|Cortina d'Anpezo / Anpezo
|5,735 (Dec 31, 2019)
|23 inhabitants / km²
|Ampezzani or Cortinesi
View of Cortina d'Ampezzo
Cortina is a renowned winter and mountain sports center that hosted the 1956 Winter Olympics and the Alpine World Ski Championships in 1932 and 1941 ; In 2021 , the world championship will be held again in the town, as well as the 2026 Winter Olympics together with Milan .
As part of the Ladin language area Cortina will Ladinien counted.
The Ladin name Cortina comes from Latin and means the walled cemetery in Ladin (the faction of the same name was the only one in the municipality with a cemetery).
Anpezo can no longer be clearly identified (according to the Ladin etymologist Paul Videsott ). The thesis that Cortina was an "outpost" of the oracle of Delphi and that Anpezo comes from the words Apollo and Pythia stems from the imagination .
The place is at an altitude of Valle del Boite in the Ampezzaner Dolomites and is the largest populated center of the Dolomite Ladins . The highest peaks include the Tofana di Mezzo (3244 m), the Monte Cristallo (3221 m) and the Punta Sorapiss (3205 m).meters in the
The municipality of Cortina d'Ampezzo is congruent with the Ampezzo landscape . Ampezzaner is someone who comes from an ancestral "Regole" family and thus has a share in the cooperative. A Cortinese, on the other hand, is a newcomer who lives in the village, but can only join a “Regole” family by marrying.
The Cortina d'Ampezzo ski area (it belongs to the Dolomiti Superski network ) is, like the entire Alpine region, severely affected by global warming . The amounts of snow are tending to decrease; Winter sports operations are no longer possible in many places without the use of snow cannons .
There are only a few sources for the early Middle Ages . At that time the area belonged to the Cadore . The Lombard domination from the 6th century was decisive for the development of Regules , a form of local self-government, which had in parts to 1918 valid. From 776 the Lombards were followed by the Franks under Charlemagne . At that time, the German-Ladin language border developed towards the north. In 951 the Cadore with the margraviate of Verona and Aquileja was subordinated to the tribal duchy of Bavaria . From 973, Anpëz and the county of Cadore belonged to Innichen as Freising property through the Bavarian Duke Heinrich II. However , at the end of the 11th century under Emperor Heinrich IV, the Patriarchate of Aquileja prevailed. Worth mentioning from that time is the Peutelstein Castle (Castello di Podestagno), which Patriarch Heinrich von Biburg had built around 1080 on a Lombard predecessor (in decay since 1781, today only preserved as a ruin). An important trade route between the Holy Roman Empire and the Italian states, especially the Maritime Republic of Venice , ran through Hayden . With the conquest of the patriarchate, Anpëz also became part of the Republic of Venice in 1420 and was thus de facto but not de jure from the imperial association. In 1508 Pope Julius II initiated an anti-Venice coalition, the League of Cambrai , which was also joined by the Roman-German Empire, in order to recapture the territories in northern Italy which Venice had occupied since the 14th century. The Anpëz area was conquered by imperial troops that same year. On October 21, 1511, in the presence of Emperor Maximilian I , it officially returned to the Imperial Association and came to the Fürsteten Grafschaft Tirol . The Emperor confirmed the Ampezzanern with the Regules their self-government.
Under Austria , Anpezo formed a largely self-governing unit until the state reform under Emperor Joseph II. During his tenure, the dean's office of Anpezo was also attached to the diocese of Brixen , to which all the other dolomite-Ladin valleys already belonged. Anpezos riflemen took active part in the Tyrolean freedom struggle against the French troops from 1796-1813. During the Napoleonic Wars , on August 31, 1809, Anpezo was also occupied by French troops. When Tyrol was divided by Napoleon in February 1810 , Anpezo briefly came with Toblach in the Puster Valley to the Kingdom of Italy , which the Emperor of the French had established in northern Italy. Austrian troops were able to recapture the area as early as 1813.
At the end of the 19th century Anpezo experienced a heyday. Discovered by mountain enthusiasts, the Austro-Hungarian aristocracy and the upper middle class of France and England, the place soon developed into a coveted tourist center with significant support from the German and Austrian Alpine Association (DÖAV). Anpezo became a posh resort in both summer and winter. Anpezo became known as the "Pearl of the Dolomites" and "Queen of the Alps". In addition to the construction of luxury hotels, the first ski school was built in 1903. This "golden time" ended abruptly for Anpezo with the assassination attempt of Sarajevo on the Austrian heir to the throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the beginning of the First World War on July 28, 1914. The Dolomites became a part of Italy's entry into the war against Austria-Hungary on May 23, 1915 direct front area. The conscript men were on the Eastern Front against Russia. 669 residents - under 16s and over 50s - who stayed at home took on the defense against the attacking Italian troops, but had to give up the place for strategic military reasons and retreat to defensive lines in the mountains. In 1917, after the Italian defeat of Karfreit , Anpezo was taken back by Tyrolean Standschützen .
On November 24th, 1917, Emperor Karl traveled through Ampezzo and was received with enthusiasm by the population. A little girl handed the emperor a letter with the request that her father be sent home from the front, since his wife and mother of nine children had died. After ten days, Bepe Manaigo was with his children.
A total of 144 Ampezzans died as a result of the war. Ampezzan soldiers received 16 silver and 4 bronze medals of bravery. In the surrounding area of Cortina there were 38 military cemeteries, everywhere trenches, barbed wire, impact holes, splinters, ammunition and barracks; 2,450 hectares of forest were devastated.
After the First World War
After the armistice of Villa Giusti on November 3, 1918, Anpezo and southern Tyrol were occupied by Italian troops on November 10, 1918. No celebrations were organized for this. With a municipal council resolution and the signatures of the heads of families, the population demanded that they remain with Tyrol and Austria. By decision of the victorious powers and with the entry into force of the Treaty of Saint-Germain on October 10, 1920, the area came to Italy together with South Tyrol and Trentino . Former war positions, trenches and rock tunnels can still be visited.
The Ladin population refused to profess to be Italian. The state policy of Italianization after the fascist takeover hit them particularly hard. As a punitive measure, the Ladin valleys were divided. Anpezo was defeated together with Fodom and Col ( Souramont ) in 1923 to the Italian province of Belluno and received the official Italian municipality name Cortina d'Ampezzo. A large memorial for the foreign fallen Italian soldiers (the Pocol ossuary with 9,707 soldiers) was erected in the village, while the Ampezzans were refused the erection of a memorial for their fallen and missing because they had fought for Austria. A memorial could only be erected in 1998.
In 1939 the area was included in the Italian-German resettlement agreement ( option in South Tyrol ) agreed by Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler , with which the two allied dictators wanted to clear up the “stumbling block” in South Tyrol. After the fall of Mussolini and the occupation of Italy by German troops, Anpezo was reunited with the province of Bozen (South Tyrol) and with the official double designation Hayden - Cortina d'Ampezzo in September 1943 in the foothills of the Alps . The youth were drafted into the German Wehrmacht , with 51 Ampezzans - including 31 on the Eastern Front - killed by the end of the war.
After the Second World War
After the end of the Second World War , the Ampezzaner rejoined the other Ladin valleys and the South Tyroleans and demanded a return to Austria. The Italian state tried to suppress the movement with arrests and expulsions. After the victorious powers again decided in 1946 that South Tyrol would remain with Italy, Italy did not grant unification with South Tyrol, despite repeated resolutions by the municipal council. Thus, Anpezo still has no share in the autonomy granted to South Tyrol for its German and Ladin population. At the same time, Anpezo experienced a new and lasting bloom as a noble tourist destination.
An army camp from the interwar period still existed west of the Passo Cimabanche. This was used as a weapons depot and as a training area during the Cold War and was only decontaminated and dismantled from 2005.
When the diocesan borders were redistributed, Ampezzo was separated from the diocese of Bressanone in 1964 , incorporated into the Belluno-Feltre diocese and thus also ecclesiastically separated from South Tyrol. Again and again there were efforts of the population and the municipal administration to achieve the return to South Tyrol.
In 1975 locals founded the Union di Ladis d'Anpezo , which was incorporated into the Union Generela di Ladins des Dolomites in 1976 .
The Dibona monument was unveiled in 1976 with great interest from the population and national and international mountaineering delegations. Luis Trenker , a Ladin man who attended the celebration, was deeply touched. “He was the most famous and successful mountain guide of his time, perhaps the most universal. No other guide to the Dolomites can show similar achievements, and there will soon be none among the youngsters who will match him in terms of human size. "
In Anpezo, the state rescue association Weißes Kreuz has a rescue station, the only section of the organization outside of South Tyrol. In 2002 the Ampezzaner rifle company Ŝizar Anpezo Hayden was brought back to life. Since Otto Habsburg , the then head of the Habsburg family, visited Cortina in 2005, their patron has been Emperor Karl. Especially because of its eventful history, the Habsburg brand is still very present in Cortina in the 21st century, as many pictures and photos of Emperor Franz Joseph and of Emperor Karl, who is particularly revered here, attest in inns, restaurants, bars and hotels. Since 2011 there has been a memorial for Emperor Maximilian I on the main square in memory of the year 1511 and the union of the Ampezzaner valley basin with Tyrol.
Culture and sights
The center of Cortina is Corso Italia with the parish church Basilica Parrocchiale SS, which was lavishly renovated from 2007 to 2009. Filippo e Giacomo (built according to the plans of the Gadertal architect G. Promperg-Costa between 1769 and 1775 and with ceiling frescoes by Franz Anton Zeiller ) with its 69.5 m high tower built between 1851 and 1858 (plans by the local entrepreneur Silvestro Franceschi and their confirmation by the Viennese architect Hermann von Bergmann ) made of dolomite blocks. On its tip there is a gold-plated ball with a diameter of 1 m; the striking ringing of the six historical bells, whose melting was prevented by the personal intervention of Emperor Karl in 1917 while passing through to the Piavefront, sounds with the melody of Big Ben . In the middle of the main square directly in front of the church is the monument of the Ampezzaner mountain guide, emperor hunter and Dolomite pioneer Angelo Dibona , erected in 1976, and a bronze plaque from 2011 for the visit of Emperor Maximilian in 1511.
The oldest building in Cortina is the Chiesa di San Nicolo (St. Nicholas - patron saint of hikers) from 1226 on the state road towards Toblach near Ospitale.
Until the middle of the 20th century the place was predominantly Ladin-speaking , since then mainly Italian has been spoken. The local dialect of Ladin contains some unusual Germanisms that flowed in from the neighboring dialects of the Puster Valley ; a harp , for example, is called arfa , while other Ladin dialects use derivatives of the Latin fabarium .
Various dishes and expressions from the Austro-Hungarian period have been preserved in the local cuisine, for example goulash and donuts. Gröstl and chenedi (Tyrolean dumplings) reflect the long association with Tyrol. Polenta and bean soup already point more into the Venetian lowlands.
Pop culture meaning
Since the middle of the 19th century, Cortina gained the reputation of a fashionable winter sports resort for well-heeled and famous tourists. Among other things, the writer George Santayana spent his winters there from the 1930s. The British Ford Cortina was named in the 1960s after the winter sports resort that was supposed to symbolize elegance.
Significance in film history
Cortina was chosen as a location for a number of well-known film productions because of its international fame and scenery.
The films "With a motorcycle above the clouds" (1926) by Lothar Rübelt, " Corpses pave his way " (1968) with Klaus Kinski and " Cliffhanger - Only the strong survive " (1993) with Sylvester Stallone were killed in the mountains Cortina d'Ampezzo filmed, the film " The Pink Panther " (1963) is partly set there.
Economy and Infrastructure
The Cooperativa von Cortina was the first consumer cooperative in South Tyrol. Founded in 1893 as "Consumverein Ampezzo" for the supply of basic goods to agriculture and livestock at cost price, it has developed into one of the most important economic reference points in Cortina, especially after 1956. However, according to the current statutes of the Cooperativa, the task is also to enhance, develop and disseminate the cultural, historical and linguistic heritage of Cortina and the Ladin Dolomite region.
The Regole d'Ampezzo, an originally simple shepherd's cooperative, has been a decisive economic factor and identification feature for more than 800 years. It is a centuries-old democratic association of ancestral families for the common and sustainable use of fields, forests and alpine pastures. In the beginning there were two Regole of Ampezzo: Lareto, on the left side of the Boite, and Ambrizola on the right bank. The use of the land is regulated by the "Laudi" (a kind of cooperative regulation). Once a year the regolieri (family status) meeting is convened - the approximately 1,300 heads of families elect the administrators and make the most important decisions. The elected board members are called “Laudatori” and the main board member is called “Marigo”. The Regole are still in charge and have the largest property in and around Cortina.
Cortina has been known for its handicrafts (including carving, tiled stoves) since the Habsburg era and especially in Italy for its combination of alpine and southern furnishing and clothing tradition ("Cortina Style").
There are numerous classy and modern shops and restaurants around Corso Italia. However, this should not hide the visible economic problems in tourism and the existing lift facilities. Often the trigger mentioned is the apartment system, the many non-resident owners of the hotels and houses, as well as open legal problems regarding the claims of the ancestral families (including hunting, pasture and rights of use). The prices of holiday apartments fell by more than 30% in June 2012 compared to the high level in previous years and are still falling. The market in this regard (rent / purchase), although there are many offers, is completely flat on the demand side, although according to information from local real estate agents, prices are still high.
The tourism developed in Cortina in the second half of the 19th century the central economic field. The German-Austrian Alpine Club founded a Cortina section in 1882, and in 1903 the “Ski Club Ampezzo” was founded by locals. Up until the First World War, it was mainly British and imperial and royal nobility who traveled to the Alpine village, and on the eve of the latter there were 27 hotels with 1,400 beds and 100,000 overnight stays.
After the fierce battles, the many military cemeteries and memorials brought about a war tourism that found its center in the Dolomite village. From the summer of 1922 onwards, members of the House of Savoy came to Cortina again and again , and a trip to Cortina became a national concern among the Italian fascists. In the Hotel Bellevue, Mussolini's daughter Edda and her husband, Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano , moved into winter quarters, and Mussolini's daughter Annamaria met her friend Nando Pucci in 1957 while on vacation in Cortina. The greats of the fascist regime (such as de Stefani, Italo Balbo, Giurati, Achille Starace) and wealthy Italians built or moved into their villas in Cortina before or after the Second World War.
The first mountain railways followed in 1924, and the 1956 Winter Olympics increased investments. In the 1970s, Cortina appeared in terms of skiing, party and design, according to Die Zeit, like St. Moritz, Kitzbühel and Megeve rolled into one. But then less was renewed on the slopes, the Olympic application for 1988 was unsuccessful, and the hotel industry was getting on in years. But tourism still dominates the economy today: in the high season from Christmas to February and August, around 40,000–50,000 tourists populate the place, which is seven to eight times the number of inhabitants.
In 2011 there were a total of 225,647 arrivals and 1,060,211 overnight stays. December, January, February and March hold just over 20,000 arrivals and 120,000 overnight stays with clear peaks over Christmas and New Year and July and August with 38,000 and 46,000 arrivals and 155,000 and 265,000 overnight stays.
In 2014, Cortina had 5,000 hotel beds and 30,000 beds in second homes.
Cortina's advertising and tourism symbol is a red squirrel on a white background.
Cortina is the center of a winter sports area that has hosted several major international events. Particularly noteworthy are the 1956 Winter Olympics , after the 1944 Winter Olympics had been awarded to Cortina but did not take place because of the war. The 1956 Olympics were the first games to be televised. In 2026 , Cortina will co-host the Winter Olympics, which will then be held together with Milan. The most extraordinary achievements in 1956 were, on the one hand, that due to a lack of snow, mountain hunters had to transport kilometers of snow on trucks or shoulders to the slopes, and on the other hand, the three gold medals awarded by Austrian Toni Sailer . In addition, Cortina was the venue for the Alpine World Ski Championships in 1932 and 1941 (the only participating countries besides Italy were Bulgaria, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Yugoslavia, Romania, Switzerland, Hungary and Germany) and host of World Cup races in various winter sports, in particular bobsleigh and alpine skiing . After four unsuccessful applications to host the Alpine World Ski Championships , Cortina was awarded the contract for 2021 .
The ultimate alpine pioneer of the Ampezzaner Dolomites was Paul Grohmann (1838–1908) from Vienna , the first to climb the three Tofans , the Cristallo , the Sorapiss and the Großer Zinne . On Antelao in 1863, only the legendary chamois hunter Mattia Ossi came before him. The first to climb Monte Pelmo in 1857 was John Ball , President of the English Alpine Club.
On July 1, 1939, the “Scoiattoli” climbing association was founded in Cortina. This world-famous climbing guild, reserved for Ampezzans, was not only involved in many first ascents but also in the first ascent of K2 in 1954. Its members wear the white squirrel on a red background as a symbol.
The SG Cortina is 16-time Italian champion in ice hockey men. Most recently, SG Cortina won the fourth game of the final series ( Best of 5 ) on April 10, 2007 against the outgoing champions HC Milan .
The Canalone Staunies slope on Monte Cristallo is one of the ten steepest ski slopes in the world. Cortina is known as a " freerider " mecca with countless tours in the Tofana and Monte Cristallo groups.
Cortina is also the start and end point of the Coppa d'Oro delle Dolomiti automobile race and the Lavaredo Ultra Trail , a mountain run over various distances with up to 119 km and 5,850 meters of altitude.
From 1921 to 1962 and 1964 the place was connected by the Dolomitenbahn with Toblach in the north and Calalzo in the south. The long-distance cycle path "Long Path of the Dolomites" runs along the railway line today.
In the north of Cortina, near Fiames, on Strada Statale 51 di Alemagna , the Cortina d'Ampezzo airport is located . It was closed after a plane crash in 1976 and was used as a car park for RVs for a long time . In 2011 it was reactivated as a heliport , from which flights to Milan and Venice as well as sightseeing flights in the Dolomites are offered.
The “bypass tunnel - Cortina” project to relieve the traffic peaks through the center has been running since 2001 and should only be implemented in the limited version. In this regard, there were and still are major reservations from environmental and landscape protectionists, but also from prominent guests.
Since the end of the Second World War, efforts have been made to incorporate Ampezzo together with the Ladin neighboring communities of the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (one speaks colloquially of "lamonizzare", i.e. immediately changing the province of the community of Lamon ), but after several failed attempts, it was possible a referendum will not take place until October 28 and 29, 2007; With over 78% approval, it resulted in a clear vote in favor of the accession of Ampezzo and the two neighboring communities Col and Fodom to the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol. But in the province of Belluno and the Veneto region, there is considerable resistance to losing the world-famous tourist destination. In the absence of a decision in the constitutional procedure by the Italian government, the European Court of Justice was referred.
In October 2014, the tripartite parliament of the European region Tyrol – South Tyrol – Trentino in Schwaz decided to offer the three Bellunese municipalities an observer role in order to intensify their cooperation.
For several years now, the law for the protection of linguistic minorities from 1999 has also been implemented in Cortina and road signs are labeled in Italian and Ladin.
The downside of tourism was an increase in property prices. Young Ampezzaner had to move to the neighboring Italian municipalities of Cadore , while in Ampezzo strangers mainly from Lombardy and Veneto shopped. Therefore, around 20 percent of today's residents and voters are bogus residents.
sons and daughters of the town
- Francesco Lacedelli (1796–1886), mountaineer, Cortina's first mountain guide
- Luigi Gillarduzzi (1822-1856), painter
- Santo Siorpaes (1832–1900), mountaineer and mountain guide
- Angelo Dibona (1879–1956), mountaineer and climber
- Severino Menardi (1910–?), Winter sports enthusiast
- Roberto Lacedelli (* 1919), ski racer and ski jumper
- Lino Lacedelli (1925–2009), mountaineer, first climber of K2
- Ulrico Girardi (1930–1986), Italian bobsledder
- Kristian Ghedina (* 1969), ski racer
- Giulia Lacedelli (* 1971), curler
People related to the city
- Paul Grohmann (1838–1908), climbed numerous peaks in the Dolomites, since 1873 an honorary citizen of the city
- Toni Sailer (1935–2009) was the first ski racer to win gold medals in all Olympic competitions on the “ Tofana ”
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Popolazione residente al 1 Gennaio 2007 per età, sesso e stato civile - Comune: Cortina d'ampezzo ( Italian ) ISTAT . Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- Eugen Trapp (ed.): Art monuments of Ladinia: Gadertal, Val Gardena, Fassatal, Buchenstein, Ampezzo. Istitut Ladin Micura de Rü, 2003, p. ??? .
- How ski resorts react to climate change. Deutschlandfunk, January 6, 2019, accessed on February 10, 2019 (German).
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- Modifiche territoriali e amministrative dei comuni del Trentino-Alto Adige
- Horst Christoph: Hero with 15 hooks. derStandard.at GmbH 2013, February 28, 2013
- Cf. u. a. Richebuono, Giuseppe "Storia d'Ampezzo" (2008); Richebuono, Giuseppe "Massimiliano d'Austria, Imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero, in Ampezzo nell'anno 1511: Maximilian I of Austria, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, in Ampezzo in 1511" (2011)
- Isabella Domenico & Donatella Cozzi: "clean bie lonkh as geat, eant as is ois gor!" Alcuni appunti relativi ai saperi naturalistici e al repertorio simbolico a Zahre / Sauris . In: La Ricerca Folklorica . tape 41 , April 2000, p. 37-50, p. 43 ( JSTOR ).
- John McCormick: George Santayana and Ezra Pound . In: American Literature . tape 54 , no. 3 , 1987, pp. 413-433, p. 413 ( JSTOR ).
- Nigel Whitley: Toward a Throw-Away Culture. Consumerism, 'Style Obsolescence' and Cultural Theory in the 1950s and 1960s . In: Oxford Art Journal . tape 10 , no. 2 , 1987, pp. 3-27, p. 17 ( JSTOR ).
- Paola Dall'Anese: Market in crisis - house prices continue to fall by 25% . In: Corriere delle Alpi , April 17, 2013
- Maurice de Bunsen & Lord Bryce: The Southern Frontiers of Austria: Discussion . In: The Geographical Journal . tape 46 , no. 6 , April 1915, p. 433-435, p. 435 ( JSTOR ).
- With cowboy hat and pancho . In: Die Zeit , No. 13/1977
- Aldo Rizzo: Le spine di una perla. Carenze e disagi in una delle capitali del turismo: Cortina, un mito appannato Agosto nero tra ingorghi e vigili sul piede di guerra . In: La Stampa . August 15, 1999, p. 9 .
- Helmut Luther: Olympic Games of Snow Shovels . In: Die Presse , March 1, 2014, R2
- http://skiweltcup.tv/index.php/cortina-dampezzo-erhaelt-offizialen-zuschlag-fuer-die-ski-wm-2021 , accessed on September 18, 2016
- Milan to host the 2026 Winter Olympics : www.ZEIT-ONLINE.de (June 24, 2019 edition).
- Maria Corbi: E Cortina si risveglio in Sud Tirol: Una valanga di "si" al referendum ma spostare il confine non è facile e Brindisi pole miche per l'addio al simbolico Veneto . In: La Stampa . October 30, 2007, p. 22 ( lastampa.it ).
- European region: The way to more cooperation with Ladins in Belluno is open