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Materials are materials that work pieces are made of. The quality and properties of the finished products are decisively influenced by the choice of suitable materials. Materials testing is used to ensure quality .


In today's materials science, a distinction is made between different material groups, the classification of which is not always identical, but similar. For example, they are classified as follows:

Simpler classifications into:

  • metallic materials
  • non-metallic inorganic materials (ceramics)
  • Polymers ( plastics )

The composite materials are combinations of materials from several material groups.

The non-metallic inorganic materials are also classified as follows:

Another possibility of classification distinguishes


The use of materials runs through the entire prehistory of mankind. The material for a hand ax (stone) is a material and a characteristic of the Stone Age . Along with wood, it is one of the oldest natural materials that exist.

Around 10,000 BC Ceramics were produced for the first time . It is the oldest man-made material.

In the 8th millennium BC Chr. Began the technical use of metals . First of all, solid ( elemental ) metals such as gold , silver and copper were used . However, the practical value of these materials was still too low, which led to the discovery and manufacture of the first alloy , namely bronze . The production of bronze already requires advanced mining to provide copper and tin ores . In addition, were smelting techniques necessary. The increasing mastery of these technologies finally led to the fact that iron could also be smelted. According to the three-period system , the respective periods are designated according to the most advanced materials used (see also archaeometallurgy ).

In parallel, increased with the development of settlements and cities , the need for materials for the construction (brick, wood), slashing and stabbing weapons , coins (metals) and household items (for example, pottery, glass art).


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The items material constant , material characteristic , material size , material property and material # properties overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Acky69 ( discussion ) 21:29, Nov. 4, 2016 (CET)

Physical material properties

Electrical properties:

Mechanical properties:

Optical - acoustic properties:

Tribological properties:

Thermal properties:

Other physical properties:

Chemical material properties

Manufacturing properties

Ecological material properties

  • Consumption of raw materials in manufacture, transport, processing and use
  • Emissions from manufacturing, transport, processing and use
  • Energy consumption in manufacture, transport, processing and use
  • Toxicity
  • recycling capability

as well as the possible composition of the material from various chemical substances

See also

Portal: Materials  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of materials


Web links

Wiktionary: Material  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Ilschner, Singer: Material Science and Manufacturing Technology , Springer, 6th edition, 2016, p. 20.
  2. Briehl: Chemie der Werkstoffe , Springer, 3rd edition, 2014, p. 9.
  3. Czichos, Srontzki, Simon: Das Ingenieurwissen - Werkstoffe , 2014, Springer, p. 9f.
  4. Skolaut: Maschinenbau , Springer, 2014, p. 342.
  5. ^ Bargel, Schulze: Material science , Springer, 11th edition, p. 357.