superstructures or a clinical evaluation of the data collected.
- Roland Wenzlhuemer: The history of standardization in Europe. In: European History Online , ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2010. Accessed June 13, 2012.
- Frank Straube: Current situation of the RFID standardization (PDF; 196 kB) with definitions and terminology
- Insa Sjurts (Ed.): Gabler Lexikon Medienwirtschaft, 2011, p. 1.
- Philipp Genschel: Standards in Information Technology, 1995, p. 32.
- Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden (ed.): Kompakt-Lexikon Wirtschaft, 2014, p. 519.
- Anne-Marie Schalk: Standardization of Leadership Behavior, 2015, pp. 55 ff.
- Hans E. Büschgen, Das kleine Börsen-Lexikon , 2012, p. 1005
- Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden (ed.): Kompakt-Lexikon Wirtschaft, 2014, p. 519.
- Viktor Peter Wollny: On the global standardization of brand names in the consumer goods sector, 2008, p. 47.
- Ralph Berndt, Claudia Fantapié Altobelli, Matthias Sander: Internationale Marketing-Politik, 1997, p. 133.
- Henning Fräßdorf: Legal questions of the meeting of industrial property rights, technical standards and technical standardization, 2009, p. 5.
- Eric Iversen, in: Knut Blind (Ed.): Study on the Interaction between IPR and Standardization: Patterns and Policies, April 2004, p. 151 ff.
- Herbert Kubicek, Stefan Klein: Options and implementation chances of cooperation in cross-industry value card systems. In: Jörg Sydow, Arnold Windeler (Hrsg.): Management interorganisationaler Demokratie, 1994, p. 98 ff.
- Peter Ehrl, Helmut B. Engels, Klaus F. Müller: Standards for implant systems. In: Zeitschrift für Zahnärztliche Implantologie, Volume IX, 1993/1, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich.