An industrial standard or - especially in the English-speaking world - de facto standard , more rarely also a quasi standard , is a technical standard that has not been adopted by a standards committee, but has been defined by industrial companies.
An industry standard can develop over the years as technically useful and sensible through the practice of many users and various manufacturers. As a rule, it is not possible to define such industrial standards in advance, as is the case with the ETSI's GSM standard .
The economic objective of an industry standard is to adhere to a certain pragmatic set of rules for a given problem . As soon as a “ critical mass ” has been exceeded, acceptance accelerates even more. An (inter) national standardization procedure, as with norms or de jure standards, does not necessarily have to be carried out.
One characteristic of an industry standard is that the definition and further development is controlled even more than with standards in general by the economic interests and patents of the companies or interest groups involved in this process. This can be shown using the example of DOS : DOS was considered an industry standard for PC operating systems ; However, at the same time there were different versions of the system (PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS) that were not completely compatible with one another.
An industry standard can be promoted in a targeted manner by individual companies and implemented through the company's market power or created through agreements between several companies . The aim can be to displace competing standards from the market and thus to create a monopoly position (e.g. on the basis of a patented, widely used product; so-called “product-based industrial standard”). However, it can also be about motivating several important actors to use the same standard right from the start of a development in order to minimize development and sales risks for the individual companies by reaching a critical mass of users and to remain compatible with each other. An example of the latter method is the Ethernet : The Ethernet specification was agreed by three companies ( DEC , Intel , Xerox ). Industrial standards can subsequently be set as committee standards by standardization organizations and thus become more binding. The IEEE and ISO later declared Ethernet an international standard.
Some well-known examples of industry standards are:
- Compact cassette from Philips
- Compact Disc from Philips and Sony
- Blu-ray Disc as the successor to DVD
- Betacam and its successors for video recording and playback in the professional field
- XLR connector in public address and studio technology
- Cinch plug on home audio and video equipment
- Deflate as an algorithm for lossless data compression as well as the ZIP and gzip file formats , which are based on Deflate
- Drawing Interchange Format (DXF) as an exchange format for vector graphics
- PDF for electronic documents, version 1.7 is ISO standard ISO 32000-1
- IBM-PC as a template for IBM-PC-compatible computers
- RSS version 2.0 for sending messages from and between websites
- SD card developed in 2001 by SanDisk, Toshiba and Panasonic based on the older MMC standard
- Short Message Service (SMS) for text-based, mobile communication
- SQL as the language for database queries
- The Gardena water hose connector system
- The SDS drill shaft from Bosch
- Andreas Franz: Management of Business Webs , Gabler , 2003, ISBN 3-8244-7833-1 . In it: “The basis of standards are mostly types developed by companies . These are then taken over by other companies. One also speaks of industry standards or de facto standards. "
- Petra Demharter: Coordination of inter-company business processes based on e-business frameworks , GRIN , 2007, ISBN 3-638-84237-1 . In it: "With regard to their origin, standards can be divided into norms or de jure standards and industry standards or de facto standards ."