All metals except iron are referred to as non-ferrous metals in the periodic table . The best-known non-ferrous metals are the base metals copper , aluminum , zinc , nickel , lead and magnesium . Usually the abbreviation "non-ferrous metal" is used for this.
Technically used non-ferrous metals are divided as follows:
- Base metals
- Technology metals
- Accompanying metals
A further classification is made depending on the processing as
Non-ferrous alloys are all metal alloys that contain less than 50% iron (Fe).
Pure metals are identified with their chemical symbol and their purity in percent . In the case of precious metals that are processed into jewelry or coins, there is also a historically based marking in carats or fineness .
For non-ferrous alloys, the labeling in Germany was regulated in the DIN standard DIN 1700, which was withdrawn in May 2000 . This standard has been incorporated into ISO 1190-1. The chemical symbols of the base metal and the main alloying element are given, followed by its alloy content in percent by mass (from a content of over 1%).
The alloy AlMn1 is therefore an aluminum alloy with 1% manganese; the alloy CuNi25Zn15 is a copper alloy with 25% nickel and 15% zinc.
Non-ferrous metals are used in many areas of technology and everyday life:
- as cast parts (sand, chill or die casting)
- as a construction material for aircraft and lightweight construction (aluminum, magnesium, titanium)
- as electrical conductors (cables, busbars, contacts)
- As a thermally conductive material in foundry technology (e.g. molds, casting wheels, crucibles) and in welding technology (welding nozzles, welding caps in robots, e.g. in car sheet steel processing)
- as bearing materials for motors, drives and gears
- for storing electrical energy (accumulators and batteries)
- as corrosion-resistant components in marine applications
- as hygienic, (drinking) water-carrying pipes (copper) and connector components or fittings
- for roofing and exterior wall cladding (zinc and copper)
- as prefabricated parts in house construction (gutters, downpipes) (zinc and copper)
- for containers of all sizes in connection with food and luxury goods
- as products in fittings (locks, keys, fittings)
- in medical technology ((MRI, shielding, radiation protection)
- as jewelry and coin material (gold, silver, copper, brass)
- as a coating material for corrosion protection (galvanizing, tinning)
- as sintered parts
- Alfred Böge: The Technician Handbook , Vieweg Verlag, ISBN 3-528-14053-4
- Metal trade association
- Initiative for a metal roof
- General Association of the German Non-ferrous Metal Industry
- German Copper Institute Professional Association
- Zinc initiative
- The non-ferrous metals. Retrieved August 27, 2020 .
- Metal materials in drinking water installations. Retrieved August 27, 2020 .
- 10 facts - building with copper and zinc. Retrieved August 27, 2020 .
- Roof drainage. Retrieved August 27, 2020 .