Materials are materials that work pieces are made of. The quality and properties of the finished products are decisively influenced by the choice of suitable materials. Materials testing is used to ensure quality .
In today's materials science, a distinction is made between different material groups, the classification of which is not always identical, but similar. For example, they are classified as follows:
- metallic materials
- Natural substances
Simpler classifications into:
- metallic materials
- non-metallic inorganic materials (ceramics)
- Polymers ( plastics )
The composite materials are combinations of materials from several material groups.
The non-metallic inorganic materials are also classified as follows:
Another possibility of classification distinguishes
The use of materials runs through the entire prehistory of mankind. The material for a hand ax (stone) is a material and a characteristic of the Stone Age . Along with wood, it is one of the oldest natural materials that exist.
Around 10,000 BC Ceramics were produced for the first time . It is the oldest man-made material.
In the 8th millennium BC Chr. Began the technical use of metals . First of all, solid ( elemental ) metals such as gold , silver and copper were used . However, the practical value of these materials was still too low, which led to the discovery and manufacture of the first alloy , namely bronze . The production of bronze already requires advanced mining to provide copper and tin ores . In addition, were smelting techniques necessary. The increasing mastery of these technologies finally led to the fact that iron could also be smelted. According to the three-period system , the respective periods are designated according to the most advanced materials used (see also archaeometallurgy ).
In parallel, increased with the development of settlements and cities , the need for materials for the construction (brick, wood), slashing and stabbing weapons , coins (metals) and household items (for example, pottery, glass art).
Physical material properties
- Fatigue strength
- Strength , especially tensile strength and compressive strength
- Plasticity (ductility)
- Creep toughness
- Fracture toughness
- Melting temperature
- Material damping
- (metallic) shine
- Reflection (gloss)
- Sound absorption
- Sound reflection
- Thermal expansion
- Thermal conduction / thermal conductivity
- Specific heat capacity
- Heat resistance
- Cold toughness
Other physical properties:
Chemical material properties
Ecological material properties
- Consumption of raw materials in manufacture, transport, processing and use
- Emissions from manufacturing, transport, processing and use
- Energy consumption in manufacture, transport, processing and use
- recycling capability
as well as the possible composition of the material from various chemical substances
- Manfred Merkel, Karl-Heinz Thomas: Taschenbuch der Werkstoffe. Fachbuchverlag, 1994, ISBN 3-343-00845-1 .
- Federal Ministry for Education and Research (Ed.): Material Worlds. Discoveries in the cosmos of matter. ( online )
- Online material information system werkstoffe.de
- German Society for Material Science
- Material innovations for industry and society (WING)
- Script 'Physical Material Properties' (TU Dresden)
- Production quantities of various materials worldwide
- Ilschner, Singer: Material Science and Manufacturing Technology , Springer, 6th edition, 2016, p. 20.
- Briehl: Chemie der Werkstoffe , Springer, 3rd edition, 2014, p. 9.
- Czichos, Srontzki, Simon: Das Ingenieurwissen - Werkstoffe , 2014, Springer, p. 9f.
- Skolaut: Maschinenbau , Springer, 2014, p. 342.
- Bargel, Schulze: Material science , Springer, 11th edition, p. 357.