The technically used metals and alloys are referred to as metallic materials . The production and processing of metallic materials is the subject of metallurgy , its scientific description of metallurgy . A metallic material is created through the interaction of its chemical composition with the process route used, in particular the thermomechanical treatment .
Metallic materials are divided according to their base metal, their properties or the intended use:
- Iron materials : they mainly consist of iron and always contain additional carbon . According to their mass (weight) they make up over 90% of all metal materials.
- Non-ferrous metals (non-ferrous metals). The most important representatives are alloys based on copper ( bronze , brass ) and aluminum . Have meaning or magnesium , titanium and nickel . The further classification is inconsistent.
- Hard metals are neither pure metals nor alloys, but metal matrix composites in which hard materials are embedded in a basic metal structure.
- Soft metals are not clearly defined in materials science . Often all metals are counted that are softer than iron, e.g. B. aluminum, lead, gold, indium, copper, platinum, silver, zinc and tin. Since few metals are harder than steel, this corresponds approximately to the group of non-ferrous metals.
- Berns, Theisen: Eisenwerkstoffe , 4th edition, SV