from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Map of the official standard writing language in Norwegian municipalities
  • Bokmål
  • Nynorsk
  • neutral
  • Along with Bokmål, Nynorsk ( German:  Neunorwegisch ) isone of the two official standard variants of Norwegian . As a Scandinavian language was Nynorsk by the linguist Ivar Aasen development of the 19th century center. Current research on use in schools, at the post office, among recruits, etc. shows that around 10 to 15 percent of the Norwegian population prefer Nynorsk. Bokmål (literally “book language”), on the other hand, was developed from the Danish- Norwegian literary tradition and is used by the majority of the Norwegian population. Nynorsk and Bokmål are mainly used as written languages ​​and are uncommon in oral form; most Norwegians usually simply speak a regional dialect. Nevertheless, many dialects can bebetter reproduced by Nynorsk, which often leads to the confusing statement that there are people who use Nynorsk as a spoken language.

    Development and dissemination

    Ivar Aasen created a new written language from traditional, mostly western and central Norwegian dialects . This work is to be seen in the context of the national romantic return to a Norwegian culture that was originally conceived and that was pushed into the background by a 400-year Danish invasion . So it was a national undertaking to create an independent Norwegian nation with an independent national language after the separation from Denmark in the Peace of Kiel on January 14, 1814.

    In the reforms of 1917 and 1938, Nynorsk was also increasingly opened to Eastern Norwegian, and in particular the very conservative elements of Central Norwegian (Midlandsmål) have since faded into the background. Before 1929 Nynorsk Landsmål ("national language") was called.

    In 1894, the law establishing a uniform standard time (Log um sams normaltid fyr kongeriket Norig) appeared for the first time in Nynorsk and Landsmål . Laws and regulations do not exist in both varieties in Norway , but either on Bokmål or on Nynorsk . About 15% of the current law in Norway was written on Nynorsk in 1995.

    In 2005 the Slepp nynorsken til! founded which tried to promote the spread of Nynorsk in the Norwegian press landscape by collecting signatures. The aim was for a law to be passed so that all newspapers would have to use both forms of language. However, the initiative was unsuccessful.

    On August 1, 2012, another spelling reform came into force. One of the main concerns of the reform was to eliminate the difference between fully recognized and conditionally recognized parallel spellings and forms; since then there have only been variants with equal rights. In the run-up to the reform, the Norwegian Language Council opened an Internet forum in which suggestions for the new spelling could be made and discussed by all Internet users. Compulsory Nynorsk classes for Norwegian students came under criticism again in 2013.

    The writers who write in Nynorsk include Olav Aukrust , Bernhardine Catharine Brun , Elias Blix , Olav Duun , Johan Falkberget , Kjartan Fløgstad , Jon Fosse , Arne Garborg , Frode Grytten , Ragnar Hovland , Ruth Lillegraven , Eldrid Lunden , Olaug Nilssen , Maria Parr , Agnes Ravatn , Per Sivle , Carl Frode Tiller , Lars Amund Vaage , Tarjei Vesaas and Aasmund Olavsson Vinje .


    Linguistically, both varieties are described in detail in the article Norwegian language . A first clear feature for determining which variety a specific Norwegian text is are the indefinite articles :

    genus Bokmål Nynorsk German
    Masculine en rev a rev a fox
    Feminine en / ei jente ei that a girl*
    neuter et hus eit hus a house

    "Girl" is different in German neuter


    General, overviews

    • Kurt Braunmüller: An overview of the Scandinavian languages . Francke, Tübingen 1991, pp. 146-169. ISBN 3-7720-1694-4 .
    • Åse Birkenheier: Ivar Aasen - the man who created a new, old language. In: dialog. Announcements from the German-Norwegian Society, Bonn. No. 42, Volume 32 2013, pages 24–27.
    • Janet Duke, Hildegunn Aarbakke: Nynorsk. In: Janet Duke (Ed.): EuroComGerm. Learn to read Germanic languages. Volume 2: Less commonly learned Germanic languages. Afrikaans, Faroese, Frisian, Yenish, Yiddish, Limburgish, Luxembourgish, Low German, Nynorsk. Shaker, Düren 2019, ISBN 978-3-8440-6412-4 , pp. 267-293.


    • Jan Terje Faarlund, Svein Lie, Kjell Ivar Vannebo: Norsk referansegrammatikk . Universitetsforlaget, Oslo 1997. (3rd edition 2002, ISBN 82-00-22569-0 ) (Bokmål and Nynorsk).
    • Olav T. Beito: Nynorsk grammatikk. Lyd- og ordlære. Det Norske Samlaget, Oslo 1986, ISBN 82-521-2801-7 .
    • Kjell Venås: Norsk grammar. Nynorsk. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo 1990. (2nd edition ibid. 2002, ISBN 82-13-01972-5 ).


    • Nynorskordboka, ed. by the Avdeling for leksikografi ved Institutt for lingvistiske og nordiske studier (ILN) ved Universitetet i Oslo, in cooperation with the Språkrådet, several editions; digital: Bokmålsordbok | Nynorskordboka .
    • Norsk Ordbok . Ordbok about the norske folkemålet and the nynorske skriftmålet. Volumes 1–12, Oslo 1965–2016.

    Web links

    Wiktionary: Nynorsk  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

    Individual evidence

    1. Språkrådet: Språkstatistikk - nokre nøkkeltal for norsk (Norwegian). ( Memento from July 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    2. Oddmund Løkensgard Hoel: Nasjonalisme i norsk målstrid 1848–1865 (“Nationalism in the Norwegian language dispute 1848–1865 ”), Oslo, Noregs Forskingsråd, ISBN 82-12-00695-6 ( Krundalsbloggen, Norwegian).
    3. Lovdata - Hvorfor he noen lover og på nynorsk forskrifter ?, legal information of the Ministry of Justice and the Law Faculty of the University of Oslo. Retrieved November 5, 2018 (Norwegian).
    4. Nynorsk faktabok 2005, Fig. 12.7 (PDF; 38 kB) Ivar-Aasen-tunet, accessed on November 5, 2018 (Norwegian).
    5. Unn Conradi, ERSEN: Vil tvangsinnføre nynorsk. October 30, 2005, Retrieved September 17, 2019 (Norwegian).
    6. Nynorsk 2011 Språkrådet, accessed on November 5, 2018.
    7. Sebastian Balzter: You should honor the Søndag! And the Sundag FAZ, December 29, 2013, accessed on November 5, 2018.
    8. 1400 skjønnlitterære forfattarar på nynorsk , Ivar-Aasen-tunet, accessed on September 24, 2019.