Albrecht Dürer

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Self-portrait (Munich self-portrait), oil on canvas (1500), Alte Pinakothek , Munich .
Signature Albrecht Dürer.PNG
Dürer's monogram (1498)
Portrait of Barbara Dürer, née Holper, (1490/93), Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg [1] Portrait of Albrecht Dürer the Elder, (1490), Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Portrait of Barbara Dürer, née
, (1490/93),
Germanisches Nationalmuseum ,
Portrait of Albrecht Dürer the Elder ,
(1490), Galleria degli Uffizi , Florence
Dürer's coat of arms, painted by an unknown glass painter
Self-portrait of the thirteen-year-old , silver pen on white primed paper (1484), oldest surviving self-portrait by Albrecht Dürer, Albertina , Vienna
Pond in the forest , watercolor around 1495, British Museum , London
Brown hare (1502), gouached watercolor on paper, Albertina, Vienna
Feast of the Rosary , oil on poplar wood (1506), National Gallery , Prague
The Albrecht Dürer House at the Tiergärtnertor in Nuremberg, from 1509 Dürer's place of residence and work
The Last Judgment , woodcut (c. 1510), from The Little Passion
All Saints' Day picture (“Landau Altar”), oil on linden wood (1511), Kunsthistorisches Museum
Saint Jerome in a case , copper engraving (1514)
Portrait of the mother (1514), charcoal drawing, 42.1 cm × 30.3 cm, Kupferstichkabinett Berlin
Dürer points to his spleen, sketch
Funerary inscription from Dürer's grave in Nuremberg

Albrecht Dürer the Younger (also Duerer ; * May 21, 1471 in Nuremberg ; † April 6, 1528 ibid) was a German painter , graphic artist , mathematician and art theorist . With his paintings , drawings , copperplate engravings and woodcuts, he is one of the outstanding representatives of the Renaissance .


The name Dürer is indirectly derived from the Hungarian Ajtósi . Albrecht Dürer the Elder , who came from the village of Ajtós near the town of Gyula in Hungary , is known in Hungary by this name (Ajtósi Dürer Albrecht) . In Germany he initially called himself Thürer (= door maker), which in Hungarian means ajtós ( ajtó = door).

Albrecht Dürer adapted the Türer spelling used by his father to the Franconian pronunciation of the hard consonants, which is common in Nuremberg, and with the conversion to Dürer created the prerequisite for his monogram , the capital A with the subordinate D.

Dürer was the first important artist after Martin Schongauer to systematically mark his graphics with a monogram. This copyright notice soon became a seal of approval that was also copied.


Until self-employment in 1497

Albrecht Dürer 's father of the same name came to Nuremberg from Gyula in Hungary in 1455 and successfully practiced the craft of goldsmith here. In 1467 he married Barbara Holper (* 1452; † May 16, 1514), the daughter of Hieronymus Holper . Within 25 years she gave birth to 18 children, only three of whom survived childhood.

Albrecht was born on May 21, 1471 as the third child of this marriage: "I was Albrecht Dürer on Prudential Day, which was on Friday, since 1471 years were counted, in the free imperial city of Nuremberg." Since 1475, the Dürer family lived in one own house below the castle (Burgstr. 27: corner house of the alley under the Vesten / today: Obere Schmiedgasse). Albrecht Dürer jun. described his mother as a diligent churchgoer who "diligently" and often punished her children. "Weakened by the many pregnancies, she was often sick."

Albrecht Dürer attended school until he was 13. In his early youth, his father took him to his workshop to train him as a goldsmith as well. His half-length portrait , which he drew on parchment after the mirror in 1484 (now in the Albertina in Vienna) and a Madonna with two angels from 1485 ( Kupferstichkabinett Berlin ) come from these years of apprenticeship .

From the end of 1486 to 1490 he learned and worked with the Nuremberg painter Michael Wolgemut ; There are indications that Dürer was involved in the drafting of the Schedel World Chronicle published in 1493 . In addition, Dürer formed himself on the basis of contemporary copperplate engravings, for example those by Martin Schongauer .

From Easter 1490 to Pentecost 1494 Dürer went on a wandering trip to the Upper Rhine ; the exact path of these first of three major journeys during his life is unknown. Possibly he was first in the Netherlands or on the Middle Rhine before he stayed in Alsace in 1492. He did not get to know the painter Martin Schongauer , who lived in Colmar and whose work had a great influence on him, as he had already died on February 2, 1491. Later Dürer worked in Basel. This is where the famous woodcuts for Sebastian Brant's Ship of Fools were made (first printed in 1494). In Nuremberg he had a close friendship with the patrician and humanist Willibald Pirckheimer since his youth ; more recent research thinks it is possible that this also had a homoerotic side.

In 1494 he married Agnes Frey (1475–1539), the daughter of a friend of his father's from a long-established, respected Nuremberg family who, however, only brought 200 Florin dowry into the marriage. The marriage remained childless.

In the following period up to 1500 he created a series of small landscape watercolors with motifs from Nuremberg or with motifs from stations on his first trip to Italy , which he began in the first half of October 1494, just three months after his wedding. This trip increased his interest in Quattrocento art . In May 1495 he returned to Nuremberg.

Recent research has questioned whether Dürer ever crossed the borders of the German-speaking area during this trip, and the evidence that speaks against a stay in Venice is mounting: Dürer himself did not mention a trip to Venice in his family chronicle 1494/95. Some interpret the Italian features in his works from 1497 onwards as a direct influence of the Paduan painter Andrea Mantegna , who was not in Padua in 1494/95, but whose works Dürer could have seen there. All that can be proven is that Dürer was in Innsbruck , Trient and Arco near Lake Garda . There is no trace of places south of Arco in Dürer's watercolors, including Venice. The route also speaks against the Venice theory: For Dürer it would have been more obvious to take the route to Venice that is usual for Nuremberg (merchants), which ran via Cortina and Treviso and was called “Via Norimbergi”. The pictures from his later, verifiably Venetian period from 1505 onwards have clearly more Venetian characteristics.

Dürer started his own business in 1497, and from 1503 he was able to run a workshop in the old town of Nuremberg with Hans Schäufelein , Hans von Kulmbach and Hans Baldung Grien as employees. He worked very hard on his works. During this first period of his artistic life there were mainly portraits and some self-portraits : the portrait of his father (1497) in London ( National Gallery ), his self-portrait (1498) in the Prado in Madrid, that of the Lindau merchant Oswald Krell (labeled “Oswolt Krel. 1499 “) In Munich ( Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlung ), his self-portrait (1500) also in Munich, portrait of Frederick the Wise (1494/97) in Berlin (Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz) and others. The little Christ on the cross in the Dresden gallery, a picture of incomparable delicacy, and an altarpiece from the same period also in Dresden (“The Seven Sorrows of Mary ” and Maria the Child adoring, center panel in Munich), also dates from 1500 "Dresden Altar".

However, he mainly devoted himself to copper engraving and drawing templates for woodcuts . He tried out copperplate engraving in particular very early on; the first dated sheet is from 1497, but it was certainly preceded by various others. From this period also come: The Revelation of John (1498), a series of 16 woodcuts, Adam and Eve (1504), a copper engraving and The Prodigal Son with the Pigs (around 1496) ( Fig. ) , Whose depiction of animals is decisive for the Back-breeding of the so-called Albrecht Dürer pig was.

Dürer's connection to humanism comes among other things. in the illustrations for Conrad Celtis ' writing Quatuor libri Amorum (1502), which for his part had previously praised Dürer as the second Apelles .

Journey to Venice (1505–1507)

In 1505 he made a verifiable trip to Venice , where the greatest Renaissance painters of the Venetian school, Tizian , Giorgione , Palma il Vecchio , were active at that time. But above all he was impressed by Giovanni Bellini , whom he praised in a letter as the “pest in gemell” (best in painting). If his serious studies, his diligence and his insight made him appreciate the value of correctness of drawing and a true understanding of nature earlier in his home country, he saw here an undreamt-of power and depth of color that had a lasting effect on him.

The German merchants in Venice , whose senior elder Jakob Fugger was from Augsburg, ordered a large picture for Bartholomew's Church , the Rosary Festival , which Emperor Rudolf II later acquired for a large sum and had four men carry to Prague , where it is now in the Národní Gallery (National Gallery) is located (previously in the Strahov Monastery there ). It depicts the coronation of the Madonna by two angels. The virgin hands rosaries to the emperor, the Christ child to the pope, as well as St. Dominic and several angels to those standing by. In the painting, which was very spoiled by overpainting, the Venetian influence in the composition and coloring can be clearly seen. In Venice Dürer also painted a few portraits, e.g. B. 1506 Burkhard von Speyer. Although Dürer was highly recognized in Venice and the Council of Venice offered him an annual salary of 200 ducats if he would settle permanently in the city, he began his return journey to his hometown. A copy of Euclid's Elements of Mathematics , published in Venice in 1505, bears Dürer's monogram along with the words: Dz puch I have between Venedich vm a Dugatn kawft in 1507. Albrecht Dürer ("I bought this book in Venice for one ducat in the 1507th year. Albrecht Dürer").


From 1509 Dürer was the envoy of the Greater Nuremberg Council, and so it can be assumed that he played a key role in the planning of the city's artistic projects.

During these years Dürer published, besides many smaller works in copperplate and woodcut, three impressive woodcut series; In these work complexes Dürer's mastery in the field of graphics is particularly evident. In detail it concerns:

  • The small (woodcut) Passion (dated 1509 and 1510) with 37 sheets in the format 130 × 100 mm, published as a book in 1511
  • The Great Passion (1510), which differs significantly from the small one in terms of presentation and format and consists of 11 images from the life of the Savior and a title page
  • Marienleben or The Life of Maria (1510 and 1511) in 20 representations

Also to be mentioned from this period are:

  • The Holy Trinity (woodcut, 1511)
  • The mass of St. Gregory
  • Saint Christopher
  • The holy family with mother Anna
  • Joachim with the rosary

At that time Dürer also made attempts to scratch copper with a cold needle ; This is how Saint Veronica from 1510 , The Savior of Sorrows and the Penitent Jerome were created , both from 1512. From this time on, Dürer's woodcut and copper engraving predominate , and paintings by his hand are less common.

Of the paintings, the panel painting Maria with the pear slices is known from 1512 . In the same year, for the most part, a series of small copperplate engravings were made which comprise a third depiction of the Passion. Dürer also received a charter from his patron Emperor Maximilian to protect himself against the reproduction of his woodcuts and copperplate engravings. The engravings from the year 1512 should also be mentioned as outstanding works: Mary on the lawn bench , Christ the sufferer , both needlework, St. Jerome in the rock canyon in front of the prayer desk, as well as the resurrection , also in 1513 the handkerchief of Veronica, by two angels held (a very similar motif was created in 1516 as an iron etching) and in 1514 the bagpiper .

Dürer has repeatedly on behalf of the Emperor Maximilian I worked. Since 1510/11 at the latest, there have been connections that Willibald Pirckheimer might have mediated. All works served at least indirectly the honor and fame of the emperor - in addition to Dürer, z. B. the artists Hans Burgkmair , Hans Schäufelin and Beck or Albrecht Altdorfer , Lucas Cranach and Jörg Breu are active.

A manuscript of a fencing book (Cod. HS 26-232) from 1512 is kept in the Albertina in Vienna . The lid bears the inscription OPUS ALBERTI DURERI (Albrecht Dürer's work) . 200 large-format parchment sheets contain colored pen drawings with wrestling and fencing scenes. It is not clear whether the drawings were intended as an independent work or as a template for a never executed printed fencing book with woodcuts. There is no evidence that Emperor Maximilian was commissioned, but it is obvious.

Further works: Illustrations for the hieroglyphs of Horapollon in the translation by Willibald Pirckheimer; The Triumph ( gate of honor of Maximilian I and the Great Triumphal Chariot), for which Dürer and his workshop employees Hans Springinklee and Wolf Traut had to deliver the largest and most important part (the inscriptions are thanks to Johann Neudörffer ); possibly for the Order of St. George certain Prayer Book of Maximilian I.

At the same time, he created three works known as master engravings : Knight, Death and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in the Casing (1514), Melencolia I (1514) and perhaps the one originally intended for the Nuremberg Katharinen Church, now in the The Altarpiece of the Nativity of Christ with the two Paumgartner brothers, known as the Paumgartner Altar, is located in the Munich Pinakothek . In the same year he stabbed a single dancing peasant couple and portrayed the squat dancers quite vividly. Two months before her death († 1514) he made a charcoal drawing of his mother; the first portrait of a terminally ill person. Iron etchings by Dürer have also come down to us since 1515 .


The years immediately before his trip to the Netherlands were marked by an intensive devotion to his theoretical work. He was unable to complete his painting textbook because of his death, but his textbook on geometry and mathematics was published in Nuremberg in 1525, followed by the theory of fortification in 1527. His main theoretical work on proportion theory, the "Four Books of Human Proportion", finally became posthumous in 1528. , published thanks to his wife Agnes.

The woodcut Rhinocerus , one of Dürer's best-known works , was created in 1515 .

In the summer of 1518 he was the representative of the city of Nuremberg at the Reichstag in Augsburg , where he immortalized Jakob Fugger and other important personalities in the work. The acquaintance with the writings of Luther , "who helped me from the great and closest", probably falls during this time.

Journey to the Netherlands (1520–1521)

From July 12, 1520, Dürer went with his wife and the maid Susanna via Bamberg (he gave Bishop Georg III a painted Madonna, a life of Mary, an apocalypse and copper engravings for a gulden), Frankfurt, Mainz, Cologne to Antwerp . The latter city was to become his central residence during his stay, from where he made numerous excursions to other cities. A year later, on July 2, 1521, he started his return journey.

The reason for the trip was mainly economic. In January 1519, Dürer's most important patron, Emperor Maximilian I, died. In 1515 he had awarded the artist an annual annuity of 100 guilders, which the city of Nuremberg was supposed to deduct from the imperial tax. With the death of the emperor, the Nuremberg Council refused to continue paying this privilege and demanded renewed confirmation from Maximilian's successor, later Charles V.

The coronation was to take place in Aachen on October 20, and Dürer used the months before to build up a broad network of people from the immediate and wider circle of the aspirant to the throne, whom he wanted to win as advocates for his cause. Above all, the favor of Karl's aunt Margarete of Austria (1480–1530) turned out to be decisive.

Confirmation of his retirement reached him on November 12th in Cologne, and yet Dürer stayed in the Netherlands for many more months. This is certainly also due to the success he achieved during the trip. The trip to the Netherlands was an unparalleled triumph , and everywhere the master was showered with respect and admiration, which he received benevolently; Princes , foreign ambassadors, traders, scholars such as Erasmus of Rotterdam , and artists willingly welcomed him into their midst. The Antwerp magistrate even offered him in vain an annual salary of 300 Philipps guilders , tax exemption, a nice house as a present, free maintenance and payment for all his public works in order to persuade him to stay in his city permanently.

The sight of the Dutch art treasures and the acquaintance with the outstanding local artists were of great importance to him. His run during this trip diary is published by Rupprich estate Written included. A large number of portraits of clergymen, princely persons, artists, etc. are also a result of his trip to the Netherlands.

After returning to his hometown, Dürer returned to his artistic career. In the years 1520/21 he was in charge of the now lost decoration of the Nuremberg town hall , which has been handed down in traces from 1530 in Vienna, Albertina. Pirckheimer designed the program for the facade paintings.

The Alte Pinakothek in Munich has two monumental panels from 1526 that are among the artist's most important works: the life-size figures of the four apostles Paul and Peter and the evangelists Markus and Johannes (side pieces ), at the same time depicting the four temperaments (see Temperament Doctrine ). Dürer had originally given these tablets to the city of Nuremberg, they were exhibited in the town hall there. The oil painting by Hieronymus Holzschuher in Berlin (Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz), the best of all portraits by Dürer's hand, and also the portrait of Jakob Muffel (also in Berlin) also date from 1526 . Particularly noteworthy - not least because of the unusual type of representation - is the portrait of Johann Kleeberger , which is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. It dates from 1526 and is said to be the last painting that Albrecht Dürer painted.

In recent years Dürer has devoted himself increasingly to art theory; in doing so he comes to insights that contradict those of the Italians.

Sickness and death

Dürer's grave in the St. John's Cemetery

Dürer died on April 6, 1528, six weeks before his 57th birthday, possibly emaciated by illness (“parched” - which, from the context of the sources, can be understood as a consequence of his wife's alleged avarice). It has often been speculated that Dürer had suffered from malaria since his stay in the Netherlands (especially Schouwen in the province of Zeeland ) at the end of 1520 , which first made itself felt in Antwerp in April 1521 with pronounced symptoms associated with severe fever. On an undated sketch in the letter to his doctor, he points to his spleen region and writes: "Do the yellow spot and with the finger drawff dewt do me white." point my finger, it hurts me. "). This could indicate an enlarged spleen ( splenomegaly ), a typical symptom of malaria. However, the drawing was probably made before the stay in the Netherlands. Both the climatic conditions during his wintry trip and his medical history (Dürer had been suffering from fevers again and again since 1507) and the development after 1520 do not match a typical malaria course overall.

According to the latest sources, Dürer died after only four days of acute and serious illness, which his friend and fellow citizen Christoph II Scheurl (1481–1542) referred to as “pleuresis”. Pleuresis or pleurisy was the finding, which may also have been caused by pneumonia. A definitive statement about the cause of the disease according to today's medical standards cannot be made, but the malaria theory becomes even more questionable.

Dürer was productive until his death, most recently working on the preparation for the printing of a main theoretical text on the theory of proportions .

Dürer was buried on April 7th. Not far from the grave of his friend Willibald Pirckheimer (St. Johannis I / 1414), Dürer's earthly remains rested for a long time in the St. Johannis cemetery in Nuremberg under a simple metal plate that his father-in-law Frey had erected for himself and his family , until in 1681 Joachim von Sandrart rebuilt the dilapidated grave (St. Johannis I / 0649).

On April 8th, the exhumation took place with the express permission of the elderly gentlemen, that is, the city's top, in order to obtain a plaster mask from the famous artist. A lock of hair was also cut off on this occasion.

Art historical appreciation

Rhinocerus , woodcut (1515)
Emperor Maximilian I , oil on linden wood (1519), Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
The port of Antwerp , pen drawing ( 1520), Albertina, Vienna
Melencolia I , copper engraving (1514)
Underweysung the measurement with the Zirckel and Richtscheyt in lines leveling and whole corporen , sheet construction of the shell line , drawing (1525)
Description and freehand drawing of a logarithmic spiral from the Underweysung with the Zirckel and Richtscheyt.
The four apostles, left: "Johannes and Petrus", 1526, Alte Pinakothek, Munich right: Markus and Lukas
The four apostles ,
left: " Johannes
and Petrus ", 1526,
Alte Pinakothek ,
right: Markus
and Lukas

Dürer made important contributions to the development of woodcuts and copper engravings . He freed the woodcut from the "service of book illustration" and gave it the status of an independent work of art that could be placed alongside the painted picture. By refining the lines and expanding the artistic vocabulary, Dürer created a richer tone quality or finer color gradations and thus formally brought the woodcut close to the copperplate.

Like the woodcut, Dürer also perfected and revolutionized the techniques of copperplate engraving. He became known throughout Europe through leaves such as Ritter, Tod und Teufel and Melencolia I. Just like Tizian , Michelangelo and Raffael, Dürer saw the importance of printmaking in spreading one's own artistic reputation and generating income through sales. If the Italians used graphics to distribute their paintings, Dürer elevated the woodcut itself to a work of art. In this context, one speaks of reproduction graphics and original graphics. Dürer published his graphic series in his own publishing house and sold them through bookshops . The distribution of graphic sheets meant that new artistic developments spread quickly and evenly throughout Europe.

The increased self-confidence and the complex self-reflection are indicated in Dürer's numerous self-portraits . In them, the artist addresses his own social status and also the high value of the fine arts as an intellectual discipline in a time when it was still part of the common craft.

Munot fortress in Schaffhausen , corresponds to Dürer's fortress ideas

In addition to his artistic work, Dürer wrote works on the problem of perspective in painting , including instruction on measurement , and occupied himself with the fortification of cities. The Roman architect and architectural theorist Vitruvius was an important advisor to him with his ten books De architectura . According to Dürer's doctrine of fortification, published in Nuremberg in 1527 under the title Etliche underricht / zu fortigung der Stett / Schlosz / and flecken , the Ulm city ​​wall built in 1480 in the middle of the Danube by Hans Beheim the Elder was in the same year . Ä. , a builder from Nuremberg. It was not until 1585 that the Munot zu Schaffhausen was completed after 22 years of construction, the only fortress that reflects Dürer's ideas.

According to Fedja Anzelewsky , Albrecht Dürer: work and effect , electron. Ed. 1999 ( Four books of human proportions ): »Then the art is definitely in nature / whoever can pull it out has it / overkumbstu it / so it will take you a lot in your work and through the Geometria you like your work vil beweyssen. «According to Anzelewsky, the word“ art ”is to be understood in this context as a regularity, and therefore Dürer does not advocate creating according to the principles of later naturalism.

Dürer as a mathematician

In the history of mathematics , the Renaissance is characterized as a period in which significant mathematical advances came from practitioners, such as the engineer Simon Stevin , the watchmaker Jost Bürgi , the lawyer François Viète , the cartographer Gerhard Mercator or the artist Piero della Francesca .

However, the “most mathematical head” among the artists of his time was Albrecht Dürer. In 1507 he acquired a copy of the first edition of the Elements of Euclid from 1505 translated into Latin by Zamberti , the first book printing of this work, and in 1515 worked on a map of the earth hemisphere designed by the court astronomer Johannes Stabius on behalf of Emperor Maximilian I with (Stabius-Dürer card) . His copper engraving Melencolia I contains some mathematical hints: On the one hand, a magic square is depicted, whose rows, columns, diagonals, the numbers in the 4 quadrants, the 4 numbers in the center and the 4 numbers in the corner always result in the same sum 34 and that in its two middle lower fields indicates the year of origin 1514 - in the fields to the left and right next to it, the digits 4 and 1 also indicate Dürer's initials in the alphabet (4 corresponds to the fourth letter of the alphabet, i.e. the D for Dürer, the 1 to the first Letters, i.e. the A for Albrecht); on the other hand, a polyhedron ( see main article truncated rhombohedron ) is shown, which is created by stretching two diametrically opposite corners of a cube to form a rhombohedron and then cutting off the two tips perpendicular to this axis, so that it again has a sphere like the original cube.

From a scientific- historical point of view, however, his underweysung of measurement with the zirckel and richtscheyt in lines leveling and gantzen corporen , the first mathematics book in the German language with significant new findings. In the title, the word “measurement” is to be understood in connection with the then prevailing translation “measurement art” for the Greek word geometry and in today's sense of the word means rather “construction”. In the Underweysung , Dürer defines special curves, in particular for the first time the shell line and the Pascal snail (which he himself called "spider line" because of its construction rules), indicates a new construction of an ellipse , recognizes ellipse, parabola and hyperbola as conic sections (and is thus a forerunner by Gaspard Monge ), shows a new and very precise method for angle trisection and shows the tangent function graphically (motivated by the very practical problem of staggering the font height depending on the height of its attachment so that all lines appear the same height) . In the same work he also deals extensively with spirals (which he calls "snail lines") and in this context describes a logarithmic spiral , which he describes as the eternal lini , more than 100 years before Descartes (to whom the discovery is often attributed) .

Dürer proceeds deductively and systematically and is always aware of the fundamental difference between exact solutions (he calls them "demonstrative") and approximate ("mechanice") solutions, which even sets him apart from most mathematicians of his time.

The Oxford art historian Martin Kemp pointed out in an article in the English science magazine Nature that Dürer had drawn parquet floors that resemble a floor covering in the entrance hall of the Molecular and Chemical Sciences Building of the University of Western Australia in Perth , which is on a Penrose Tiling is based.


Today it is almost certain that Dürer did not actually accept or train any students; rather, it was obviously the case that he took relatively independent painters or draftsmen into his workshop as journeyman and allowed them to develop further.

Dürer's employees include Hans Baldung called "Grien" (from 1503 journeyman in the workshop, until 1508 at the latest), Barthel Beham , Sebald Beham , Georg Pencz , Hans Schäufelin (from 1503 journeyman), Hans Springinklee and Hans Suess von Kulmbach .

There are indications that Matthias Grünewald was rejected by Dürer. Grünewald's collaboration on the Heller Altar , a joint effort with Albrecht Dürer, is documented (copy by Jobst Harrich , Frankfurt a. M., Historical Museum; original burned). Hans Dürer was very likely working in his brother Albrecht's workshop.

Works (selection)

Graphic works

About 20 bookplates are attributed to Dürer . The best known of these is probably that for his friend W. Pirckheimer.


The Paumgartner Altar, oil on wood (after 1503), Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Torture of the Ten Thousand Christians , canvas (transferred) (1507), Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
Portrait of Hieronymus Holzschuher , 1526, Picture Gallery of the State Museums , Berlin

Watercolors and drawings

Kalchreuth Valley , watercolor (approx. 1495), Kupferstichkabinett , Berlin
The large piece of lawn , watercolor (1503), Albertina, Vienna

Literary works and writings

Relevant edition of the writings, diaries, etc .:

  • Hans Rupprich (Ed.): Dürer. Written estate , 3 volumes, Berlin 1956/1966/1969


Four Books of Human Proportion , 1528

The manuscript of the theory of proportion is in Dresden, in the British Museum there are one volume of drawings and four volumes of manuscripts. The Bavarian State Library in Munich houses the manuscript of the handwritten revision of the Vnderweysung (4 ° L. impr. Cn mss. 119). A sheet that has been removed is in the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel (Bible page 4 ° 197, back cover)

The fragment of his memorial book is in the Kupferstichkabinett Berlin .

For Dürer's written estate, see the preliminary report by Hans Rupprich, Dürer's written estate and its publication , in: Anzeiger des Germanisches Nationalmuseums 1940–1953 (1954), pp. 7–17. Now also Thomas Schauerte: Dürer and Spranger: An autograph find in the mirror of European collection history , in: Mitteilungen des Verein für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg 93 (2006), pp. 25–69.



The bust of Dürer in the Walhalla
Statue in front of the National Museum in Wrocław (Breslau)

In honor of Dürer, monuments were erected mainly in the 19th century and his bust was added to the Walhalla in 1842 .

Memorial plaque for Albrecht Dürer in Antwerp , Wolstraat

In addition, there are various monuments that relate to works by Dürer.

  • Statue of Emperor Charlemagne in Frankfurt am Main . Dürer's painting Charlemagne (1513) served as a model for this statue . On August 23, 1843, on the 1000th anniversary of the division of Verdun , the Städel Art Institute donated the sculpture made of red Main sandstone, a work by the sculptor Johann Nepomuk Zwerger, to the city of Frankfurt am Main . It was erected on the eastern central pillar of the Old Bridge facing the city . When the Old Bridge was demolished in 1914, the statue was taken to the Historical Museum , whose entrance it now guards.
  • Dürerstein near Klausen (Chiusa) at the point from which Dürer drew the panorama of Klausen in 1494. The drawing served as a template for the background in his copper engraving Nemesis (The Great Luck) (around 1501).
  • Bronze sculpture of the sad farmer (2002) in Landau-Nußdorf . Peasants 'War Memorial to commemorate the Palatinate Peasants' War in 1525, designed by Peter Brauchle . The motif quotes the design drawing The Peasant Column (approx. 1528) by Albrecht Dürer.

The asteroid of the inner main belt (3104) Dürer is named after him.

Banknotes and commemorative coin

Commemorative coin with Dürer's monogram (1971)

Some of Albrecht Dürer's paintings are depicted on Deutsche Mark banknotes . On the occasion of his 500th birthday in 1971, the Deutsche Bundesbank issued a commemorative coin in honor of Albrecht Dürer.



Hase (after 1576) by Hans Hofmann, inscribed with Dürer's monogram and the year 1528


Already in the 16th century and especially around 1600 there was a large number of imitations of Albrecht Dürer's works. One of the most famous is probably Hans Hoffmann (also Hofmann, * around 1530 in Nuremberg; † 1591/2 in Prague). Many of his works are Dürer quotes modified in detail, some of which were taken to be genuine Dürer works until modern times. Even Paul Juvenell the Elder (1579-1643) created many Dürer copies.

Naming for schools

According to Albrecht Dürer, there are high schools in his hometown of Nuremberg , in Berlin and in Hagen , a primary school in Frankfurt am Main , Sossenheim and in Aue (Saxony) , a secondary school in Merseburg (Saxony-Anhalt), a middle school in Haßfurt , a secondary school in Dortmund and Wiesbaden, a vocational college of the city of Düsseldorf , a comprehensive school in Weiterstadt , a primary school and school for the visually impaired in Mannheim , a comprehensive school in Heilbronn-Neckargartach and a special needs school in Hanover .

Albrecht Dürer Prize

The city of Nuremberg has temporarily awarded an Albrecht Dürer Prize to painters and graphic artists, such as Arthur Erdle (1929), Max Lacher (1931), Josef Steib (1932), Fritz Griebel (1932), the Fürth painter Karl Hemmerlein ( 1932), Johann Mutter (1934), Peter Foerster (1935), Joseph Mader (1936), Anton Richter (1938), Karl Schricker (1939), Hans Böhme (1943), Erhard Theodor Astler (1943) and HAP Grieshaber (1971 ).

Memorial days

The following ecclesiastical days of remembrance were established for Albrecht Dürer:

The day of remembrance on April 7th, before the introduction of the official EKD name calendar, included:

  • Jörg Erb : The Cloud of the Witnesses , Kassel 1951/1963, Vol. 4, pp. 508-520
  • Friedrich Hauß : Fathers of Christianity , Wuppertal 1956/1959, new edition Haan: Brockhaus, 1991, ISBN 3-417-24625-3
  • Ferdinand Piper : Evangelical Calendar in Witnesses of Truth , Berlin 1874/1875, Vol. 1, pp. 14-25
  • Prussian Evangelical Upper Church Council: Calendar of names for the German people , Berlin 1876
  • Albrecht Saathoff : The Book of Faith Witnesses , Göttingen 1951

A day of remembrance for Albrecht Dürer was found under a different date in:

  • A. Ringwald: People before God , Stuttgart 1957/1968

Dürer as a character

In 2011, Playmobil produced the artist as a Playmobil toy figure on behalf of the Germanic National Museum for the then exhibition The Early Dürer .

Dürer's source

According to tradition, the small Dürer spring near Kalchreuth inspired the artist to create his pen drawing Quelle im Wald with Antonius and Paulus .

Dürer's festival 1828

On the occasion of Albrecht Dürer's 300th anniversary of his death, 7 banners were hung in the great hall of the Nuremberg town hall as part of the Dürer Festival in 1828. These works were made by students of Peter von Cornelius ( Ernst Förster , Carl Heinrich Hermann , Hermann Stilke , Adam Eberle , Wilhelm Kaulbach and Ferdinand Fellner ) and show Dürer in different scenarios:

Exhibitions (selection)

Dürer exhibition in Paris, 2004

See also


Catalog raisonnés

"Drawings by Albrecht Dürer", Friedrich Lippmann (Ed.), Fig. Volume 3 with a decorative cover of the time
  • Fedja Anzelewsky : Albrecht Dürer. The painterly work , 2 vols., 2. revised. Ed., Deutscher Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft, Berlin 1991 (first 1971); with relevant count
  • Rainer Schoch , Matthias Mende , Anna Scherbaum (Hrsg.): Albrecht Dürer: The graphic work
    • Vol. I: Copper engravings, iron etchings and drypoint sheets , Prestel Verlag, Munich 2001
    • Vol. II: Woodcuts and woodcut sequences , Prestel Verlag, Munich 2002
    • Vol. III: Book illustrations , with contributions by Berthold Hinz and Peter Schreiber, Prestel Verlag, Munich 2004
  • Eduard Flechsig : Albrecht Dürer - His life and his artistic development , two volumes, 1928–1931. G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Berlin; Printing: Fischer & Wittig in Leipzig
  • Friedrich Lippmann , Joseph Meder , Friedrich Winkler (eds.): "Drawings by Albrecht Dürer in replicas (collotype facsimile)" G. Grotesche Verlagsbuchhandlung Berlin, 1883–1929, (large folio)
    • Vol. 1: (F. Lippmann, 1883) Divisions I-IV (Collection Kupferstichkabinett Berlin, Collection William Mitchell, John Malcolm of Poltalloch, Frederick Locker)
    • Vol. 2: (F. Lippmann, 1888) Department V-XXII (collections in Bremen, Braunschweig, Coburg, Weimar, Hamburg, Graz, London, Prague, Düsseldorf, Berlin, Budapest, Bamberg, Frankfurt, Munich, Dresden and Darmstadt)
    • Vol. 3: (F. Lippmann, 1894) Department XIII-XXV (collections of the museums in London and Paris)
    • Vol. 4: (F. Lippmann, 1896) Department XXVI-XLVIII (collections in Chantilly; Paris, Windsor Castle, Oxford, Chatsworth, Warwick, London, Turin, Vienna, Prague, Erlangen, Karlsruhe and Berlin)
    • Vol. 5: (J. Meder, 1905) Department XLIX (collection in the Albertina in Vienna)
    • Vol. 6: (F. Winkler, 1927) Department VI (years of apprenticeship and travel)
    • Vol. 7: (F. Winkler, 1929) Department VII (Nuremberg Years and Travel)

Monographs, exhibition catalogs and CD-ROMs

  • Daniel Hess and Thomas Eser (eds.): The early Dürer . Volume accompanying the exhibition in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2012. ISBN 978-3-936688-59-7 .
  • Peter Strieder : Dürer . 3rd, revised and expanded edition 2012, supervised by Anna Scherbaum. Koenigstein i. Ts. Verlag Langewiesche 2012. With contributions by Bruno Heimberg: On the painting technique by Albrecht Dürer ; Georg Josef Dietz: On the technique of drawing, its task and use in Albrecht Dürer's work ; Joseph Harnest (†): Dürer and perspective ; Anna Scherbaum: From Dürer's writings and from writings on Dürer and his work . ISBN 978-3-7845-9142-1 .
  • Christine Demele: Dürer's Nudity - The Weimar Self-Portrait . Rhema Verlag, Münster 2012, ISBN 978-3-86887-008-4 .
  • Franz Winzinger : Albrecht Dürer . Reinbek 1971, ISBN 3-499-50177-5 .
  • Erwin Panofsky : The life and art of Albrecht Dürer . Translated into German by Lise Lotte Möller, Munich 1977 (first English edition: 1943).
  • Giorgio Zampa and Angela Ottino Della Chiesa: L'opera Completa di Dürer . Rizzoli Editore, Milano 1968.
  • Albrecht Dürer. 1471/1971 . Exhibition catalog of the German. National Museum, Nuremberg. Prestel, Munich 1971, ISBN 3-7913-0004-0 .
  • Friedrich Teja Bach : Structure and Appearance. Investigations into Dürer's graphic art . Technical University of Aachen, Changed Habil.-Script, Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-7861-1717-9 .
  • Matthias Mende (ed.): Albrecht Dürer - an artist in his city . Tümmels, Nuremberg 2000, ISBN 3-921590-84-1 .
  • Hans Möhle, Fedja Anzelewsky: Dürer and his time - master drawings from the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett . Berlin 1967.
  • Mark Lehmstedt (Ed.): Albrecht Dürer: The complete work . CD-ROM, Digital Library, No. 28. Directmedia Publishing , Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89853-428-6 . Also contains:
  • Fedja Anzelewsky, Albrecht Dürer: Work and Effect . Stuttgart 1980 (electronic edition 1999).
  • Frank Neidhart Steigerwald : Studies on Albrecht Dürer's art: On the “right measure”, human proportion and “comparisons” that we create in ourselves. Habilitation thesis TU-Braunschweig, around 1990 (unprinted, typewritten copy in 3 volumes (1st text, 2nd annotations, 3rd illustrations) in the University Library of Braunschweig)
  • Albrecht Dürer: Writings and letters, edited by Ernst Ullmann and text editing by Elvira Pradel. Reclam-Verlag, Leipzig 1993.
  • Christian Schoen , Albrecht Dürer: Adam and Eve . Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-496-01244-3 .
  • Thomas Schauerte , The Gate of Honor for Emperor Maximilian I. Dürer and Altdorfer in the service of the ruler , Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-422-06331-5 .
  • Thomas Schauerte: Dürer - The distant genius. A biography , Reclam, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-15-010856-7 .
  • Anna Schiener: Albrecht Dürer. Genius between the Middle Ages and the modern age . Pustet, Regensburg 2011. ISBN 978-3-7917-2357-0 .
  • Reinhard F. Timken-Zinkann: A person named Dürer. The artist's life, ideas, environment . Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-7861-4087-1 .
  • Johann Konrad Eberlein , Albrecht Dürer , Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 2003, ISBN 3-499-50598-3 .
  • Wolfgang Schmid : Dürer as an entrepreneur. Art, humanism and economics in Nuremberg around 1500 . (Contributions to national and cultural history 1). Porta-Alba-Verlag, Trier 2003, ISBN 3-933701-05-8 .
  • Norbert Wolf : Albrecht Dürer 1471–1528. The genius of the German Renaissance . Taschen Verlag , Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-8228-4919-7 .
  • Albrecht Dürer , eds. Klaus Albrecht Schröder and Maria Luise Sternath, Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern 2003, ISBN 978-3-7757-1330-6 .
  • Werner Körte : Albrecht Dürer. The Apocalypse (= Art Letter 51). Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1948, again as Albrecht Dürer - The Apocalypse of Johannes , Reclam, Stuttgart 1957.
  • Manfred Krüger: Albrecht Dürer , Verlag Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2009; ISBN 978-3-7725-2375-5 .
  • Olga Kotková (Ed.): Albrecht Dürer. The Feast of the Rose Garlands . Exh. Cat. National Gallery Prague, Prague 2006.
  • Friedrich Piel : Albrecht Dürer. Watercolors and drawings . Dumont, Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-7701-1483-3 .
  • Philipp Zitzlsperger: Dürer's fur and the law in the picture - clothing science as a method of art history . Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2008. ISBN 978-3-05-004522-1 .
  • Hans Gerhard Evers : Dürer near Memling , Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich 1972.
  • Fritz Koreny: Albrecht Dürer and the animal and plant studies of the Renaissance. Munich 1985.
  • Elena Filippi: Umanesimo. Dürer tra Cusano e Alberti, S. Giovanni Lupatoto (VR), Arsenale Ed. 2011.
  • Jochen Sander (Ed.): Dürer. Art - artist - context . Prestel Verlag, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-7913-5318-0 .
  • Leonhard G. Richter: Dürer Code. Albrecht Dürer's deciphered master engravings. JH Röll-Verlag, Dettelbach 2014, ISBN 978-3-89754-458-1 .
  • Klaus-Rüdiger Mai : Dürer: the universal genius of the Germans , Berlin: Propylaen, 2015, ISBN 978-3-549-07454-1 .
  • Rainer Hoffmann: In the shine of heaven - putti motifs in Albrecht Dürer's work , Böhlau Verlag Cologne, 2019, ISBN 978-3-412-50041-2 .
  • Ernst Ullmann: Albrecht Dürer. Leipzig 1982.
  • Anton Springer : Albrecht Dürer , 1892
  • Franz Servaes : Albrecht Dürer , Bard-Berlin, 1905

Other treatises

  • Albert von Zahn : The Dürer Manuscripts of the British Museum . In: Year books of art history (A. von Zahn, ed.), Volume 1, Leipzig 1868, pp. 1–22 ( online ). (Commented by Moritz Thausing : Notes on the Dürer's manuscripts in the British Museum , ibid, pp. 183-184, online )
  • Fedja Anzelewsky : Dürer between symbolism and natural science. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller , Karl Stackmann (eds.): Life lessons and world designs in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Politics - Education - Natural History - Theology. Report on colloquia of the commission for research into the culture of the late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen: philological-historical class. Volume III, No. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7 , pp. 267-281.
  • Thomas H. von der Dunk: Dürer's Monument to the Peasants' War. In: ders .: The German Monument. A story in bronze and stone from the High Middle Ages to the Baroque. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-412-12898-8 , pp. 131-179.

Lexicon article

Web links

Commons : Albrecht Dürer  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Albrecht Dürer  - Sources and full texts
Passio Domini Nostri Jesu

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Germanisches Nationalmuseum : Online object catalog portrait of Barbara Dürer, née Holper
  2. Manfred Vasold: Dürer, Albrecht. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 326.
  3. Norica, these are Nuremberg novels from old times (1st vol. P. 111) , August Hagen, publisher: Josef Max and Comp., Breslau 1829 in the Austrian National Library.
  4. Manfred Vasold: Dürer, Albrecht. 2005, p. 326.
  5. In more recent art and book history studies, Dürer's participation in the first edition of the Narrenschiff is reasonably questioned; cf. for example Anja Grebe: Albrecht Dürer. Artist, work and time. 2nd ed. Darmstadt 2013, 32 as well as in detail Annika Rockenberger: Albrecht Dürer, Sebastian Brant and the woodcuts of the first print of the "Ship of Fools" (Basel, 1494). A research critical objection. In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 86 (2011), 312–329.
  6. New findings about Albrecht Dürer's friendship with men , on:, June 8, 2016
  7. Man or Maiden - who did Dürer love? , on:, November 24, 2011
  8. Beate Böckem: The early Dürer and Italy. Italian experiences and mobility processes around 1500. In: Daniel Hess / Thomas Eser (ed.): Exh. Cat .: The early Dürer . Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2012, p. 52-64 .
  9. ^ Daniela Crescenzio: Italian Walks in Nuremberg - Volume I: Nuremberg, Venice of the North , 1st edition 2011, Verlag IT-INERARIO, Unterhaching, ISBN 978-3-9813046-3-3 , pp. 144-146.
  10. Travel falsification instead of evidence. Retrieved January 19, 2013 . (
  11. Burkhard von Speyer (16th century) , Royal Collection Trust, Great Britain (English).
  12. ^ The second stay in Venice Chapter XI from Moritz Thausing, Dürer: History of his life and his art , Leipzig 1876, Heidelberg University Library.
  13. Dürer: The Resurrection (1512)  in the German Digital Library .
  14. Dürer: The handkerchief, held by two angels (1513), Deutsche Fotothek.
  15. Dürer: The handkerchief held by an angel (iron etching 1516), Deutsche Fotothek.
  16. ^ Dürer: Bagpiper (1514), several prints in the German Digital Library .
  17. Albrecht Dürer's Fechtbuch, Cod. HS 26-232, Albertina, Graphic Collection Vienna . In: Heidemarie Bodemer: Das Fechtbuch (PDF; 10.8 MB). Dissertation, Stuttgart 2008, pp. 161–170.
  18. Dürer: Jakob Fugger der Reiche (charcoal / chalk drawing), around 1518  in the German Digital Library .
  19. Dürer: Jakob Fugger the Rich (panel painting, 1520)  in the German Digital Library .
  20. The Dutch Journey Chapter XV from Moritz Thausing: Dürer: History of his life and his art , Leipzig 1876, Heidelberg University Library.
  21. Albrecht Dürer trip to the Netherlands 1520–1521 , Le Cabinet de l'amateur et de l'antiquaire .., Piot, Eugène, Paris, 1842, in the Bibliothèque nationale de France (French).
  22. Werner Dettelbacher: Albrecht Dürer's suffering. In: Würzburger medical history reports 23, 2004, pp. 516–520; here: p. 516.
  23. Werner Dettelbacher (2004), pp. 516f.
  24. Dürer's letters, diaries and rhymes (see p. 52), Ed. Moritz Thausing, Vienna 1872, digitized version of the MDZ .
  25. ^ Franz Winzinger: Albrecht Dürer . Reinbek 1971, p. 136f.
  26. ^ E. Mummenhoff: Was Willibald Pirckheimer a slanderer? Nuremberg 1928.
  27. Werner Dettelbacher: Albrecht Dürer's suffering. In: Würzburger medical history reports 23, 2004, pp. 516–520; here: p. 519. For a critical examination of the text passage, see Franz Fuchs: A new note on Dürer's illness and death , in: Mitteilungen des Verein für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg 107, 2020, pp. 279–288, here: note 6 (Volume will be released in 2021)
  28. Werner Dettelbacher (2004), p. 517.
  29. ^ Hans Rupprich: Albrecht Dürer. Written estate. I, Berlin 1956, p. 167.
  30. Hanns M. Seitz: "Do the yellow spot is ..." Dürer's malaria, a misdiagnosis . Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, Volume 122, Issue 3, October 2010, pp. 10-13.
  31. Franz Fuchs: A new note on Dürer's illness and death . In: Messages from the Association for the History of the City of Nuremberg . tape 107 , 2020, ISSN  0083-5579 , p. 279–288, here p. 283 (volume will be published in 2021).
  32. Albrecht Dürer: This includes four books of human proportions Nuremberg 1528, digitized version of the MDZ .
  33. Franz Fuchs: A new note on Dürer's illness and death . In: Messages from the Association for the History of the City of Nuremberg . tape 107 , 2020, ISSN  0083-5579 , p. 279–288, here pp. 283–285 (volume will be published in 2021).
  34. Albrecht Dürer: Several underricht / to fortify the Stett / Schlosz / and flecken , Nuremberg 1527, digitized version of the MDZ .
  35. CJ Scriba, P. Schreiber: 5000 years of geometry . 2nd Edition. Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-22471-8 , p. 273.
  36. ^ JJ O'Connor, EF Robertson: Albrecht Dürer. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland, December 1996, accessed April 10, 2021 .
  37. Karin Leonhard: About left and right and symmetry in the baroque . In: Stephan Günzel (Ed.): Topology. For the description of space in cultural and media studies . transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2007, p. 138-139 .
  38. Logarithmic spiral. Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, accessed on April 10, 2021 .
  39. CJ Scriba, P. Schreiber: 5000 years of geometry , p. 283.
  40. ^ Teutsche Academie 1675, II, Book 3, p. 276, right column - Art History Institute of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, DFG project "", accessed on November 16, 2012.
  41. = Hieronymus Formschneider (or Formschneyder).
  42. Kupferstichkabinett Berlin, Inv. No. Cim. 32 (31 cm × 21.6 cm).
  43. ^ Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., [ONLINE; accessed on September 9, 2020] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1978 GB. Discovered 1978 Apr. 11 by EF Helin at Palomar. "
  44. Karl Hemmerlein on
  45. Astler, Erhard Th. In: Walter Habel (Ed.): Who is who? The German Who's Who. XXIV. Edition of Degener's “Who is it”? Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 1985, p. 30.
  46. ^ Dürer: Concern of the Nation, March 8, 1971.
  47. Albrecht Dürer in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints .
  48. ^ Evangelical Michaelsbruderschaft (editor): Evangelisches Tagzeitenbuch , Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 5th edition 2003, ISBN 3-525-60290-1 and ISBN 978-3-525-60290-4 .
  49. ^ Frieder Schulz, Gerhard Schwinge (editor): Synaxis: Contributions to liturgy , Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997 , ISBN 3-525-60398-3 .
  50. ^ Nuremberg celebrates Dürer: The Franconian Genius Süddeutsche Zeitung, May 22, 2012.